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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758517

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is composed of a large number of microbes, usually regarded as commensal bacteria. It has become gradually clear that gastrointestinal microbiota affects gut pathophysiology and the central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating the signaling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. This bidirectional MGB axis communication primarily acts through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) mechanisms. Accumulating evidence reveals that gut microbiota interacts with the host brain, and its modulation may play a critical role in the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, neuroscience research has established the significance of gut microbiota in the development of brain systems that are essential to stress-related behaviors, including depression and anxiety. Application of modulators of the MGB, such as psychobiotics (e.g., probiotics), prebiotics, and specific diets, may be a promising therapeutic approach for neuropsychiatric disorders. The present review article primarily focuses on the relevant features of the disturbances of the MGB axis in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and its potential mechanisms.

2.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(5): 4091-4100, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000279

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor and it demonstrates high mortality rates. The majority of cases of GC are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which seriously endangers the health of the patient. Therefore, discovering a novel diagnostic method for GC is a current priority. Exosomes are 40 to 150­nm­diameter vesicles consisting of a lipid bilayer secreted by a variety of cells that exist in multiple different types of body fluids. Exosomes contain diverse types of active substances, including RNAs, proteins and lipids, and play important roles in tumor cell communication, metastasis and neovascularization, as well as tumor growth. Non­coding RNAs (ncRNAs) do not code proteins, and instead have roles in a variety of genetic mechanisms, such as regulating the structure, expression and stability of RNAs, and modulating the translation and function of proteins. In recent years, exosomal ncRNAs have become a novel focus in research. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that exosomal ncRNAs can be used in the prediction and treatment of GC. The present review briefly discusses the role of exosomal ncRNAs as a potential biomarker, and summarizes important regulatory genes involved in the development and progression of GC.

3.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 257, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023639

RESUMO

Prime editing is a novel and universal CRISPR/Cas-derived precision genome-editing technology that has been recently developed. However, low efficiency of prime editing has been shown in transgenic rice lines. We hypothesize that enhancing pegRNA expression could improve prime-editing efficiency. In this report, we describe two strategies for enhancing pegRNA expression. We construct a prime editing vector harboring two pegRNA variants for W542L and S621I double mutations in ZmALS1 and ZmALS2. Compared with previous reports in rice, we achieve much higher prime-editing efficiency in maize. Our results are inspiring and provide a direction for the optimization of plant prime editors.

4.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029008

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury in mammals is thought to trigger scar formation with little regeneration of axons1-4. Here we show that a crush injury to the spinal cord in neonatal mice leads to scar-free healing that permits the growth of long projecting axons through the lesion. Depletion of microglia in neonatal mice disrupts this healing process and stalls the regrowth of axons, suggesting that microglia are critical for orchestrating the injury response. Using single-cell RNA sequencing and functional analyses, we find that neonatal microglia are transiently activated and have at least two key roles in scar-free healing. First, they transiently secrete fibronectin and its binding proteins to form bridges of extracellular matrix that ligate the severed ends of the spinal cord. Second, neonatal-but not adult-microglia express several extracellular and intracellular peptidase inhibitors, as well as other molecules that are involved in resolving inflammation. We transplanted either neonatal microglia or adult microglia treated with peptidase inhibitors into spinal cord lesions of adult mice, and found that both types of microglia significantly improved healing and axon regrowth. Together, our results reveal the cellular and molecular basis of the nearly complete recovery of neonatal mice after spinal cord injury, and suggest strategies that could be used to facilitate scar-free healing in the adult mammalian nervous system.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8032718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029524

RESUMO

Previous studies have concluded that surface-modified titanium oxide (titania, TiO2) surface properties promote osteoblast cell morphology and proliferation. To screen a suitable structured titania coating with the best biocompatibility to be used in dental implants, five titania films (two amorphous, one rutile, and two anatases) with different surfaces were successfully synthesized on polished titanium by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to depict the formulations. Furthermore, MC3T3-E1, the mouse osteoblast precursor cell, was used to assess cell proliferation and observe morphologic changes at the film surface. The data indicated that the overall number of MC3T3-E1 cells on anatase films was significantly higher as compared with cells on rutile and amorphous films. Meanwhile, the actin filaments of the cells grown on the anatase phase films were well defined and fully spread. In addition, the film with higher roughness had enhanced biocompatibility than that with lower roughness. The results showed that the crystal phase and titania coated roughness had a greater influence on the biocompatibility of nanostructured titania film. The higher the roughness of the anatase phase was, the better bioactivity for the morphology and proliferation of osteoblast. This is a good surface-modified biological material and may have a good application prospect in dental implants.

6.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033819

RESUMO

The defects at the interface and grain boundaries (GBs) of perovskite films limit the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) seriously. Herein, organic semiconductors with different terminal groups including a ladder-type electron-deficient-core-based fused structure (DAD) fused core with 2-(3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1 ylidene)malononitrile (BTP-4H), DAD with 2-(5,6-dichloro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1 ylidene)malononitrile (BTP-4Cl), and DAD with 2-(5,6-difluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1 ylidene)malononitrile (BTP-4F) are introduced into perovskite films to study the effects of the terminal groups on the PSC performance. A physical model is proposed to understand the effects of the terminal groups on the perovskite growth and energy level alignment of devices. Compared with BTP-4H and BTP-4Cl, BTP-4F can more effectively delay the crystallization rate and increase the crystal sizes due to hydrogen bonding of F and FA. BTP-4F can also provide more efficient charge transport channels due to the optimal energy level alignment. Most importantly, BTP-4F can promote charge transport from the perovskite film to spiro-OMeTAD and to SnO2, thus realizing simultaneous up-bottom passivation of perovskite films. Finally, the BTP-4F passivated PSCs exhibit a remarkable PCE of 22.16%, and the device can maintain ∼86% of the initial PCE after 5000 h. Therefore, this work presents significant potential of organic semiconductors in PSCs toward high efficiency and high stability due to the terminal groups.

7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 277, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033942

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to develop a liposomal drug delivery system, which can selectively target hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to deliver the antitumor agent N-14NCTDA, a C14 alkyl chain norcantharimide derivative of norcantharidin. N-14NCTDA-loaded liposomes were successfully prepared by lipid membrane hydration and extrusion methods. SP94, a targeting peptide for HCC cells, was attached to the liposomes loaded with N-14NCTDA by the post-insertion method to obtain SP94 modified liposomes (SP94-LPs). SP94-LPs had a significant cytotoxicity against Hep G2 cells with the IC50 of 15.395 ± 0.89 µg/mL, which is lower than that of NCTD-S (IC50 = 20.863 ± 0.56 µg/mL) and GAL-LPs (IC50 = 24.589 ± 1.02 µg/mL). Compared with conventional liposomes (Con-LPs), SP94-LPs showed greater cellular uptake in Hep G2 cells. Likewise, significant tumor suppression was achieved in H22 tumor-bearing mice which were treated with SP94-LPs. The tumor inhibition rate (IRw) of SP94-LPs was 82 ± 0.98%, obviously higher than that of GAL-LPs (69 ± 1.39%), Con-LPs (60 ± 2.78%), and NCTD-S (51 ± 3.67%). SP94-LPs exhibited a significant hepatocellular carcinoma-targeting activity in vitro and in vivo, which will provide a new alternative for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment in future. Graphical Abstract.

8.
Planta ; 252(5): 78, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033954

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Cadmium stress induces WDR5a expression to promote NO accumulation to repress root meristem growth via suppressing auxin transport and synthesis in Arabidopsis. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)-like activity plays a vital role in toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced NO production and inhibition of root meristem growth, while factor(s) regulating NOS-like activity and root meristem growth in plant response to Cd has not been identified yet. Here, we report that WD40 repeat 5a (WDR5a) functions in Cd-induced NOS-like activity, NO accumulation and root meristem growth suppression. We found that wdr5a-1 mutant root has increased root meristem growth with lower NOS-like activity and NO accumulation than wild type upon Cd exposure, and exogenous NO donors sodium nitroprusside or nitrosoglutathione can restore its reduced Cd sensitivity. In addition, Cd activates WDR5a expression in roots, and overexpressing WDR5a results in increased NO accumulation and suppressed root meristem growth similar to Cd-stressed wild-type roots, while scavenging NO or inhibiting NOS-like activity significantly reverts these effects of Cd. Furthermore, WDR5a acts in Cd-repressed auxin accumulation through reducing the levels of auxin efflux carriers PIN1/3/7 and biosynthetic enzyme TAA1, and reduced sensitivity of wdr5a-1 root meristem to Cd can be partially reverted by inhibiting TAA1 activity pharmaceutically or mutating TAA1 genetically. This study identified WDR5a as a key factor modulating NO accumulation and root meristem growth in plant response to Cd.

9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 685, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play essential roles in plant growth, development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, few studies concerning AP2/ERF genes in sugarcane which are the most critical sugar and energy crops worldwide. RESULTS: A total of 218 AP2/ERF genes were identified in the Saccharum spontaneum genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes could be divided into four groups, including 43 AP2s, 160 ERFs and Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factors, 11 ABI3/VPs (RAV), and four Soloist genes. These genes were unevenly distributed on 32 chromosomes. The structural analysis of SsAP2/ERF genes showed that 91 SsAP2/ERFs lacked introns. Sugarcane and sorghum had a collinear relationship between 168 SsAP2/ERF genes and sorghum AP2/ERF genes that reflected their similarity. Multiple cis-regulatory elements (CREs) present in the SsAP2/ERF promoter were related to abiotic stresses, suggesting that SsAP2/ERF activity could contribute to sugarcane adaptation to environmental changes. The tissue-specific analysis showed spatiotemporal expression of SsAP2/ERF in the stems and leaves of sugarcane at different development stages. In ten sugarcane samples, 39 SsAP2/ERFs were not expressed, whereas 58 SsAP2/ERFs were expressed in all samples. Quantitative PCR experiments showed that SsERF52 expression was up-regulated under salt stress, but suppressed under dehydration stress. SsSoloist4 had the most considerable upregulation in response to treatment with the exogenous hormones ABA and GA. Within 3 h of ABA or PEG6000 treatment, SsSoloist4 expression was up-regulated, indicating that this gene could play a role in the responses to ABA and GA-associated dehydration stress. Analysis of AP2/ERF gene expression patterns under different treatments indicated that SsAP2/ERF genes played an essential role in dehydration and salt stress responses of S. spontaneum. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a total of 218 members of the AP2 / ERF superfamily were identified in sugarcane, and their genetic structure, evolution characteristics, and expression patterns were studied and analyzed. The results of this study provide a foundation for future analyses to elucidate the importance of AP2/ERF transcription factors in the function and molecular breeding of sugarcane.

10.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020597

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are abundantly expressed during cardiac hypertrophy. However, their functions and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we identified a cardiac-hypertrophy-associated piRNA (CHAPIR) that promotes pathological hypertrophy and cardiac remodelling by targeting METTL3-mediated N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts. CHAPIR deletion markedly attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and restores heart function, while administration of a CHAPIR mimic enhances the pathological hypertrophic response in pressure-overloaded mice. Mechanistically, CHAPIR-PIWIL4 complexes directly interact with METTL3 and block the m6A methylation of Parp10 mRNA transcripts, which upregulates PARP10 expression. The CHAPIR-dependent increase in PARP10 promotes the mono-ADP-ribosylation of GSK3ß and inhibits its kinase activity, which results in the accumulation of nuclear NFATC4 and the progression of pathological hypertrophy. Hence, our findings reveal that a piRNA-mediated RNA epigenetic mechanism is involved in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and that the CHAPIR-METTL3-PARP10-NFATC4 signalling axis could be therapeutically targeted for treating pathological hypertrophy and maladaptive cardiac remodelling.

11.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program on postoperative rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during the perioperative period of adenotonsillectomy. DESIGN: A retrospective historical control study SETTING: Service improvement project PARTICIPANTS: The study included 394 children with OSA (207 males, 187 females; age range, 2.5 y to 14 y) who underwent adenotonsillectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The children who had undergone adenoidal ablation and bilateral tonsillectomy were divided into an ERAS group (208 patients) treated with the combined optimization measures and a control group (186 patients) that was treated with traditional measures during the perioperative period. The postoperative incidence of complications, pain scores, anxiety scores, and postoperative diets in the two groups were assessed. RESULTS: Patients in the ERAS group had significantly a lower overall complication rate and incidence of fever for 2 weeks of follow-up when compared to patients in the control group through the application of perioperative optimization measures. Furthermore, patients in the ERAS group had less post-surgical pain, better dietary intake at day 1, 3 and 7 after surgery, and had lower pre-operative anxiety scores after admission education and while waiting in the operation room. CONCLUSION: The ERAS program consisting of combined optimization measures can reduce physical and psychological trauma during the perioperative period of adenotonsillectomy performed for children with OSA.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021607

RESUMO

Intrinsically poor conductivity, sluggish ion transfer kinetics, and limited specific area are the three main obstacles that confine the electrochemical performance of manganese dioxide in supercapacitors. Herein, one-dimensional mesoporous MnO2 nanotubes were prepared using a polycarbonate film as a template and a large number of oxygen vacancies were introduced by calcination under a N2 atmosphere. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, micro-morphology and electrochemical performance of MnO2 nanotubes were studied. The presence of oxygen vacancies increases the redox capacity of ov-MnO2-300 nanotubes, and the unique one-dimensional mesoporous structure also provides an effective channel for ion transport. Therefore, the ov-MnO2-300 nanotube has an excellent specific capacitance of 459.0 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and also has outstanding rate performance and cycle performance. An asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with ov-MnO2-300 nanotubes as the positive electrode and graphene@MoS2 as the negative electrode delivered an energy density of 40.2 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1024 W kg-1. The excellent capacitance performance is mostly attributed to the introduction of oxygen vacancies to increase the intrinsic conductivity of MnO2, and the unique one-dimensional mesoporous nanotube structure increases the active sites of redox reactions.

13.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this era of precision medicine, prognostic heterogeneity is an important feature of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastases (BM). This multi-institutional study is aimed to verify the applicability of the adjusted Lung-molGPA model for NSCLC with BM in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: This retrospective study included 1903 patients at three hospitals in Southwest China. The performance of the Lung-molGPA model was compared with that of the adjusted DS-GPA model in terms of estimating the survival of NSCLC with BM. RESULTS: The median OS of this patient cohort was 27.0 months, and the adenocarcinoma survived longer than the non-adenocarcinoma (28.0 months vs 18.7 months, p < 0.001). The adjusted Lung-molGPA model was more accurate in predicting survival of adenocarcinoma patients than the adjusted DS-GPA model (C-index: 0.615 vs 0.571), and it was not suitable for predicting survival of non-adenocarcinoma patients (p = 0.286, 1.5-2.0 vs 2.5-3.0; p = 0.410, 2.5-3.0 vs 3.5-4.0). CONCLUSIONS: The adjusted Lung-molGPA model is better than the DS-GPA model in predicting the prognosis of adenocarcinoma patients. However, it failed to estimate the prognosis for non-adenocarcinoma patients.

14.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004687

RESUMO

Depression and anxiety are frequently observed in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. The underlying mechanisms remained unclear. The ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) has attracted considerable interest in its role in antidepressive effect in rodents. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the VLO in the anxiodepressive consequences of neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury of infraorbital nerve-induced trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model. Elevated plus maze, open field, forced swimming, tail suspension, and sucrose preference tests were used to evaluate anxiodepressive-like behaviors. The results show that chemogenetic activation of bilateral VLO neurons, especially CaMK2A+ pyramidal neurons, blocked the TN-induced anxiodepressive-like behaviors. Chemogenetic and optogenetic activation of VGLUT2+ or inhibition of VGAT+ VLO neurons was sufficient to produce an antianxiodepressive effect in TN mice. Pharmacological activation of D1-like receptors (D1Rs) but not D2Rs in the VLO significantly alleviated TN-induced depressive-like behaviors. Electrophysiological recordings revealed a decreased excitability of VLO excitatory neurons following neuropathic pain. Furthermore, activation of submedius thalamic nucleus-VLO (Sm-VLO) projection mimicked the antianxiodepressive effect of VLO excitation. Conversely, activation of VLO-periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) projection had no effect on TN-induced anxiodepressive behaviors. This study provides a potentially novel mechanism-based therapeutic strategy for the anxiodepressive consequences of neuropathic pain.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006809

RESUMO

Copper nanostructures are promising catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 because of their unique ability to produce a large proportion of multi-carbon products. Despite major progress, the selectivity and stability of such catalysts still need to be substantially improved. Here we demonstrate that controlling the surface oxidation of Cu nanowires (CuNWs) can greatly improve their C2+ selectivity and stability. Specifically, we achieve a faradaic efficiency as high as 57.7 and 52.0% for ethylene when the CuNWs are oxidized by the O2 from air and aqueous H2O2, respectively, and both of them show hydrogen selectivity below 12%. The high yields of C2+ products can be mainly attributed to the increase in surface roughness and the generation of defects and cavities during the electrochemical reduction of oxide layer. Our results also indicate that the formation of a relatively thick, smooth oxide sheath can improve the catalytic stability by mitigating the fragmentation issue.

16.
Theranostics ; 10(25): 11535-11548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052231

RESUMO

Objective: The transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) is critical for regulating cytokine and chemokine secretion. However, its function in the tumor microenvironment (TME) remains largely unexplored. In this study, we characterized the prognostic value of FOXO1 and the interaction between tumor-derived FOXO1 and M2 macrophages in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: FOXO1 expression and macrophage infiltration in clinical samples and mouse models were quantified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry staining. Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to evaluate chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) expression in FOXO1(+) and FOXO1(-) tumor cells. Macrophage phenotypes were determined using qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and RNA sequencing. Transcriptional activity was measured using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR. Tumor viability was investigated using XTT proliferation and foci formation assays. Results: FOXO1 upregulation in tumor tissues was found to drive the polarization of M0 macrophages and infiltration of M2 macrophages into the TME, resulting in worse prognosis in ESCC patients. CSF-1, a vital factor inducing M0-to-M2 polarization, was upregulated via a FOXO1-mediated mechanism. RNA sequencing results corroborated that the FOXO1-induced macrophages exhibited similar molecular signatures to the IL4-stimulated M2 macrophages. The transwell assays showed that FOXO1 promoted the migration of M2 macrophages via CCL20 secretion, which could be inhibited using an anti-CCL20 antibody. FOXO1(+) tumor-induced M2 macrophages promoted tumor proliferation via the FAK-PI3K-AKT pathway and the PI3K inhibitor could effectively impede the oncogenical process. Conclusions: FOXO1 facilitated M0-to-M2 polarization and the recruitment of M2 macrophages in the TME via the transcriptional modulation of CCL20 and CSF-1. Our data deciphered the FOXO1-dependent mechanism in M2 macrophage infiltration in the TME of ESCC, which has implications for the development of novel prognostic and therapeutic targets to optimize the current treatment against ESCC.

17.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052664

RESUMO

In the magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MA-TBG), strong electron-electron (e-e) correlations caused by the band-flattening lead to many exotic quantum phases such as superconductivity, correlated insulator, ferromagnetism, and quantum anomalous Hall effects, when its low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) are partially filled. Here our high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope and spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the e-e correlation in a nonmagic-angle TBG with a twist angle θ = 1.49° still plays an important role in determining its electronic properties. Our most interesting observation on that sample is when one of its VHSs is partially filled, the one associated peak in the spectrum splits into four peaks. Simultaneously, the spatial symmetry of electronic states around the split VHSs is broken by the e-e correlation. Our analysis based on the continuum model suggests that such a one-to-four split of the VHS originates from the formation of an interaction-driven spin-valley-polarized metallic state near the VHS, which is a symmetry-breaking phase that has not been identified in the MA-TBG or in other systems.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052678

RESUMO

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a rate-limiting enzyme that mainly catalyzes the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) into the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The expression level of SCD1 is positively correlated with the marbling score. However, the functional mechanism of SCD1 in adipogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we identified SCD1 as highly expressed in subcutaneous and visceral fat, peaking at 2 days after differentiation in bovine stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells. When the SCD1 was overexpressed in bovine SVF cells, lipid droplets accumulation was increased from 142.46 ± 21.77 to 254.89 ± 11.75 µg/mg (P < 0.01). Further, the expression levels of FABP4, FASN, and ACCα were increased (P < 0.01), while the expression of PPARγ or C/EBPα was not changed at mRNA or protein level (P > 0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the activity of the PPARγ receptor was enhanced by 3.69 times (P < 0.01). Moreover, the contents of palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 100 µM exogenous oleate increased the lipid accumulation by 22.28 times (P < 0.01). These results suggest that oleate is probably a strong ligand of the PPARγ receptor to enhance adipogenesis.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052807

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, ovoid-rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SM1903T, was isolated from surface seawater of the Mariana Trench. The strain grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 35 °C) and with 1-15 % (optimum, 4 %) NaCl. It hydrolysed aesculin but did not reduce nitrate to nitrite and hydrolyse Tween 80. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1903T formed a separate lineage within the family Rhodobacteraceae, sharing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Pseudooceanicola antarcticus (95.7 %) and Roseisalinus antarcticus (95.7 %). In phylogenetic trees based on single-copy OCs and whole proteins sequences, strain SM1903T fell within a sub-cluster encompassed by Oceanicola granulosus, Roseisalinus antarcticus and Histidinibacterium lentulum and formed a branch adjacent to Oceanicola granulosus. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0 and 11-methyl-C18 : 1 ω7c. The polar lipids mainly comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified aminolipid, and one unidentified glycolipid. The solo respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1903T was 66.0 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characterization for strain SM1903T, it is considered to represent a novel species of a novel genus in the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Pelagovum pacificum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SM1903T (=MCCC 1K03608T=KCTC 72046T).

20.
Oncol Rep ; 44(5): 1985-1996, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000253

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of renal cancer. Long non­coding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported to play a vital role in the development and progression of various types of cancer type. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PLK1S1 in regulating RCC progression remain unclear. In the present study, PLK1S1 was upregulated in RCC tissues and cells, and PLK1S1 expression was also significantly elevated in stage IV RCC tissues. Kaplan­Meier analysis showed that patients with high PLK1S1 expression had a shorter overall survival time compared with those with low PLK1S1 expression. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that PLK1S1 inhibited microRNA (miR)­653 expression by direct interaction. Functional analyses demonstrated that a miR­653 inhibitor promoted short hairpin PLK1S1­attenuated cell proliferation, invasion and sorafenib resistance of RCC cells. In addition, C­X­C motif chemokine receptors 5 (CXCR5) was identified as an effector of PLK1S1/miR­653­mediated tumorigenesis and drug resistance in RCC cells. Lastly, xenograft experiments demonstrated that PLK1S1 knockdown inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blot analysis revealed that PLK1S1 knockdown upregulated the expression level of miR­653, whilst downregulating the expression level of CXCR5. In conclusion, the present study revealed that PLK1S1 promoted tumor progression and sorafenib resistance in RCC through regulation of the miR­653/CXCR5 axis, which may offer a novel treatment strategy for patients with RCC.

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