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1.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213969

RESUMO

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is the most important species producing commercially viable natural rubber latex, which is an important raw material for many industrial uses. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases of rubber tree, especially in China. However, the diversity of Colletotrichum from rubber trees is complex and needs further identification (Liu et al. 2018). In January 2021, anthracnose-like lesions were observed on the leaves of rubber seedlings at a plantation in Qiongzhong City (19.08 N, 109.54E), Hainan Province, China. The lesions initially produced dark brown spots on the leaves of rubber trees, and then gradually evolved into larger necrotic spots. The diseased leaves shrank and died until they fell off. Small pieces of symptomatic leaf tissues were soaked in 0.5% mercuric chloride for 40 s, washed with sterile water for three times, and plated on potato dextrose ager (PDA). The plates were incubated at 28°C with 12-h light/dark regime for 10 days. Two isolate HN16 and HN18 from different leaves were subcultured on PDA using the single-spore method. The center of the colony is brown or grayish brown with the leading edge of growth in culture being white. Conidia were hyaline, septate, and cylindrical, with obtuse ends (14-20 µm × 4-6 µm).These morphological features confirmed the identity of the two isolated fungi as Colletotrichum cliviae (Yang et al. 2009). To confirm the morphological identification, five loci informative for identification of Colletotrichum spp. were amplified and sequenced, including the 5.8S nuclear ribosomal gene with the two flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin (TUB), actin (ACT), an intron of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and chitin synthase (CHS-1), using the primer pairs ITS-1F/ITS4,T1/Bt-2b, ACT-512F/ACT-783R, GDF/GDR and CHS-79F/CHS-345R, respectively (Weir et al 2012). Sequences were deposited in NCBIs GenBank database (MW971911-MW971920). A multilocus phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences of the two isolates and published sequences of C. cliviae S37 clustered into one clade with a 100% confidence level. The two isolates were determined as C. cliviae by combining morphological and molecular characteristics. To verify pathogenicity, six leaves of rubber plants at the light green phase were sprayed with drop of spore suspension (106 conidia/ml) and sterile distilled water as control. After inoculation, all leaves were maintained in a climate box at 28°C with 100% relative humidity. After 3 days, lesions similar to those observed with dark brown spots in the field appeared on the inoculated leaves, while the controls remained symptomless. The fungus was reisolated from inoculated leaves and confirmed as C. cliviae by morphological and molecular identification, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The pathogen has been mainly reported on soybean in Brazil and China. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose on rubber tree caused by C. cliviae in China. However, Colletorrichum gloeosporioides and Colletorrichum acutatum are the two major causatives agent of anthracnose of rubber trees in China (Cai et al. 2016; Shi et al. 2019). The disease caused by C. cliviae was observed only at one rubber plantation with its distribution needing further investigation.

2.
Se Pu ; 39(8): 802-815, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212581

RESUMO

Microfluidic paper-based chips have many advantages such as ease of integration, miniaturization, and automation; high throughput; low production cost; easy portability; easy storage and transportation, environmental friendliness, and feasibility of instantaneous detection. These chips are widely used in clinical diagnosis, food quality control, and immunoassays. With the continuous development of microfluidic paper microarrays in recent years, they have also received great attention for environmental contaminant analysis and detection, and research in this field has been intensive, showing excellent prospects for application. This review summarizes the latest research progress in environmental analysis from the perspective of the application of microfluidic paper-based chips, as well as future development trends and challenges. More than 150 papers from the Science Citation Index (SCI) and Chinese core journals are cited in this paper. This review includes the advantages of microfluidic paper-based chips for environmental analysis and detection; the introduction of paper chip fabrication methods, including wax printing, photolithography, dicing, plasma, laser, and inkjet etching; and the introduction of advanced analytical methods based on paper chips, such as electrochemical analysis, fluorescence analysis, colorimetric analysis, surface-enhanced Raman analysis, and integrated sensing methods. The future development trends and prospects of environmental analysis based on microfluidic paper-based chips are also reviewed. Through a rich and comprehensive review of recent related research, it is shown that although microfluidic paper-based chip technology has only been developed for little more than a decade since its introduction, this technology has seen rapid development in environmental analysis-related research and has yielded rich results. The hydrophilic and porous nature of cellulose in paper as a chip substrate allows the passive transport of liquids without an external power source. The diversity of available microfluidic paper-based chip fabrication and analysis methods allows flexible selection and matching according to different environmental conditions and detection requirements, so that the best detection results can be obtained. Moreover, microfluidic paper chips as detection platforms show good biocompatibility in the analysis and detection of environmental pollutants, enabling the analysis of more types of pollutants. The used paper is biodegradable and can be directly disposed of as ordinary garbage after appropriate degradation treatment; thus it is environmentally friendly and does not impact the health of the operators. In addition, the low production cost and simple operation of the paper chip design study make it possible to fabricate low-cost, portable, and practical analytical equipment, which is important for rapid testing of the conventional environment. However, there are some inherent disadvantages: the mechanical strength of the paper is not sufficiently high to resist deformation; degree of fluid control is difficult to achieve the desired effect, and the sample flow may be lost due to leakage; multiple contaminants may interfere with one another when analyzed in parallel; there are difficulties in commercial mass production. However, these problems also point to the direction for the research and development of microfluidic paper-based chips in the field of environmental testing. With continuous advances in manufacturing and analysis technologies, microfluidic paper-based chips are expected to play a more prominent role in future environmental analysis.

3.
Talanta ; 233: 122578, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215070

RESUMO

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the most important reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be generated endogenously in the liver and has been deemed as a biomarker for evaluating drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Therefore, it is highly crucial to construct an effective method for detecting H2O2 in the liver in order to evaluate DILI. Herein, a neoteric dual-signal colorimetric fluorescent probe XH-2 for sensing hydrogen peroxide was engineered and synthesized. Borate was grafted as a specific recognition group onto the fluorophore XH-1 (ΦF = 0.34) to establish a structurally unprecedented probe. The experimental results manifested that probe XH-2 (ΦF = 0.15) was able to detect hydrogen peroxide using a fluorescence method with an excellent linear range of 0-140 µM (R2 = 0.9974) and an especially low detection limit of 91 nM (λex/em = 570 nm/638 nm). In addition, the probe was capable of monitoring hydrogen peroxide in a colorimetric manner with the linear range of 0-110 µM (R2 = 0.9965). Furthermore, the specificity, applicability in serum (98.6-109.1%) and indirect detection of glucose make the probe XH-2 a superior probe. Based on its low cytotoxicity, the probe was successfully applied to monitor endogenous/exogenous hydrogen peroxide and quantitatively determine the concentration level of hydrogen peroxide at a range of 0-120 µM (R2 = 0.9859) in HepG2 cells. Ultimately, the probe could effectively monitor the level of hydrogen peroxide during DILI in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Colorimetria , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
4.
Talanta ; 233: 122592, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215081

RESUMO

Mitochondria, the main source of energy of cells, play a significant role in aerobic respiration process. Some stimulants can result in changes of mitochondrial microenvironments such as viscosity, pH and polarity. Abnormal changes of mitochondrial viscosity have been shown to relate to pathological activities and diseases. Therefore, it is critical to focus our attention on mitochondrial viscosity under different conditions. A novel organic water-soluble molecule called JLQL that could monitor viscosity was conveniently synthesized in two steps. The near-infrared sensor with maximum emission wavelength of 734.6 nm and the Stokes shift of 134.6 nm consisted of a fluorophore and a mitochondrial-targeting moiety as an acceptor group; the two were connected by a double bond. The fluorescence intensity of the sensor increased 175 times with the enhancement of viscosity of a PBS-glycerol system. The interference of other microenvironments such as pH and polarity and other interference analytes could be reduced. JLQL could sensitively and selectively differentiate different levels of mitochondrial viscosity induced by monensin or nystatin. Furthermore, the probe may provide an attractive way to monitor real-time changes of viscosity during mitophagy. Possessing the above properties, JLQL can potentially be employed as a powerful tool for the observation of mitochondrial viscosity.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Água , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Viscosidade
5.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 425, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Opti_Knee system, a marker-based motion capture system, tracks and analyzes the 6 degrees of freedom (6DOF) motion of the knee joint. However, the validation of the accuracy of this gait system had not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to validate and the system. Two healthy subjects were recruited for the study. METHODS: The 6DOF kinematics of the knee during flexion-extension and level walking cycles of the knee were recorded by Opti_Knee and compared to those from a biplanar fluoroscopy system. The root mean square error (RMSE) of knee kinematics in flexion-extension cycles were compared between the two systems to validate the accuracy at which they detect basic knee motions. The RMSE of kinematics at key events of gait cycles (level walking) were compared to validate the accuracy at which the systems detect functional knee motion. Pearson correlation tests were conducted to assess similarities in knee kinematic trends between the two systems. RESULTS: In flexion-extension cycles, the average translational accuracy (RMSE) was between 2.7 and 3.7 mm and the average rotational accuracy was between 1.7 and 3.8°. The Pearson correlation of coefficients for flexion-extension cycles was between 0.858 and 0.994 for translation and 0.995-0.999 for angles. In gait cycles, the RMSEs of angular knee kinematics were 2.3° for adduction/abduction, 3.2° for internal/external rotation, and 1.4° for flexion/extension. The RMSEs of translational kinematics were 4.2 mm for anterior/posterior translation, 3.3 mm for distal/proximal translation, and 3.2 mm for medial/lateral translation. The Pearson correlation of coefficients values was between 0.964 and 0.999 for angular kinematics and 0.883 and 0.938 for translational kinematics. CONCLUSION: The Opti_Knee gait system exhibited acceptable accuracy and strong correlation strength compared to biplanar fluoroscopy. The Opti _Knee may serve as a promising portable clinical system for dynamic functional assessments of the knee.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 299, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus and sirolimus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-associated angiomyolipomas (TSC-AML). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective study of TSC-AML patients treated with oral everolimus 10 mg or sirolimus 2 mg per day for at least 3 months. Angiomyolipoma volume was estimated using orthogonal measurements by MRI or CT. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. All analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software. RESULTS: Response rates were high in both groups. With the prolonged medication durations, the therapeutic efficacy of both agents became more significant. The TSC-AML volume reduction after 6 and 12 months was more pronounced in patients with everolimus than those with sirolimus. More than half of the patients treated with everolimus had ≥ 50% reduction, and approximately 80% of them had ≥ 30% reduction, which was higher than that in patients treated with sirolimus. Regarding safety, there was no significant difference in the incidence of AEs between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both everolimus and sirolimus are excellent therapeutic options for TSC-AML. However, everolimus has a better therapeutic efficacy than sirolimus, particularly in reducing TSC-AML volume. Everolimus is therefore recommended as the first choice of therapy for TSC-AML.

7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 83-96, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210442

RESUMO

In this work, we employed waste activated sludge (WAS) as carbon source to prepare ultrahigh specific surface area (SSA) biopolymers-based carbons (BBCs) through alkali (KOH) treatment coupled to pyrolysis strategy. Before the pyrolysis process, the involvement of KOH made a great recovery of soluble biopolymers from WAS, resulting in highly-efficient catalytic pyrolysis. The Brunner-Emmett-Teller and pore volume of BBCs prepared at 800°C (BBC800) reached the maximum at 2633.89 m2·g-1 and 2.919 m3·g-1, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that aromatic carbon in the form of C=C was the dominant fraction of C element in BBCs. The N element in BBCs were composed of pyrrolic nitrogen and pyridinic nitrogen at 700°C, while a new graphitic nitrogen appeared over 800°C. As a refractory pollutant of wastewater treatment plants, tetracycline (TC) was selected to evaluate adsorption performance of BBCs. The adsorption behavior of BBCs towards TC was conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the Langmuir models, signifying that chemisorption of monolayers was dominant in TC adsorption. The adsorption capacity of BBC800 reached the maximum at 877.19 mg·g-1 for 90 min at 298 K. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interaction were mainly responsible for TC adsorption, and interfacial diffusion was the main rate-control step in adsorption process. The presence of soluble microbial products (SMPs) enhanced TC removal. This work provided a novel strategy to prepare bio-carbon with ultrahigh SSA using WAS for highly-efficient removal of organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Álcalis , Biopolímeros , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 112, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein on different courses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: In our prospective longitudinal study, children with JIA were included with their blood samples collected at the first visit, 1-month, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Samples were also collected from healthy controls and children with reactive arthritis at the first visit. Levels of HMGB1 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Clinical disease characteristics and routine laboratory findings were analyzed as well. RESULTS: A total of 64 children were enrolled, of whom 31 (48.4%) were female. The median age at the first visit for participants with JIA was 9.25 years (range, 1.42-15.42) and the median duration of disease was 2.38 months (range, 1.53-49.31). Serum HMGB1 levels at the first visit were significantly elevated in children with systemic JIA compared with other groups, and so were in enthesitis-related arthritis versus healthy controls. Significant correlations were established at the first visit between HMGB1 levels and duration of disease, C-reactive protein, percentage of neutrophils, and ferritin. Data from all samples revealed that serum HMGB1 levels in JIA were significantly associated with erythrocyte sedimentation rates, C-reactive protein, percentage of neutrophils, and disease activity scores. CONCLUSIONS: Serum HMGB1 may be associated with clinical disease activity of JIA and specifically increased at the first visit in children with systemic JIA, suggesting its function as a sensitive inflammatory marker. Further large-scale studies are warranted to explore its spectrum in JIA.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148882, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252777

RESUMO

Large rivers are important terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources to marginal seas, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) plays an essential role in DOM cycling. The Yellow River ranks as the fifth largest river (in length) in the world and is well-known for its high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration and relatively low DON concentration, leading to extreme measuring uncertainties in DON and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), consequently leaving its DON cycling as an unresolved puzzle. To fill such a knowledge gap, we analyzed 17 samples from the middle to downstream with a combination of spectroscopy, tangential flow filtration, nitrogen isotope, and DNA sequencing. DON<1kDa dominated the DON pool and significantly correlated inversely with DIN, indicating the DON<1kDa mineralized into nitrate. This finding was further supported by the observed Rayleigh fractionation in δ15NDON<1kDa and the spatial distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria/archaea abundance. The redundancy analysis revealed that the geographical features and the microbial community were closely related, which joined together to drive the DON cycling. In addition, we propose a rational method to quantify the flux of mineralized DON in large rivers. This study discovered the active DON cycling hidden in high DIN large river and highlighted the importance of DON mineralization as well as its role in marginal seas carbon cycling.

10.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 9918055, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257700

RESUMO

Objective: SLC16a genes encode H + -coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). MCTs are involved in maintaining interstitial fluids' pH and regulating insulin's binding affinity to its receptor, which is a potential mechanism for the onset of diabetes. In this research, we make explorations of the association between the rs312457 genotype of the SLC16a13 gene and diabetes in the Chinese population. Methods: It included 384 type 2 diabetes patients and 1,468 healthy control subjects in total. We measured the anthropometric parameters, glycaemic index, homeostasis model assessment-B cell (HOMA-%B), lipid profile, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The associations between the rs312457 genotype and type 2 diabetes were analyzed. Results: The rs312457 genotype was markedly in relation to type 2 diabetes (P = 0.002). The frequency of the rs312457 risk allele (G) was 4.8%, higher than that of the wild-type allele (A) in patients of type 2 diabetes, indicating that allele (G)'s presence seemed to make the risk of type 2 diabetes go up. Compared to the GA and AA genotypes, the GG genotype of rs312457 significantly increased the risk of contracting diabetes mellitus (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, the rs312457 genotype was associated with HOMA-%B. Subjects harbored the GG genotype of rs312457, whose HOMA-%B level went down in comparison with that in subjects harboring the AA genotype (P = 0.023). Conclusion: Our results revealed that the rs312457 genotype of the SLC16a13 gene was correlated with the development of diabetes mellitus in the Chinese population.

11.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263910

RESUMO

Epigenomics and transcriptomics data from high-throughput sequencing techniques such as RNA-seq and ChIP-seq have been successfully applied in predicting gene transcript expression. However, the locations of chromatin loops in the genome identified by techniques such as Chromatin Interaction Analysis with Paired End Tag sequencing (ChIA-PET) have never been used for prediction tasks. Here, we developed machine learning models to investigate if ChIA-PET could contribute to transcript and exon usage prediction. In doing so, we used a large set of transcription factors as well as ChIA-PET data. We developed different Gradient Boosting Trees models according to the different tasks with the integrated datasets from three cell lines, including GM12878, HeLaS3 and K562. We validated the models via 10-fold cross validation, chromosome-split validation and cross-cell validation. Our results show that both transcript and splicing-derived exon usage can be effectively predicted with at least 0.7512 and 0.7459 of accuracy, respectively, on all cell lines from all kinds of validations. Examining the predictive features, we found that RNA Polymerase II ChIA-PET was one of the most important features in both transcript and exon usage prediction, suggesting that chromatin loop anchors are predictive of both transcript and exon usage.

12.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247446

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) acts antagonistically to jasmonic acid (JA) in plant immunity. We previously reported that CATALASE2 (CAT2) promotes JA-biosynthetic acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX) activity to enhance plant resistance to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea, and SA represses JA biosynthesis through inhibiting CAT2 activity, while the underlying mechanism remains to be further elucidated. Here, we report that the truncated CAT2 N-terminus (CAT2-N) interacts with and promotes ACX2/3, and CAT2-N-overexpressing plants have increased JA accumulation and enhanced resistance to B. cinerea B05.10, but compromised antagonism of SA on JA. Catalase inhibitor treatment or mutating CAT2 active amino acids abolished CAT2 H2 O2 -decomposing activity but did not affect its promotion of ACX2/3 activity via interaction. CAT2-N, a truncated protein with no catalase activity, interacted with and promoted ACX2/3. Overexpressing CAT2-N in Arabidopsis plants resulted in increased ACX activity, higher JA accumulation, and stronger resistance to B. cinerea B05.10 infection. Additionally, SA dramatically repressed JA biosynthesis and resistance to B. cinerea in the wild type but not in the CAT2-N-overexpressing plants. Together, our study reveals that CAT2-N can be utilized as an accelerator for JA biosynthesis during plant resistance to B. cinerea B05.10, and this truncated protein partly relieves SA repression of JA biosynthesis in plant defence responses.

13.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254783

RESUMO

Cerebral malaria (CM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in severe sequelae; one of its pathogenic factors is the low bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Our previous study suggested that the combination of artesunate (AS) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) exerts an adjuvant therapeutic effect on the symptoms of experimental CM (ECM) and that NO regulation plays an important role. In the present study, we further verified the effects of AS+TMP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and detected NO-related indicators. We focused on the role of NO through S-nitrosoproteome based on previous proteomics data and explored the mechanism of AS+TMP for improving pathological ECM symptoms. We observed that AS+TMP reduces adhesion, increases CBF, and regulates NO synthase (NOS) activity, thereby regulating the level of S-nitrosothiols, such as metabolism-related or neuro-associated receptors, for improving ECM symptoms. These results demonstrated that AS+TMP could be an effective strategy in adjuvant therapy of CM.

14.
Thorac Cancer ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study focused on comparing the safety and therapeutic effects between icotinib monotherapy and icotinib plus bevacizumab combined therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases harboring EGFR mutations. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from the Cancer Institute and Hospital of Tianjin Medical University between October 2018 and December 2019, where the NSCLC cases that harbored EGFR mutations underwent first-line therapy with icotinib in the presence or absence of bevacizumab. This study included 90 cases, of which 60 patients were in the icotinib group (I) and 30 in the icotinib plus bevacizumab group (IB). RESULTS: The follow-up period to evaluate median PFS in our study was 18 months. Median PFS was 18.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.7-21.3) with icotinib plus bevacizumab and 11 months (95% CI: 8.9-13.1) with icotinib alone (hazard ratio 0·54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.92; p = 0.029). According to the subgroup analyses based on the type of EGFR genomic aberration, a prolonged median PFS was observed in the cases harboring exon 21 point mutation (Ex21.L858R) in the IB group compared to the I group (not reached vs. 11 months [8.8-13.2], p = 0.021). However, the difference between the cases harboring exon 19 deletions in the EGFR gene was not significant. The DCR and ORR were comparable between both groups. Substantially higher incidences of hypertension and proteinuria were observed in the combined group compared to the icotinib monotherapy group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to provide further evidence of the benefits of applying icotinib in combination with bevacizumab as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC cases harboring EGFR mutations. However, these findings need to be verified through prospective phase 3 clinical studies.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7629-7640, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213907

RESUMO

A high-fat diet (HFD) causes hyperlipidemia, which worsens disturbances in bile acid (BA) metabolism and gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate the regulation of flavonoids from whole-grain oat (FO) on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The experiment results showed that FO improved serum lipid profiles and decreased body weight and lipid deposition in HFD-fed mice. Through real-time qualitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot assays, by up-regulating the expression of PPARα, CPT-1, CYP7A1, FXR, TGR5, NTCP, and BSTP, and down-regulating those of SREBP-1c, FAS, and ASBT, FO suppressed lipogenesis, promoted lipolysis and BA synthesis, and efflux to faeces via the FXR pathway. 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that FO significantly increased Akkermansia and significantly decreased Lachnoclostridium, Blautia, Colidextribacter, and Desulfovibrio. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that these bacteria were strongly correlated with hyperlipidemia-related parameters. Therefore, our results indicated that FO possessed an antihyperlipidemic effect via regulating the gut-liver axis, i.e., BA metabolism and gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Avena , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; : 113856, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237403

RESUMO

The symbiotic microbiota is nowadays regarded as a human "invisible organ", its imbalance has been shown to be associated with many diseases. Besides, the progress of diseases can in turn change the internal structure of microbiota. Some diseases have shown their unique microbiota markers that may be potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, modulating microbiota may be a powerful strategy for diseases treatment. However, conventional microbiota modulation strategies lack selectivity and are suffer from side effects. In recent years, with the increasing challenge of antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage (phage) therapy has gradually presented its potential to treat drug-resistant infections. Phages are viruses that infect bacteria, with high selectivity for specific bacteria and almost no tropism for mammalian cells. Studies showed that phage-mediated precise modulation of microbiota has achieved great success in diseases treatment. Here, we briefly summarized the treatment strategies of phage-mediated modulation of microbiota, and discussed prospect of possible development in this field.

17.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 118, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281570

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, and the change in the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered as the underlying pathological mechanism. Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibition contributes to the overall activity of the PFC. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the excitation-inhibition imbalance of PV+ neurons in the PFC is unknown. Efnb2 is a membrane-bound molecule that plays an important role in the nervous system through binding the Eph receptor. To investigate whether the loss of Efnb2 in PV+ affects anxiety, we examined the behavior of wild type and Efnb2 in PV+ neurons knockout (KO) mice. We monitored the defensive responses to aversive stimuli of elevated plus maze (EPM) and found that KO mice exhibited obvious fearless and anxiolytic behaviors. To further investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism, we performed RNA sequencing, analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and constructed the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The WGCNA identified 12 characteristic modules. Among them, the MEgreen module showed the most significant correlation with KO mice of EPM stimuli. The Gene Ontology enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis revealed that this was related to the distal axon, Ras signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. Furthermore, the whole-cell voltage clamp recordings also proved that Efnb2 gene knock-out could affect synaptic function. Together with the transcriptomic analysis of mice with Efnb2 knockout on PV+ neurons, our findings suggest that Efnb2 gene in the PV+ neuron of PFC may be a crucial factor for fear and anxiety, which provide an insight into anxiety pathophysiology.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289108

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), a family of eight secreted glycoproteins termed ANGTPL1-8, are involved in angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, cancer progression, and inflammation. Their roles in regulating lipid metabolism have been intensively studied, as some ANGPTLs are promising pharmacological targets for hypertriglyceridemia and associated cardiovascular disease. Recently, the emerging roles of ANGPTLs in inflammation have attracted great attention. First, elevated levels of multiple circulating ANGPTLs in inflammatory diseases make them potential disease biomarkers. Second, multiple ANGPTLs regulate acute or chronic inflammation via various mechanisms, including triggering inflammatory signaling through their action as ligands for integrin or forming homo- /hetero-oligomers to regulate signal transduction via extra- or intracellular mechanisms. As dysregulation of the inflammatory response is a critical trigger in many diseases, understanding the roles of ANGPTLs in inflammation will aid in drug/therapy development. Here, we summarize the roles, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic values for ANGPTLs in inflammation and inflammatory diseases.

19.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is mainly depended on the tolerogenic immune responses elicited. Properly conjugated nano-vaccine has the advantages of both specific targeting and continuous and on-demand release of allergen. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a dendritic cells (DCs)-targeting nano-vaccine for AIT. METHODS: The nano-vaccine was produced by coupling polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated ovalbumin (OVA) with mannan. Allergen capture, human monocytes-derived DCs (hMoDCs) activation, and T cells responses were assessed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, and Cytometric Bead Array. Balb/c mice were immunized with the nano-vaccines, and the immune responses were analyzed. RESULTS: OVA-PLGA nanoparticle (NP) displayed favorable safety profile. OVA-mannan-PLGA NP was captured more efficiently by hMoDCs than OVA-PLGA NP, which was mediated mainly through DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin. A tolerogenic phenotype of hMoDCs was induced by OVA-mannan-PLGA NP, but not OVA-PLGA NP, and increased number of regulatory T (Treg) cells was generated subsequently in in vitro coculture. Immunization of Balb/c mice with OVA-mannan-PLGA NP resulted in lower serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulins and less production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in splenocytes culture than the mice immunized with OVA-PLAG NP, PLGA NP, or OVA, while the number of splenic Treg cells was higher in OVA-mannan-PLGA group than in other groups. Moreover, preimmunization with OVA-mannan-PLGA NP significantly inhibited the Th2 immune response induced by OVA sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: The biocompatible PLGA-encapsulated OVA coupling with mannan has augmented ability for tolerance induction and could be developed as a novel vaccine for AIT.

20.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289582

RESUMO

Objective: Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a critical economic indicator of pork quality. Studies on IMF among different pig breeds have been performed via high-throughput sequencing, but comparisons within the same pig breed remain unreported. Methods: This study was performed to explore the gene profile and identify candidate lncRNAs and mRNAs associated with IMF deposition among Laiwu pigs with different IMF contents. Based on the longissimus dorsi muscle IMF content, eight pigs from the same breed and management were selected and divided into two groups: a high IMF (> 12%, H) and low IMF group (< 5%, L). Whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed to explore the differentially expressed (DE) genes between these two groups. Results: The IMF content varied greatly among Laiwu pig individuals (2.17%~13.93%). Seventeen DE lncRNAs (11 upregulated and 6 downregulated) and 180 mRNAs (112 upregulated and 68 downregulated) were found. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the following biological processes played an important role in IMF deposition: fatty acid and lipid biosynthetic processes; the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade; and white fat cell differentiation. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were enriched in the pathway analysis. Intersection analysis of the target genes of DE lncRNAs and mRNAs revealed seven candidate genes associated with IMF accumulation. Five DE lncRNAs and 20 DE mRNAs based on the pig QTL database were identified and shown to be related to fat deposition. The expression of five DE lncRNAs and mRNAs was verified by qRT-PCR. The results of qRT-PCR and RNA-sequencing were consistent. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that the different IMF contents among pig individuals may be due to the DE lncRNAs and mRNAs associated with lipid droplets and fat deposition.

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