Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 180
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960418

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has shown that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (exo) mediate cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in regulating cell homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of exo secreted from bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) overexpressing MIF in a rat model of MI. MIF plasmid was transducted in BM-MSCs. Exo were isolated from the supernatants of BM-MSCs and MIF-BM-MSCs, respectively. The morphology of mitochondria in neonatal mice cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) was determined by MitoTracker staining. The apoptosis of NRCMs was examined by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling. BM-MSC-exo and MIF-BM-MSC-exo were intramuscularly injected into the peri-infarct region in a rat model of MI. The heart function of rats was assessed by echocardiography. The expression of MIF was greatly enhanced in MIF-BM-MSCs compared with BM-MSCs. Both BM-MSC-exo and MIF-BM-MSC-exo expressed CD63 and CD81. NRCMs treated with MIF-BM-MSC-exo exhibited less mitochondrial fragmentation and cell apoptosis under hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) challenge than those treated with BM-MSC-exo via activating adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling. Moreover, these effects were partially abrogated by Compound C. Injection of BM-MSC-exo or MIF-BM-MSC-exo greatly restored heart function in a rat model of MI. Compared with BM-MSC-exo, injection of MIF-BM-MSC-exo was associated with enhanced heart function, reduced heart remodeling, less cardiomyocyte mitochondrial fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis. Our study reveals a new mechanism of MIF-BM-MSC-exo-based therapy for MI and provides a novel strategy for cardiovascular disease treatment.

2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965214

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for the treatment of various diseases. The therapeutic potential of MSCs is attributed to complex cellular and molecular mechanisms of action including differentiation into multiple cell lineages and regulation of immune responses via immunomodulation. The plasticity of MSCs in immunomodulation allow these cells to exert different immune effects depending on different diseases. Understanding the biology of MSCs and their role in treatment is critical to determine their potential for various therapeutic applications and for the development of MSC-based regenerative medicine. This review summarizes the recent progress of particular mechanisms underlying the tissue regenerative properties and immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. We focused on discussing the functional roles of paracrine activities, direct cell-cell contact, mitochondrial transfer, and extracellular vesicles related to MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and regeneration. This will provide an overview of the current research on the rapid development of MSC-based therapies.

3.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(2): 123-130, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815763

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most effective chemotherapeutic drug against lung carcinoma. However, the emergence of resistant clones has severely limited its clinical application. We found that the cisplatin-resistant lung carcinoma cell line A549/CDDP had increased levels of the phosphorylated gap junction protein Cx43 and SRC tyrosine kinase, and low levels of total Cx43 protein and reduced gap junction formation. The SRC kinase inhibitor PP2 increased the expression of total Cx43 protein and enhanced cisplatin sensitivity, indicating that activated SRC kinase induces chemoresistance by decrease total Cx43 level. Furthermore, Cx43 gene silencing in the drug-resistant cell lines abrogated the sensitizing effect of PP2. Taken together, targeting SRC kinase by PP2 reverses cisplatin resistance by upregulating Cx43 protein levels, indicating a novel pathway of cisplatin resistance that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(1): 431-440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660694

RESUMO

The cardiac protection of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation for myocardial infarction (MI) is largely hampered by low cell survival. Haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) plays a critical role in regulation of cell survival under many stress conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with haemin, a potent HO-1 inducer, would promote the survival of MSCs under serum deprivation and hypoxia (SD/H) and enhance the cardioprotective effects of MSCs in MI. Bone marrow (BM)-MSCs were pretreated with or without haemin and then exposed to SD/H. The mitochondrial morphology of MSCs was determined by MitoTracker staining. BM-MSCs and haemin-pretreated BM-MSCs were transplanted into the peri-infarct region in MI mice. SD/H induced mitochondrial fragmentation, as shown by increased mitochondrial fission and apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Pre-treatment with haemin greatly inhibited SD/H-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis of BM-MSCs. These effects were partially abrogated by knocking down HO-1. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared with BM-MSCs, haemin-pretreated BM-MSCs had greatly improved the heart function of mice with MI. These cardioprotective effects were associated with increased cell survival, decreased cardiomyocytes apoptosis and enhanced angiogenesis. Collectively, our study identifies haemin as a regulator of MSC survival and suggests a novel strategy for improving MSC-based therapy for MI.

5.
Mol Plant ; 13(1): 144-156, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733371

RESUMO

Two signal molecules, salicylic acid (SA) and N-hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP), play critical roles in plant immunity. The biosynthetic genes of both compounds are positively regulated by master immune-regulating transcription factors SARD1 and CBP60g. However, the relationship between the SA and NHP pathways is unclear. CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 1 (CAMTA1), CAMTA2, and CAMTA3 are known redundant negative regulators of plant immunity, but the underlying mechanism also remains largely unknown. In this study, through chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we uncovered that CBP60g is a direct target of CAMTA3, which also negatively regulates the expression of SARD1, presumably via an indirect effect. The autoimmunity of camta3-1 is suppressed by sard1 cbp60g double mutant as well as ald1 and fmo1, two single mutants defective in NHP biosynthesis. Interestingly, a suppressor screen conducted in the camta1/2/3 triple mutant background yielded various mutants blocking biosynthesis or signaling of either SA or NHP, leading to nearly complete suppression of the extreme autoimmunity of camta1/2/3, suggesting that the SA and NHP pathways can mutually amplify each other. Together, these results reveal that CAMTAs repress the biosynthesis of SA and NHP by modulating the expression of SARD1 and CBP60g, and that the SA and NHP pathways are coordinated to optimize plant immune response.

6.
J Drug Target ; 28(1): 33-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092045

RESUMO

In patients with cancer, drug tolerance often occurs during the use of chemotherapy drugs, seriously affecting patient prognosis and survival. Therefore, scientists began to study the factors that affect chemotherapy drug sensitivity, and the high correlation between Schlafen-11 (SLFN11) and sensitivity to chemical drugs (mainly DNA-damaging agents, DDAs) has received increasing attention since it was discovered through bioinformatics analyses. Regarding the mechanism, SLFN11 may sensitise cells to chemotherapy drugs by preventing DNA damage repair. In recent years, SLFN11 has gradually become a hot research topic, and the results are enriching our understanding of this molecule. Indeed, the biological functions of SLFN11 under normal physiological conditions and in cancer, changes in its expression levels and mechanisms promoting apoptosis within the context of chemotherapeutic interventions have gradually been uncovered. Studies to date provide knowledge and the experimental and theoretical bases underlying SLFN11 and its effects on sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. This review summarises the existing research on SLFN11 with the aim of achieving a more comprehensive understanding and furthering the development of strategies to target SLFN11 in the treatment of cancer.

7.
Mol Plant ; 13(1): 31-41, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863850

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) has long been known to be essential for basal defense and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). N-Hydroxypipecolic acid (NHP), a recently discovered plant metabolite, also plays a key role in SAR and to a lesser extent in basal resistance. Following pathogen infection, levels of both compounds are dramatically increased. Analysis of SA- or SAR-deficient mutants has uncovered how SA and NHP are biosynthesized. The completion of the SA and NHP biosynthetic pathways in Arabidopsis allowed better understanding of how they are regulated. In this review, we discuss recent progress on SA and NHP biosynthesis and their regulation in plant immunity.

8.
Skin Res Technol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study proposes a technique for visualizing the effect of facial massage using stereo-image correlation with melanin pigment. METHOD: In this method, the melanin pigment of a subject's face is made visible by using an ultraviolet light and utilized as a random pattern for stereo-image correlation. Stereo-pair images of the face with the melanin pigment before and after facial massage are recorded using a desk-sized measurement equipment. Then, the deformation of the face by the massage can be obtained based on the principle of stereovision. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying it to the massage effect evaluation of eight subjects (females in their 40s). RESULTS: The results show that the massage effect can be visualized from the displacement and strain distributions across the face obtained by the proposed method. In addition, it is observed that the face is displaced significantly by the massage and individual differences between the subjects can be captured. CONCLUSION: The proposed method is effective for evaluating the effect of a facial massage when the painted pattern disappears due to the applied cream during the massage.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(24): 12641-12660, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881006

RESUMO

The beneficial functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decline with age, limiting their therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction (MI). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promotes cell proliferation and survival. We investigated whether MIF overexpression could rejuvenate aged MSCs and increase their therapeutic efficacy in MI. Young and aged MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of young and aged donors. Young MSCs, aged MSCs, and MIF-overexpressing aged MSCs were transplanted into the peri-infarct region in a rat MI model. Aged MSCs exhibited a lower proliferative capacity, lower MIF level, greater cell size, greater senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase activity, and weaker paracrine effects than young MSCs. Knocking down MIF in young MSCs induced cellular senescence, whereas overexpressing MIF in aged MSCs reduced cellular senescence. MIF rejuvenated aged MSCs by activating autophagy, an effect largely reversed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. MIF-overexpressing aged MSCs induced angiogenesis and prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis to a greater extent than aged MSCs, and had improved heart function and cell survival more effectively than aged MSCs four weeks after MI. Thus, MIF rejuvenated aged MSCs by activating autophagy and enhanced their therapeutic efficacy in MI, suggesting a novel MSC-based therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases in the aged population.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1305049, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885770

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Nonetheless, the biological properties of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from patients with AAA (AAA-ASCs) remain unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the properties of cell phenotype and function of AAA-ASCs compared with ASCs from age-matched healthy donors (H-ASCs). H-ASCs and AAA-ASCs were studied for cell phenotype, differentiation capacity, senescence, and mitochondrial and autophagic functions. Cellular senescence was examined by senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining. Mitochondrial morphology was determined by MitoTracker staining. Despite the similar surface markers of AAA-ASCs and H-ASCs, AAA-ASCs exhibited altered multidifferentiation potential. Compared with H-ASCs, AAA-ASCs displayed enhanced senescence manifested by increased SA-ß-gal activity and decreased proliferation and migration ability. Furthermore, AAA-ASCs showed increased mitochondrial fusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, AAA-ASCs exhibited decreased autophagy level, upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α secretion, and downregulation of IL-10 secretion compared with H-ASCs. Nonetheless, treatment of AAA-ASCs with rapamycin (an autophagy activator) dramatically reduced secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and enhanced secretion of IL-10. In conclusion, our study showed that AAA-ASCs exhibit senescence phenomena and decreased cell function. Understanding the specific alterations in AAA-ASCs will help explore novel strategies to restore cell function for AAA treatment.

11.
Science ; 365(6452): 498-502, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371615

RESUMO

The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) controls biotic and abiotic plant stress responses. Plastid-produced chorismate is a branch-point metabolite for SA biosynthesis. Most pathogen-induced SA derives from isochorismate, which is generated from chorismate by the catalytic activity of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE1. Here, we ask how and in which cellular compartment isochorismate is converted to SA. We show that in Arabidopsis, the pathway downstream of isochorismate requires only two additional proteins: ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY5, which exports isochorismate from the plastid to the cytosol, and the cytosolic amidotransferase avrPphB SUSCEPTIBLE3 (PBS3). PBS3 catalyzes the conjugation of glutamate to isochorismate to produce isochorismate-9-glutamate, which spontaneously decomposes into SA and 2-hydroxy-acryloyl-N-glutamate. The minimal requirement of three compartmentalized proteins controlling unidirectional forward flux may protect the pathway against evolutionary forces and pathogen perturbations.

12.
Cell Stress Chaperones ; 24(6): 1091-1099, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446555

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of protodioscin (Prot) in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. After PC12 cells were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) reperfusion, PI staining by flow cytometry was used to quantify the rate of apoptosis. The levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined using commercially available kits. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected using the 20,70-dichlorodihy-drofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescence assay. The expression levels of heat-shock proteins (HSP), PI3K, AKT, Nrf2, and miR-124 were tested by western blot or quantitative PCR. Prot significantly attenuated oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced apoptotic death. Prot also reduced the oxidative stress as revealed by increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, decreasing the levels of ROS and MDA. Moreover, mechanism investigations suggested that Prot prevented the decrease of HSP70, HSP32 (hemeoxygenase-1, HO-1), and PI3K protein expression, phosphorylation of AKT, and the accumulation of nuclear Nrf2. The level of miR-124 was decreased in PC12 cells, which was also effectively reversed by Prot treatment. Prot protected PC12 cells against OGD/R-induced injury through inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis, which could be associated with increasing HSP proteins expression via activating PI3K/AKT/Nrf2 pathway and miR-124 modulation.

13.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(10): 1755-1764, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169193

RESUMO

Soluble Nogo66 receptor-Fc protein (sNgR-Fc) enhances axonal regeneration following central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of sNgR-Fc on the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. The photothrombotic cortical injury model of ischemic stroke was produced in the parietal cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats with photothrombotic cortical injury were randomized to receive infusion of 400 µg/kg sNgR-Fc (sNgR-Fc group) or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (photothrombotic cortical injury group) into the lateral ventricle for 3 days. The effects of sNgR-Fc on the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural progenitor cells were examined using BrdU staining. Neurological function was evaluated with the Morris water maze test. To further examine the effects of sNgR-Fc treatment on neural progenitor cells, photothrombotic cortical injury was produced in another group of rats that received transplantation of neural progenitor cells from the hippocampus of embryonic Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were then given an infusion of phosphate-buffered saline (neural progenitor cells group) or sNgR-Fc (sNgR-Fc + neural progenitor cells group) into the lateral ventricle for 3 days. sNgR-Fc enhanced the proliferation of cultured neural progenitor cells in vitro as well as that of endogenous neural progenitor cells in vivo, compared with phosphate-buffered saline, and it also induced the differentiation of neural progenitor cells into neurons. Compared with the photothrombotic cortical injury group, escape latency in the Morris water maze and neurological severity score were greatly reduced, and distance traveled in the target quadrant was considerably increased in the sNgR-Fc group, indicating a substantial improvement in neurological function. Furthermore, compared with phosphate-buffered saline infusion, sNgR-Fc infusion strikingly improved the survival and differentiation of grafted neural progenitor cells. Our findings show that sNgR-Fc regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Therefore, sNgR-Fc is a potential novel therapy for stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, The protocols were approved by the Committee on the Use of Live Animals in Teaching and Research of the University of Hong Kong (approval No. 4560-17) in November, 2015.

14.
Gene ; 710: 103-113, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158447

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) symbolizes the predominant program of advanced-stage cancer, it is critical in cancer progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. In this study, the metastatic properties of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells were evaluated by morphological examination, wound healing assay, migration and invasion assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to ascertain the expression of markers which were associated with EMT. The effects of miR-205-5p on invasion, migration, EMT and proliferation of NPC cells were evaluated and the molecular mechanisms of their interaction were explored. In this study, we manifested firstly that the expression of miR-205-5p in cisplatin-resistant NPC cell line HNE1/DDP was obviously up-regulated than that in its parental cell line HNE1. Then we analyzed the specific role of miR-205-5p through functional assays by transfecting specific mimics and inhibitors. The results indicated that low expression of miR-205-5p restrained EMT progression of HNE1/DDP cells. Further studies on the mechanism of miR-205-5p manifested that PTEN was a downstream candidate gene of miR-205-5p, down-regulated PTEN expression could counteract the effect of miR-205-5p inhibitors, and the regulation of EMT by miR-205-5p on HNE1/DDP cells depended on the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Overall, our results indicated that miR-205-5p was targeting PTEN to regulate EMT through the PI3K/AKT pathway. This study will supply a new treatment target for advanced NPC.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Regulação para Cima , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(11): 3574-3584, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147528

RESUMO

Formation of aortic aneurysms as a consequence of augmented transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) signaling and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction is a potentially lethal complication of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Here, we examined VSMC senescence in patients with MFS and explored the potential mechanisms that link VSMC senescence and TGF-ß. Tissue was harvested from the ascending aorta of control donors and MFS patients, and VSMCs were isolated. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) activity and expression of senescence-related proteins (p53, p21) were significantly higher in aneurysmal tissue from MFS patients than in healthy aortic tissue from control donors. Compared to control-VSMCs, MFS-VSMCs were larger with higher levels of both SA-ß-gal activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, TGF-ß1 levels were much higher in MFS- than control-VSMCs. TGF-ß1 induced VSMC senescence through excessive ROS generation. This effect was suppressed by Mito-tempo, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, or SC-514, a NF-κB inhibitor. This suggests TGF-ß1 induces VSMC senescence through ROS-mediated activation of NF-κB signaling. It thus appears that a TGF-ß1/ROS/NF-κB axis may mediate VSMC senescence and aneurysm formation in MFS patients. This finding could serve as the basis for a novel strategy for treating aortic aneurysm in MFS.

16.
Theranostics ; 9(8): 2395-2410, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149051

RESUMO

Rationale: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is extremely hard to repair or regenerate and is often coupled with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based treatment has been demonstrated beneficial for RGC against degeneration. However, underlying mechanisms of MSC-provided RGC protection are largely unknown other than neuroprotective paracrine actions. In this study, we sought to investigate whether mitochondrial donation from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSC (iPSC-MSCs) could preserve RGC survival and restore retinal function. Methods: iPSC-MSCs were injected into the vitreous cavity of one eye in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4 (Ndufs4) knockout (KO) and wild type mice. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or rotenone treated iPSC-MSCs were injected as control groups. Retinal function was detected by flash electroretinogram (ERG). Whole-mount immunofluorescence (IF), morphometric analysis, confocal microscopy imaging, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the retinas were conducted to investigate mitochondrial transfer from human iPSC-MSCs to mouse retina. Quantitative mouse cytokine arrays were carried out to measure retinal inflammatory response under difference treatments. Results: RGC survival in the iPSC-MSC injected retina of Ndufs4 KO mice was significantly increased with improved retinal function. GFP labelled human mitochondria from iPSC-MSC were detected in the RGCs in the retina of Ndufs4 KO mice starting from 96 hours post injection. PCR result showed only human mitochondrial DNA without human nuclear DNA could be detected in the mouse retinas after iPSC-MSC treatment in Ndufs4 KO mice eye. Quantitative cytokine array analysis showed pro-inflammatory cytokines was also downregulated by this iPSC-MSC treatment. Conclusion: Intravitreal transplanted iPSC-MSCs can effectively donate functional mitochondria to RGCs and protect against mitochondrial damage-induced RGC loss.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4915149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178962

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy is a novel strategy in regenerative medicine. The functional and regenerative capacities of MSCs decline with senescence. Nonetheless, the potential mechanisms that underlie their senescence are not fully understood. This study was aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in the regulation of MSC senescence. The senescence of MSCs was determined by senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining. The morphology and the level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) of MSCs were assessed by MitoTracker and Mito-Sox staining, respectively. The expression of FGF21 and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins was detected by Western blotting. As MSCs were expanded in vitro, the expression of FGF21 decreased. Depletion of FGF21 enhanced production of mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (ROS) and increased the senescence of early-passage MSCs whereas inhibition of ROS abolished these effects. The senescent MSCs exhibited increased mitochondrial fusion and decreased mitochondrial fission. Treatment of early-passage MSCs with FGF21 siRNA enhanced mitochondrial fusion and reduced mitochondrial fission. Moreover, treatment of mitofusin2- (Mfn2-) siRNA inhibited depletion of FGF21-induced MSC senescence. Furthermore, we demonstrated that depletion of FGF21-induced mitochondrial fusion was regulated by the AMPK signaling pathway. Treatment with an AMPK activator, AICAR, abrogated the depletion of FGF21-induced senescence of MSCs by inhibiting mitochondrial fusion. Compared with MSCs isolated from young donors, those derived from aged donors showed a lower level of FGF21 and a higher level of senescent activity. Furthermore, overexpression of FGF21 in aged MSCs inhibited senescence. Our study shows that FGF21, via the AMPK signaling pathway, regulates the senescence of MSCs by mediating mitochondrial dynamics. Targeting FGF21 might represent a novel strategy to improve the quality and quantity of MSCs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 16: 434-441, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048182

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel subgroup of noncoding RNA in the human transcriptome playing a vital role in the atherosclerosis of cerebrovascular disease. However, the in-depth mechanism by which circRNA regulates the vascular smooth muscle proliferation and migration is still elusive. Here, a novel identified circRNA, circCHFR, was validated to be aberrantly overexpressed in the ox-LDL-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMCs). Functionally, the circCHFR silencing by oligonucleotide transfection suppressed the proliferation and migration ability of VSMCs. Mechanically, bioinformatics tools and luciferase reporter assay state that circCHFR acts as a sponge of miR-370, and miR-370 targets the 3' UTR of FOXO1. Furthermore, the transcription factor FOXO1 could bind with the promoter region of CCND1 mRNA and promote Cyclin D1 expression. In summary, this finding states the vital role of the circCHFR/miR-370/FOXO1/Cyclin D1 axis and provides a profound understanding about the circRNA in smooth muscle cells and atherosclerosis.

19.
Plant Cell ; 31(7): 1414-1415, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068447
20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(7): 691-697, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011219

RESUMO

Spin waves may constitute key components of low-power spintronic devices. Antiferromagnetic-type spin waves are innately high-speed, stable and dual-polarized. So far, it has remained challenging to excite and manipulate antiferromagnetic-type propagating spin waves. Here, we investigate spin waves in periodic 100-nm-wide stripe domains with alternating upward and downward magnetization in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films. In addition to ordinary low-frequency modes, a high-frequency mode around 10 GHz is observed and propagates along the stripe domains with a spin-wave dispersion different from the low-frequency mode. Based on a theoretical model that considers two oppositely oriented coupled domains, this high-frequency mode is accounted for as an effective antiferromagnetic spin-wave mode. The spin waves exhibit group velocities of 2.6 km s-1 and propagate even at zero magnetic bias field. An electric current pulse with a density of only 105 A cm-2 can controllably modify the orientation of the stripe domains, which opens up perspectives for reconfigurable magnonic devices.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA