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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137410, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120099

RESUMO

Understanding the role played by autochthonous functional microbes involved in the biotransformation of pollutants would help optimize bioremediation performance at contaminated sites. However, our knowledge of the remediation potential of indigenous diazotrophs in contaminated soils remains inadequate. Using a microcosm experiment, soil nitrogen fixation activity was manipulated by molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W), and their effect on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in agricultural and industrial soils. Results showed that after 42 days of incubation, PAH dissipation efficiency was significantly enhanced by 1.06-fold in 600 µg kg-1 Mo-treated agricultural soil, compared with that in the control. For the industrial soil, 1200 µg kg-1 Mo treatment significantly promoted PAH removal by 90.76% in 21 days, whereas no significant change was observed between treatments and control at the end of the incubation period. W also exerted a similar effect on PAH dissipation. The activity and gene abundance of nitrogenase were also increased under Mo/W treatments in the two soils. Spearman's correlation analysis further indicated that removal of PAHs was positively correlated with nitrogenase activity in soil, which could be due to the elevated abundances of PAH-degrading genes (PAH-RHDα) in these treatments. Our results suggest the importance of autochthonous diazotrophs in PAH-contaminated soils, which indicates a feasible and environmentally friendly biostimulation strategy of manipulating nitrogen fixation capacity.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19369, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This epidemiological research will be aimed to evaluate the longitudinal changes of Helicobacter pylori prevalence in Southwest China during recent period through a systematic review and analysis. METHODS: The database PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure will be searched. The cross-sectional studies or cohort studies on either massive or hospital-based health checkup population will be potentially eligible. The study population was originated from one of the southwestern major cities, Chengdu (Sichuan), Chongqing, Kunming (Yunnan), Guiyang (Guizhou), or Lhasa (Tibet). Two reviewers will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of studies. The prevalence of H pylori infection will be estimated. In the individual city, the longitudinal comparisons will be conducted to evaluate the trends referring to the earliest cross-sectional baseline. The risk ratio and its 95% confidence interval will be estimated. Subgroup analyses will be performed in sex-specific and age-specific subsets. Trend analysis for proportions (p for trend) will be estimated in the longitudinal evaluation. If applicable, the longitudinal clearance rate (%) will be estimated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethical approval is not required due to the nature of literature-based research. The results will be disseminated through meetings and a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019120764.

3.
Theranostics ; 10(8): 3533-3545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206106

RESUMO

Surgical trauma of biomaterial implantation significantly influences the immune system and the biological effects of biomaterials. Minimally invasive surgery has become a trend of clinical development but violating the concept of osteoimmunomodulation will hinder the biological effects of materials. Our study focused on biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), the ectopia osteoinductive materials, filling the research blank of the significance of adaptive immunity crosstalk with bone biomaterials, and improving the interaction mechanism between bone biomaterials and immune response. Methods: The BCP bioceramics were implanted by conventional and minimally invasive methods in the gastrocnemius wild-type or T cells depleted mice to test the effect of ectopia osteoinduction. Moreover, flow cytometry was used to detect immune responses, T cell sorting and Western Blot molecular biology experiments, and transwell assays migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results: We found that BCP, an implantable osteoinductive material, could not activate the adaptive immune response mediated by T cells after minimally invasive surgery. Further studies revealed that under the conventional non-minimally invasive BCP implantation, a positive correlation existed between T cell recruitment and the infiltration and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Interestingly, after BCP was implanted by minimally invasive surgery or implanted in T cell depleted mice, MSCs infiltration and osteogenic differentiation were significantly reduced, and BCP could not achieve the biological effects of ectopia ossification. Finally, we confirmed that a certain extent inflammatory stimulation activated the adaptive immune response mediated by T cells, up-regulated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal in T cells, released a large amount of chemokine C-C motif chemokine ligand 5(CCL5) to recruit MSCs to the surrounding material, and finally achieved the ideal effect of osteoinduction. Conclusion: From experimental research and clinical surgery, this study discovered that the T cells are indispensable in the ectopia ossification mediated by osteoinductive materials, put forward and confirmed the surgery method as a key variable factor restricting the application effect of biological materials, enriched the key mechanism of adaptive immunity in osteoimmunomodulation, and laid a theoretical foundation for the development of osteoinductive materials and bone tissue regeneration.

4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 110: 110671, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204099

RESUMO

Boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass (B-MBG) scaffolds could be capable of promoting osteogenesis by activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway during the process of bone defect repair. Despite this, more involving molecular controls are still largely unclear. In the present study, we identified that the downstream of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway named transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) served as a key effector to promote boron-induced bone regeneration and osteogenesis through lipocalin 2 (LCN2). TCF7L2 was highly expressed in osteoblasts when treated with B-MBG scaffold extraction than MBG. LCN2, as a secreted bone factor, positively affected osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 and osteogenesis in vivo, which could be induced by TCF7L2. In addition, interference of TCF7L2 decreased the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. Finally, we identified that rLCN2 could rescue the poor ability of osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 whose Tcf7l2 gene was knocked down by lentiviral transfection of shRNA. Our findings provide some new insights into the molecular controls of boron-associated bone regeneration and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone defects.

5.
Mol Carcinog ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181526

RESUMO

Elevated expression of Copine 1 (CPNE1) has been observed in multiple cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms by which it affects cancer cells are unclear. We aimed to study the effect of CPNE1 on the tumorigenesis and radioresistance of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of CPNE1 in TNBC tissues and cell lines. Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the levels of CPNE1, p-AKT, AKT, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP1, and γ-H2AX. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by CCK-8 and flow cytometry, respectively. CPNE1 was overexpressed in TNBC tissues and cell lines and was associated with tumor size, distant metastases, and survival rates of patients with TNBC. Moreover, function study shows that CPNE1 promoted cell viability and inhibited cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibited the radiosensitivity of TNBC. Importantly, inactivation of AKT signaling inhibited the tumorigenesis and radioresistance mediated by CPNE1 in TNBC cells. In vivo xenograft study also shows that CPNE1 knockdown inhibited tumor growth and promoted cell apoptosis. Overall, our findings suggest that CPNE1 promotes tumorigenesis and radioresistance in TNBC by regulating AKT activation and targeted CPNE1 expression may be a strategy to sensitize TNBC cells toward radiation therapy.

6.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121212

RESUMO

Sargassum maclurei is a potential protein resource because of its high protein content and relatively balanced amino acid composition. To promote its usage in food, medical, or other industries, S. maclurei protein was hydrolyzed by pepsin and papain to obtain bioactive peptides. The S. maclurei protein hydrolysates (SMPHs) were purified using gel chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and 12 major fractions were obtained. The fraction D11 with the highest angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (61.59%, at 1 mg/ mL) was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, and about 17 peptides were identified, of which the RWDISQPY (1063.5 Da) was chosen to be synthesized based on in silico analysis. The RWDISQPY demonstrated high ACE inhibition ability (IC50: 72.24 µM) with competitive inhibition mode, and could effectively (p < 0.05) lower the systolic blood pressure and diastolic pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats at the concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight. The results of the molecular docking simulation demonstrated that RWDISQPY could bind with the active sites S1 and S2 of ACE via short hydrogen bonds. Moreover, RWDISQPY showed acceptable endothelin-1 suppressing capacity (26.21% at 1.5 mg/mL). These results indicate that S. maclurei could be developed into functional foods such as antihypertensive products.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012671

RESUMO

A digital closed-loop system design of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) disk resonator gyroscope (DRG) is proposed in this paper. Vibration models with non-ideal factors are provided based on the structure characteristics and operation mode of the sensing element. The DRG operates in force balance mode with four control loops. A closed self-excited loop realizes stable vibration amplitude on the basis of peak detection technology and phase control loop. Force-to-rebalance technology is employed for the closed sense loop. A high-frequency carrier loaded on an anchor weakens the effect of parasitic capacitances coupling. The signal detected by the charge amplifier is demodulated and converted into a digital output for subsequent processing. Considering compatibility with digital circuits and output precision demands, a low passband sigma-delta (ΣΔ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is implemented with a 111.8dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analog front-end and digital closed self-excited loop is manufactured with a standard 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The experimental results show a bias instability of 2.1 °/h and a nonlinearity of 0.035% over the ± 400° full-scale range.

8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 232: 118163, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106032

RESUMO

Pb2+ and Cd2+ are the most ubiquitous heavy metal ion pollutants, and they have aroused much attention due to their irreversible and significant damage to human organ. In this work, a new fluorescein-based "OR-AND" logic gate colorimetric probe 3',6'-bis((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)-2-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)ethylidene)aminspiro[isoindoline-1,9'-xanthen]-3-one (FP) was designed and synthesized via attaching 2-(2-((2-hydroxyphenyl)imino)ethylidene)amino and tert-butyldiphenylsilyl to fluorescein as the specific identification groups. This sensor can rapidly and sensitively discriminate Pb2+ and Cd2+ by utilizing F- as an auxiliary reagent. When Pb2+ or Cd2+ was added into the FP solution, the absorption band at 533 nm increased and the peak at 374 nm decreased, the color changed from colorless to pale-purple, resulting in a ratiometric spectral change. However, adding fluoride ion to the FP solution containing Pb2+ or Cd2+ resulted in a distinct phenomenon in which the pale purple color fades out to colorless for a Pb2+-containing solution and deepen to dark purple for a Cd2+-containing solution, which is attributable to the different coordination mechanisms. In aqueous solution, the detection limits of FP can reach 0.42 µM for Pb2+ and 0.53 µM for Cd2+. The probe exhibited rapid responses for these analytes. Moreover, FP was successfully used to rapidly detect trace amounts of hazardous Pb2+ and Cd2+ in tap water with good relative recovery and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 1.8% for Pb2+ and 0.3% for Cd2+, providing a novel approach for detecting Pb2+ and Cd2+ in practical application.

9.
Platelets ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959025

RESUMO

Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been proposed as an autologous membrane with the advantages of host accumulation of platelets and leukocytes with entrapment of growth factors. However, limitations include its faster resorption properties (~2 weeks). Interestingly, recent studies have demonstrated that by heating a liquid platelet-poor plasma (PPP) layer, the resorption properties of heated albumin (albumin gel) can be extended from 2 weeks to greater than 4 months (e-PRF). The aim of the present study was to characterize the biological properties of this novel regenerative modality. Whole blood collected from peripheral blood in 9-mL plastic tubes was centrifuged at 700 g for 8 minutes. Thereafter, the platelet-poor plasma layer was heated at 75°C for 10 minutes to create denatured albumin (albumin gel). The remaining cells and growth factor found within the buffy coat layer (liquid PRF) were thereafter mixed back together with the cooled albumin gel to form Alb-PRF. Histological analysis, including the distribution of cells within Alb-PRF, was then performed. Seven different growth factor release kinetics from Alb-PRF were characterized up to 10 days, including PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, TGF-ß1, VEGF, IGF and EGF. Thereafter, gingival fibroblast cell responses to Alb-PRF were investigated by means of a live/dead assay at 24 hours; migration assay at 24 hours; proliferation assay at 1, 3 and 5 days; real-time PCR for the expression of TGF-ß and collagen 1a2 at 3 and 7 days; and collagen 1 immunostaining at 14 days. It was first observed histologically that viable cells were evenly distributed throughout the Alb-PRF formulation. Growth factor release demonstrated a slow and gradual release, particularly for TGF-ß1 and PDGF-AA/AB, during the entire 10-day period. Alb-PRF also exhibited statistically significantly higher cell biocompatibility at 24 hours and statistically significantly induced greater fibroblast proliferation at 5 days when compared to those of control TCP. Alb-PRF further induced statistically significantly greater mRNA levels of TGF-ß at 3 and 7 days, as well as collagen 1 at 7 days. The present results indicate that Alb-PRF possesses regenerative properties induced by the slow and gradual release of growth factors found in liquid PRF via albumin gel degradation. Future studies are thus warranted to fully characterize the degradation properties of Alb-PRF in vivo and explore future clinical applications in various fields of medicine.

10.
Ultrason Imaging ; 42(2): 57-73, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994455

RESUMO

Complete and accurate separation of harmonic components from the ultrasonic radio frequency (RF) echo signals is essential to improve the quality of harmonic imaging. There are limitations in the existing two commonly used separation methods, that is, the subjectivity for the high-pass filtering (S_HPF) method and motion artifacts for the pulse inversion (S_PI) method. A novel separation method called S_CEEMDAN, based on the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) algorithm, is proposed to adaptively separate the second harmonic components for ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging. First, the ensemble size of the CEEMDAN algorithm is calculated adaptively according to the standard deviation of the added white noise. A set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) is then obtained by the CEEMDAN algorithm from the ultrasonic RF echo signals. According to the IMF spectra, the IMFs that contain both fundamental and harmonic components are further decomposed. The separation process is performed until all the obtained IMFs have been divided into either fundamental or harmonic categories. Finally, the fundamental and harmonic RF echo signals are obtained from the accumulations of signals from these two categories, respectively. In simulation experiments based on CREANUIS, the S_CEEMDAN-based results are similar to the S_HPF-based results, but better than the S_PI-based results. For the dynamic carotid artery measurements, the contrasts, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), and tissue-to-clutter ratios (TCRs) of the harmonic images based on the S_CEEMDAN are averagely increased by 31.43% and 50.82%, 18.96% and 10.83%, as well as 34.23% and 44.18%, respectively, compared with those based on the S_HPF and S_PI methods. In conclusion, the S_CEEMDAN method provides improved harmonic images owing to its good adaptivity and lower motion artifacts, and is thus a potential alternative to the current methods for ultrasonic harmonic imaging.

11.
Exp Cell Res ; 389(2): 111821, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923425

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged as a novel type of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) of interest in gene regulation, especially for its vital function underlying many diseases. Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrythmia. However, the expression spectrum and function of circRNAs in atrial appendage of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has seldomly been investigated. Human atrial appendage tissues were acquired during cardiac surgery, which were divided into the AF group and the Sinus rhythm (SR) group. The expression characterization of circRNAs of two groups was revealed by high-throughput sequencing. The dysregulated circRNAs were identified and analyzed by bioinformatics methods, and further validated by realtime PCR. A total 18109 circRNAs in human atrial appendage tissues were targeted. Among them, 147 differentially expressed circRNAs (102 up-regulated and 45 down-regulated) were found between AF group and SR group. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that many mRNAs transcribed from the host genes of altered circRNAs were implicated in regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, as well as nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism pathways. Analysis of the association between differently expressed circRNA and miRNA were explored, which revealed an ample interaction. Our study firstly revealed the expression spectrum of circRNAs in both left and right atrial appendage of patients with or without AF. Differentially expressed circRNAs in the atrial appendage were also identified, analyzed and validated. The results of this study may provide novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for AF.

12.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 184: 105281, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The resolvable scatterer spacing related to biological tissue microstructures is a quantitative signature used for the disease diagnosis and tissue classification. In the present study, a method by locating optimally matched Gabor atoms (LOMGA) from ultrasound RF echo signals is proposed to improve the inter-scatterer spacing (ISS) estimation. METHOD: A series of Gabor atoms are obtained from the signals with a matching pursuit algorithm. Then, the optimum atoms highly correlated with the coherent components are automatically selected according to the second-order difference of the reconstructed signal-to-residue ratio. The distances between the locations of adjacent atoms are applied to estimate the ISSs. In the simulation experiments, four regular degrees of the scatterer distributions are modeled with the Gamma distribution. One hundred sets of ultrasound RF echo signals are simulated based on the regular and diffuse scatterer distributions, and then combined to generate signals with preset coherent-to-diffuse ratios (CDRs). The accuracy performance of the LOMGA method is compared with that based on wavelet transform (WT) algorithm. In the microwave ablation experiments, the ultrasound RF echo signals of the region of interest (ROI) are collected from the normal and coagulated porcine liver tissues. The means and standard deviations of the LOMGA-based ISSs are compared with the WT-based results. RESULTS: The results based on simulated signals with CDRs from 10 dB to -10 dB demonstrate that the proposed method improves the estimation accuracies of the mean ISSs by 5.10%, 9.00%, 19.80%, and 23.82%, and reduces the mean standard deviations by 27.20%, 22.50%, 11.50%, and 4.49% more than the WT method for the four regularities, respectively. The performance of the LOMGA method is also verified with the ultrasound RF echo signals from ex vivo porcine liver tissues in microwave ablation experiments. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the LOMGA method can provide more accurate and stable ISS estimation, which improves the performance of the tissue characterization with ISS-based quantitative ultrasound.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953978

RESUMO

A strategically novel synthetic method for the fluoroarylation of allenic ester was developed that enables the expedient construction of a host of ß-fluoroalkyl-containing cinnamate derivatives. The reaction proceeds through visible-light-promoted gold redox catalysis, occurs smoothly under very mild reaction conditions, accommodates a large variety of functional groups, and more importantly allows the incorporation of fluorine and aryl groups with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The concomitant activation mode for both the allene motif and the hydrogen fluoride is key for the success of the reaction.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(13): 5218-5225, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944512

RESUMO

Constructing heterojunctions between two semiconductors with matched band structure is an effective strategy to acquire high-efficiency photocatalysts. The S-scheme heterojunction system has shown great potential in facilitating separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers, as well as acquiring strong photoredox ability. Herein, a 0D/2D S-Scheme heterojunction material involving CeO2 quantum dots and polymeric carbon nitride (CeO2 /PCN) is designed and constructed by in situ wet chemistry with subsequent heat treatment. This S-scheme heterojunction material shows high-efficiency photocatalytic sterilization rate (88.1 %) towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) under visible-light irradiation (λ≥420 nm), which is 2.7 and 8.2 times that of pure CeO2 (32.2 %) and PCN (10.7 %), respectively. Strong evidence of S-scheme charge transfer path is verified by theoretical calculations, in situ irradiated X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance.

16.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(2): 140-147, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638715

RESUMO

For an object with large vertical size that exceeds the certain depth of a stereo light microscope (SLM), its image will be blurred. To obtain clear images, we proposed an image fusion method based on the convolutional neural network (CNN) for the microscopic image sequence. The CNN was designed to discriminate clear and blurred pixels in the source images according to the neighborhood information. To train the CNN, a training set that contained correctly labeled clear and blurred images was created from an open-access database. The image sequence to be fused was aligned at first. The trained CNN was then used to measure the activity level of each pixel in the aligned source images. The fused image was obtained by taking the pixels with the highest activity levels in the source image sequence. The performance was evaluated using five microscopic image sequences. Compared with other two fusion methods, the proposed method obtained better performance in terms of both visual quality and objective assessment. It is suitable for fusion of the SLM image sequence.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 430-436, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675033

RESUMO

Hydrogen energy is a high-efficiency and clean energy, but the problem of storage still prevents its extensive use. Large-surface-area, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have an advantage in hydrogen storage applications. Monolayer MoS2 is a typical 2D material that has been widely studied recently. And the 1T' phase of MoS2 is a focus especially for studies concerning hydrogen. Here, first-principles calculations are carried out to investigate the adsorption behaviors of hydrogen molecules on 1T' MoS2. Comparing with other MoS2-based materials, such as doped or decorated 2H-MoS2, 1T' MoS2 has even better performance in hydrogen adsorption, and its preparation is easier. In multiple hydrogen molecule adsorption, the material shows good stability and appropriate adsorption energy while adsorbing hydrogen molecules. With the researches in this paper, the connection between the adsorption energy and hydrogen mass fraction was set up. This can provide a reference for further studies on hydrogen storage applications.

18.
Acta Biomater ; 102: 416-426, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760223

RESUMO

Controlling of pro-inflammation induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory response induced by M2 macrophages is important for osteogenesis in the process of bone tissue repair. Thus, we fabricated biomimetic anti-inflammatory nano-capsule (BANC) that can block cytokines and promote M2 macrophage polarization, presenting a positive role for bone tissue repair. The BANC is a biomimic nanosystem, coated with lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophage cell membranes with cytokine receptors enveloping gold nanocage (AuNC) as "cytokine blocker", and loaded with resolvin D1 inside into AuNC as "M2 polarization inducer" whose controlled-release could be triggered under near-infrared laser irradiation in sequence, and these chronological events were consistent with the healing process of bone tissue repair. Moreover, in vivo application of femoral bone defects revealed that the BANC composite boron-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds improved the final effects of bone tissue repair through preventing inflammatory response, promoting M2 polarization in sequence in accord with the in vitro investigation. Hence, cytokine neutralization and M2 macrophage polarization enables the BANC to enhance the bone tissue repair as a biomimetic anti-inflammation effector. Therefore, this study provides potential therapeutic strategies for trauma-mediated or inflammation-related bone defects based on a biomimetic nanomaterial with weakened pro-inflammatory and enhanced anti-inflammatory effects. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Cell membrane-mimic nanomaterials have been popular for blocking natural cell responses for some infection diseases, yet their role in biological process of bone repair is unknown. Here, we fabricated Biomimetic Anti-inflammatory Nano-Capsule (BANC), coated with cell membrane with cytokines receptors on the surface which could neutralize the pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor to block activated pro-inflammation, loaded with Resolvin D1 inside which could be controllably released by NIR irradiation to promote M2 macrophage polarization for the following bone formation during the process of bone repair. Administration of BANC as cytokines blocker and M2 polarization inducer to enhance the bone regeneration, thus presenting a promising potential for the treatment of bone repair and regeneration.

19.
Xenobiotica ; 50(4): 389-400, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298070

RESUMO

1. Donepezil (DPZ) is an acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitor used in the mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. Among its major metabolites, 6-O-desmethyl DPZ (6-DDPZ), 5-O-desmethyl DPZ (5-DDPZ) and DPZ N-oxide, the anti-AchE activities of 5-DDPZ and DPZ N-oxide have never been clearly identified before. Besides, there is no report on simultaneous determination of DPZ and its three metabolites in the brain, thus their uptake in hippocampus and cortex are unknown. Therefore, the current studies are proposed aiming to: (1) investigate the anti-AchE activities and brain uptake of DPZ and its three metabolites and (2) compare their pharmacokinetics and brain uptake between normal and scopolamine-induced rats.2. DPZ and its three metabolites demonstrated anti-AchE activities with the IC50 in the order of DPZ (7.20 × 10-2 µM), 6-DDPZ (1.14 × 10-1 µM), 5-DDPZ (4.03 × 10-1 µM) and DPZ N-oxide (1.61 µM). They were also evenly distributed in the brain and retained much longer in the brain than that in plasma in normal rats.3. Compared to normal rats, Cmax, AUC0→24h and AUC0→∞ of DPZ were reduced by 52.0%, 31.2% and 30.1%, respectively; Tmax of DPZ and its three metabolites were prolonged and their brain uptake were decreased in scopolamine-induced rats, suggesting the potential reduced absorption of DPZ.

20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(3): 1171-1182, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has gained tremendous momentum in recent years as a natural autologous growth factor derived from blood capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. Owing to its widespread use, many companies have commercialized various centrifugation devices with various proposed protocols. The aim of the present study was to compare 3 different commercially available centrifuges at both high and low g-force protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PRF was produced on three commercially available centrifuges including the IntraSpin Device (IntraLock), the Duo Quattro (Process for PRF), and Salvin (Salvin Dental). Two separate protocols were tested on each machine including the original leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) protocol (~ 700 RCF max (~ 400 RCF clot) for 12 min) as well as the advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF+) protocol (~ 200 g RCF max (~ 130 g RCF clot) for 8 min). Each of the tested groups was compared for cell numbers, growth factor release, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological differences, and clot size (both weight and length/width). RESULTS: The present study found that PRF clots produced utilizing the low-speed centrifugation speeds (~ 200 g for 8 min) produce clots that (1) contained a higher concentration of evenly distributed platelets, (2) secreted higher concentrations of growth factors over a 10 day period, and (3) were smaller in size. This was irrespective of the centrifugation device utilized and consistently observed on all 3 devices. The greatest impact was found between the protocols utilized (up to a 200%). Interestingly, it was further revealed that the centrifugation tubes used had a much greater impact on the final size outcome of PRF clots when compared to centrifugation devices. It was found that, in general, the Process for PRF tubes produced significantly greater-sized clots when compared to other commercially available tubes. The Salvin Dental tubes also produced significantly greater PRF clots when compared to the IntraLock tubes on each of the tested centrifugation devices. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the reproducibility of a scientific concept (reduction in RCF produces PRF clots with more evenly distributed cells and growth factors) utilizing different devices. Furthermore, (and until now overlooked), it was revealed for the first time that the centrifugation tubes are central to the quality production of PRF. Future research investigating tube characteristics thus becomes critically important for the future optimization of PRF. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study to reveal the marked impact of centrifugation tubes on the final production of PRF. Future study thus becomes markedly important to further optimize the quality of PRF-based matrices. It was further found that little variability existed between the centrifugation devices if optimized centrifugation protocols (lower centrifugation speeds) were utilized.

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