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1.
Virol J ; 18(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient children. METHODS: From April 2018 to March 2019, the results of viral detection using oral pharyngeal swabs from 103,210 children with acute respiratory tract infection in the outpatient department of the Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, were retrospectively analyzed. Viral antigens, including adenovirus (ADV), influenza A (FLUA), influenza B (FLUB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were detected by the colloidal gold method. RESULTS: At least one virus was detected in 38,355 cases; the positivity rate was 37.2%. A total of 1910 cases of mixed infection with two or more viruses were detected, and the positivity rate of multiple infection was 1.9%. The ADV positivity rate was highest in the 3-6-year-old group (18.7%), the FLUA positivity rate was highest in the > 6-year-old group (21.6%), the FLUB positivity rate was highest in the > 6-year-old group (6.6%), and the RSV positivity rate was highest in the < 1-year-old group (10.6%). There was a significant difference in the positivity rate of viral infection among different age groups (χ2 = 1280.7, P < 0.001). The rate of positive viral infection was highest in winter (47.1%). The ADV infection rate was highest in spring (18.2%). The rates of FLUA and FLUB positivity were highest in winter (28.8% and 3.6%, respectively). The rate of RSV positivity was highest in autumn (17.4%). The rate of positive viral infection in different seasons was significantly different (χ2 = 6459.1, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Viral infection rates in children differ for different ages and seasons. The positivity rate of ADV is highest in the preschool period and that of RSV is highest in infants; that of FLU increases with age. The total positive rate of viral infection in different seasons is highest in winter, as is the rate of FLU positivity.

2.
Ann Hematol ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389025

RESUMO

We performed a nested case-control study to investigate the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of central nervous system (CNS) relapse after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and compared the outcomes of patients with CNS relapse following haploidentical donor (HID) HSCT versus identical sibling donor (ISD) HSCT. A total of 37 patients (HID-HSCT, 24; ISD-HSCT, 13) developed CNS relapse after transplantation between January 2009 and January 2019, with an incidence of 1.81%. The median time from transplantation to CNS relapse was 239 days. Pre-HSCT CNS involvement (HR 6.940, 95% CI 3.146-15.306, p < .001) was an independent risk factor for CNS relapse after allo-HSCT for AML. The 3-year overall survival (OS) for patients with CNS relapse was 60.3 ± 8.8%, which was significantly lower than that in the controls (81.5 ± 4.5%, p = .003). The incidence of CNS relapse was 1.64% for patients who received HID-HSCT and 2.55% for those who received ISD-HSCT (p = .193). There was no significant difference in OS between the HID-HSCT and ISD-HSCT subgroups among the patients with CNS relapse. In conclusion, CNS relapse is a rare but serious complication after allo-HSCT for AML, and the incidence and outcomes of patients with CNS relapse are comparable following HID-HSCT and ISD-HSCT.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031669, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404619

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship of dietary niacin intake with the risk of hypertension remains unknown. Objective: To determine the prospective association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension, and examine factors that may modify the association among Chinese adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study of 12 243 Chinese adults used dietary intake data from 7 rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in combination with a weighing inventory taken over the same 3 days at the household level. Statistical analysis was conducted from May 2020 to August 2020. Exposures: Dietary intake. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, diagnosis by physician, or current antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up. Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population was 41.2 (14.2) years, and 5728 (46.8%) of participants were men. The mean (SD) dietary niacin intake level was 14.8 (4.1) mg/d. A total of 4306 participants developed new-onset hypertension during a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 6.1 (3.6-11.3) years. When dietary niacin was assessed in quartiles, the lowest risk of new-onset hypertension was found in participants in quartile 3 (14.3 to <16.7 mg/d; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) compared with those in quartile 1 (<12.4 mg/d). Consistently in the threshold analysis, for every 1 mg/d increase in dietary niacin, there was a 2% decrease in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00) in those with dietary niacin intake less than 15.6 mg/d, and a 3% increase in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04) in participants with dietary niacin 15.6 mg/d or greater. Based on these results, there was a J-shaped association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension in the general population of Chinese adults, with an inflection point at 15.6 mg/d and a minimal risk at 14.3 to 16.7 mg/d (quartile 3) of dietary niacin intake. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study provide some evidence for maintaining the optimal dietary niacin intake levels for the primary prevention of hypertension.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414512

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) accounts for a significant proportion of life-threatening bleeding cases occurring after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, data on GIB after haploidentical HSCT (haplo-HSCT) are not available. A total of 3180 patients received haplo-HSCT at Peking University People's Hospital from January 2015 to November 2019, and GIB occurred in 188 of these patients (incidence of 5.9%). Platelet counts <30 × 109/L, viral hepatitis, acute kidney injury (AKI), gastrointestinal disease or bleeding before HSCT and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) were determined to be significant risk factors for the occurrence of GIB after haplo-HSCT. Grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), AKI, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal disease or bleeding before HSCT were significantly related to mortality in patients with GIB after haplo-HSCT. The predictive models developed for the occurrence and mortality of GIB performed well in terms of discrimination, and they might assist clinicians with personalised strategies for GIB prevention and treatment in patients after haplo-HSCT.

5.
Asian J Surg ; 44(1): 164-168, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few factors influence the feasibility of transrectal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) surgery for colorectal cancers. However, little is known about the underlying factors of NOSE surgery. METHODS: Consecutive patients with rectal and sigmoid colon cancers treated laparoscopically between January 2014 and April 2017 were enrolled in this study. The transrectal NOSE performed laparoscopically was the first choice of all patients. When NOSE failed, the specimen was removed through a midline abdominal wall incision. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify challenging factors influencing the intraoperative specimen extraction. RESULTS: Overall, 412 consecutive patients were included. NOSE performed laparoscopically was successful in 278 patients (75.5%) and unsuccessful in 90 patients (24.5%). The multivariate analyses indicated that body mass index (BMI; odds ratio [OR] = 3.510, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.333-9.243, p = 0.011), mesenteric thickness (OR = 1.069, 95% CI: 1.032-1.107, p < 0.001), maximum tumor diameter (OR = 2.827, 95% CI: 1.094-7.302, p = 0.032), and tumor T stage (OR = 2.831, 95% CI: 1.258-6.369, p = 0.012) were the factors influencing the feasibility of NOSE surgery. CONCLUSION: A successful transrectal NOSE surgery was associated with a lower BMI, thinner mesentery, lesser tumor diameter, and earlier tumor T stage.

7.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 177-183, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbicide safeners mitigate crop damage without reducing herbicide efficacy. Here, the protective effects of phenoxyacetyl oxazolidine derivatives as potential safeners were evaluated with a view toward reducing injury caused by sulfonylurea herbicide nicosulfuron to sensitive maize varieties. RESULTS: Growth indices demonstrated that the bioactivity of compound 9 (N-phenoxyacety-2-methyl-2,4-diethyl-1,3-oxazolidine) was superior to that of R-28725 and all other compounds tested. Compound 9 induced endogenous glutathione and upregulated glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in maize. Thus, it could enhance maize tolerance to nicosulfuron. Compared with the untreated water control group, the maximum reaction rate of GST was increased by 37.62%, while the maximum velocity of GST was decreased by 61.93% after treatment with compound 9. Acetolactate synthase relative activity was significantly enhanced in the case of treatment with compound 9, indicating the excellent protective effects of compound 9 against nicosulfuron in maize. CONCLUSIONS: The present work demonstrates that phenoxyacetyl oxazolidine derivatives are potentially efficacious as herbicide safeners and merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Zea mays , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Piridinas , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/toxicidade
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(23): 24394-24423, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260160

RESUMO

FBXW7 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase to mediate oncoprotein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system in cancer cells, effectively inhibiting the growth and survival of tumor cells. However, little is known about the functions of FBXW7 in macrophages and the tumor immune microenvironment. In this study, we find that FBXW7 suppresses M2-like tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) polarization to limit tumor progression. We identified a significant increase in the proportion of M2-like TAMs and aggravated tumor growth in mice with myeloid FBXW7 deficiency by subcutaneous inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLCs). When stimulated with LLCs supernatant in vitro, FBXW7-knockout macrophages displayed increased M2 macrophage polarization and enhanced ability of supporting cancer cells growth. In mechanism, we confirmed that FBXW7 inhibited M2-like TAM polarization by mediating c-Myc degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These findings highlight the role of FBXW7 in M2-like TAM polarization and provide new insights into the potential targets for cancer immunotherapies.

9.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complex biological systems consist of multi-level mechanism in terms of within- and cross-subsystems correlations, and they are primarily manifested in terms of connectivity, multiscale properties, and nonlinearity. Existing studies have each only explored one aspect of the functional corticocortical coupling (FCCC), which has some limitations in portraying the complexity of multivariable systems. The present study investigated the direct interactions of brain networks at multiple time scales. APPROACH: We extended the multivariate transfer entropy (MuTE) method and proposed a novel method, named multiscale multivariate transfer entropy (MSMVTE), to explore the direct interactions of brain networks across multiple time scale. To verify this aim, we introduced three simulation models and compared them with multiscale transfer entropy (MSTE) and MuTE methods. We then applied MSMVTE method to analyze FCCC during a unilateral right-hand steady-state force task. MAIN RESULTS: Simulation results showed that the MSMVTE method, compared with MSTE and MuTE methods, better detected direct interactions and avoid the spurious effects of indirect relationships. Further analysis of experimental data showed that the connectivity from left premotor/sensorimotor (LSM) cortex to right premotor/sensorimotor (RSM) cortex was significantly higher than that of opposite directionality. Furthermore, the connectivities from central motor (CM) areas to both sides of premotor/sensorimotor areas were higher than those of opposite directionalities. Additionally, the maximum coupling strength was found to occur at a specific scale (3-10). SIGNIFICANCE: Simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the MSMVTE method to describe direct relationships and multiscale characteristics in complex systems. The enhancement of FCCC reflects the interaction of more extended activation in cortical motor regions. Additionally, the neurodynamic process of brain depends not only on emergent behavior at small scales, but also on the constraining effects of the activity at large scales. Taken together, our findings provide a basis for better understanding dynamics in brain networks.

10.
Food Funct ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367423

RESUMO

Due to recent lifestyle shifts and health discernments among consumers, synthetic drugs are facing the challenge of controlling disease development and progression. Various medicinal plants and their constituents are recognized for their imminent role in disease management via modulation of biological activities. At present, research scholars have diverted their attention on natural bioactive entities with health-boosting perception to combat the lifestyle-related disarrays. In particular, Zingiber officinale is a medicinal herb that has been commonly used in food and pharmaceutical products. Its detailed chemical composition and high value-added active components have been extensively studied. In this review, we have summarized the pharmacological potential of this well-endowed chemo preventive agent. It was revealed that its functionalities are attributed to several inherent chemical constituents, including 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-hydroshogaol, and oleoresin, which were established through many studies (in vitro, in vivo, and cell lines). In this review, we also focused on the therapeutic effects of ginger and its constituents for their effective antioxidant properties. Their consumption may reduce or delay the progression of related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and obesity, via modulation of genetic and metabolic activities. The updated data could elucidate the relationship of the extraction processes with the constituents and biological manifestations. We have collated the current knowledge (including the latest clinical data) about the bioactive compounds and bioactivities of ginger. Their detailed mechanisms, which can lay foundation for their food and medical applications are also discussed.

11.
Clin Lab ; 66(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the relationship between HPV infection and early cervical cancer and postoperative survival outcomes. METHODS: A total of 556 women were recruited to receive TCT and HPV tests from October 2017 to October 2018. The type of disease was pathologically diagnosed. The HPV positive rate, HPV-DNA, and E6/E7 mRNA quantitative level were detected, and the diagnostic accuracy of the subjects was analyzed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and early cervical cancer patients were radically cured and followed up for 12.0 months to analyze the recurrence rate. RESULTS: Seventy-two cases of chronic cervicitis, 54 cases of CIN, and 51 cases of cervical cancer patients were pathologically diagnosed (32 cases in early stage and 19 cases in middle and late stage). HPV positive rate increased gradually in chronic cervicitis, CIN, and cervical cancer group (p < 0.001) and HPV 16 + 18 subtype. The positive rate was significantly different (p = 0.009). HPV-DNA and E6/E7 mRNA quantification also showed significant differences (p < 0.001). ROC analysis indicated that the accuracy of HPV-DNA and E6/E7 mRNA quantitative diagnosis of malignant lesions (CIN+ cervical cancer) were 0.865 and 0.879, respectively. There were 4 cases (7.41%) of recurrence in CIN group and 5 cases (15.63%) in early cervical cancer group. There was no difference (p = 0.401) among all of the patients. All patients with recurrence were HPV positive. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection is an indispensable screening method for early cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, and comprehensive HPV 16 and 18 subtypes. DNA and E6/E7 mRNA quantification assay would further improve the accuracy of screening.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21814, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311584

RESUMO

Neurons of the medial olivary complex inhibit cochlear hair cells through the activation of α9α10-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Efforts to study the localization of these proteins have been hampered by the absence of reliable antibodies. To overcome this obstacle, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing was used to generate mice in which a hemagglutinin tag (HA) was attached to the C-terminus of either α9 or α10 proteins. Immunodetection of the HA tag on either subunit in the organ of Corti of adult mice revealed immunopuncta clustered at the synaptic pole of outer hair cells. These puncta were juxtaposed to immunolabeled presynaptic efferent terminals. HA immunopuncta also occurred in inner hair cells of pre-hearing (P7) but not in adult mice. These immunolabeling patterns were similar for both homozygous and heterozygous mice. All HA-tagged genotypes had auditory brainstem responses not significantly different from those of wild type littermates. The activation of efferent neurons in heterozygous mice evoked biphasic postsynaptic currents not significantly different from those of wild type hair cells. However, efferent synaptic responses were significantly smaller and less frequent in the homozygous mice. We show that HA-tagged nAChRs introduced in the mouse by a CRISPR knock-in are regulated and expressed like the native protein, and in the heterozygous condition mediate normal synaptic function. The animals thus generated have clear advantages for localization studies.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302604

RESUMO

Despite releases of governmental guidelines for promoting physical fitness among the youth in China, the performance of college students in fitness tests has been declining over the past three decades. Obesity and physical inactivity have been proposed as two main causes. However, their relative importance for improving physical fitness remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we collected longitudinal data spanning four consecutive years on the physical fitness test for students from Nanjing University, China. Physical education classes of two hours per week were mandatory for the first two years. Using mixed effects models, we quantify the within-subject effects of weight, muscular endurance, sex, and mandatory physical education courses, among other variables, on physical fitness total score. We found that, in spite of the dominance of normal weight among the students, losing weight was positively associated with the total score, with significant sex differences in the associations. Compulsory exercise provided by physical education classes per week had strong positive impacts on the total score, comparable to losing weight of roughly 15-17 kg for males and 5-10 kg for females. Half sex difference in the total score was explained by male students' poor performance in the muscular endurance represented by pull-ups. Our results suggest that college students in China should engage in physical activity of higher levels to improve their physical fitness, with a heightened awareness of extra fat under normal weight and insufficient muscular endurance.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(12): 1051, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311443

RESUMO

Increasing lines of evidence indicate the role of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in gene regulation and tumor development. Hence, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms of LncRNAs underlying the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We employed microarrays to screen LncRNAs in LUAD tissues with and without lymph node metastasis and revealed their effects on LUAD. Among them, Linc00426 was selected for further exploration in its expression, the biological significance, and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Linc00426 exhibits ectopic expression in LUAD tissues and cells. The ectopic expression has been clinically linked to tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, and tumor differentiation of patients with LUAD. The deregulation of Linc00426 contributes to a notable impairment in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the deregulation of Linc00426 could reduce cytoskeleton rearrangement and matrix metalloproteinase expression. Meanwhile, decreasing the level of Linc00426 or increasing miR-455-5p could down-regulate the level of UBE2V1. Thus, Linc00426 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to abate miR-455-5p-dependent UBE2V1 reduction. We conclude that Linc00426 accelerates LUAD progression by acting as a molecular sponge to regulate miR-455-5p, and may be a potential novel tumor marker for LUAD.

16.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1892-1898, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 5-aminoimidazole-4-formamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) combined with interferon (IFN-α-2b) on the proliferation and apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells, and explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: CCK-8 method was used to detect the inhibition of cell proliferation. Wright Giemsa method was used to stain and cell morphology was observed by light microscopy. FITC Annexin V/PI double staining method was used to analyze the change of apoptosis rate. Immunocytochemistry method was used to detect the expression of wild-type P53 protein. RESULTS: Different concentration of AICAR was inhibitory effect on K562 cells at different time point of action for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the inhibition was time and dose-dependent (r=0.71, r=0.84). The combination of AICAR and IFN-α-2b could effectively inhibit the proliferation and promote apoptosis of K562 cells. The inhibition rate of K562 cells was (45.26±2.54)%, and the early apoptosis rate was (33.72±0.23)%, which was statistically significantly different from the control group, AICAR or IFN-ɑ-2b alone (P<0.05). The combination of two drugs promoted the expression of wild-type p53 protein. CONCLUSION: AICAR and/or IFN-ɑ-2b can inhibit the cell proliferation and promote the apoptosis of K562 cells. The combination of two drugs shows synergistic antitumor effect, and its mechanism may be related to the promotion of high expression of wild-type p53 protein.


Assuntos
Interferons , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Formamidas , Humanos , Imidazóis , Células K562 , Ribonucleotídeos/farmacologia
17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-25, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308359

RESUMO

We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8,208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analyzed from the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Participants were randomized to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10mg enalapril and 0.8mg folic acid (n=4,101) or 10mg enalapril alone (n=4,107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59.5 (SD, 7.4) years, 3,088 (37.6%) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4.4 years. In the enalapril-alone group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4.8×109/L, OR, 1.44; 95%CI: 1.00, 2.06), compared with those in quintile 1-4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-alone, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5.2% to 2.8% (OR, 0.49; 95%CI: 0.29, 0.82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4.8×109/L), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4.8×109/L. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51% with folic acid treatment. If confirmed, neutrophil counts may serve as a biomarker to identify high-risk individuals who could particularly benefit from folic acid treatment.

19.
Phytopathology ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258411

RESUMO

Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestants (P. infestans), is severely damaging to the global tomato industry. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated playing vital roles in plant resistance through repressing their target genes. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/ CRISPR-associated protein9 (CRISPR/Cas9), has been continuously improved and extensively applied to edit plants genomes. Though, editing multiplex miRNAs by CRISPR/Cas9 in tomato has not been studied yet. Herein, we knocked down miR482b and miR482c simultaneously in tomato through the multiplex CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two transgenic plants that silenced miR482b and miR482c simultaneously and one transgenic line silenced miR482b solely were obtained. Compared with wild type (WT) plants, the disease symptoms of three transgenic plants upon infection were alleviated accompanied by increased expression of their common target nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and declined levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, silencing miR482b and miR482c simultaneously was more resistant than silencing miR482b solely in tomato. More importantly, we found that knocking down miR482b and miR482c can elicit expression perturbation of other miRNAs, hinting the cross regulation among miRNAs. Altogether, our study demonstrated that editing miR482b and miR482c simultaneously by CRISPR/Cas9 is an efficient strategy for generating pathogen-resistant tomatoes, and the cross regulation among miRNAs may reveal the novel mechanism in tomato- P. infestans interaction.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259769

RESUMO

Parasitic diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Calves are highly susceptible to Cryptosporidium spp. infection that resulted in diarrhea, growth retardation, and weight loss, and was one of the most common enteropathogens. It is especially difficult for molecular detection of calves with inapparent or subclinical infections of cryptosporidiosis. In view of this, this study established a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detection method to clarify its epidemic characteristics, based on Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene with the 150 bp product length to investigate the infection of Cryptosporidium spp. in northeastern China The standard curve equation is Ct = -2.91 × lg (Cryptosporidium spp. copies) +10.18, with better sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility. A total of 148 out of 425 fecal samples (34.82%) were detected Cryptosporidium positive with RT-qPCR, including (36.11%) in Heilongjiang province (29.60%), (29.6%) in Jilin province, and (37.50%) in Liaoning province. The infection prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium ryanae, Cryptosporidium andersoni, and Cryptosporidium bovis from calves in order from high to low was 14.35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.2-18.1), 6.12 (95% CI, 4.0-8.8), 2.35 (95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.1-1.7), respectively, suggesting C. parvum was the predominant species in calves in northeastern China. Using 60-kDa glycoprotein gp60 gene, all of the 61 C. parvum-positive specimens were further precisely confirmed to IIdA19G1 subtype. This suggested that IIdA19G1 subtype of C. parvum could threaten to cause diarrhea calves from notheastern China (p < 0.01). The prevalence of 34.82% (148/425) using RT-qPCR had a significant difference compared with the prevalence of nested-PCR (23.29%) and microscopic examination (3.76%). The findings improved the epidemiological knowledge of calves infected with cryptosporidiosis in China, highlighting the importance of ongoing Cryptosporidium surveillance.

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