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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tannase is an enzyme produced by microbial fermentation that is widely used in the food industry; however, the molecular mechanism of tannase production by Aspergillus has not yet been studied. This study was conducted to reveal the differences in Aspergillus carbonarius tannase enzymatic characterization, secondary structures, and molecular mechanisms after treatment of the strain with atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP). RESULTS: The results showed that the specific activity of tannase was improved by ARTP treatment, and it showed higher thermostability and tolerance to metal ions and additives. The enzymatic characterization and molecular docking results indicated that tannase had a higher affinity and catalytic rate with tannic acid as a substrate after ARTP treatment. In addition, the docking results indicated that Aspergillus tannases may catalyze tannic acid by forming two hydrogen-bonding networks with neighboring residues. RNA-seq analysis indicated that changes in steroid biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways might be crucial reasons for the high production of tannase. CONCLUSION: ARTP enhanced the yield and properties of A. carbonarius tannase by changing the enzyme structure and cell metabolism. This study provides a theoretical basis for elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying high-production of Aspergillus tannases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114639, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530093

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Luohanguo (LHG) extract major contenting mogrosides, as a nonnutritive sweetener, has been reported to exert a hypoglycemic effect on diabetic patients and animals. As the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs were changed with diabetes, it may lead to the different pharmacological of mogrosides between diabetic and normal subjects. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterise the pharmacokinetic profiles of mogrosides in T2DM rats. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: High-fat diet and streptozocin induced type 2 diabetic mellitus rats were used to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of mogroside V and mogrosides IIIA1, IIA1, and IA1 after T2DM rats orally administrated with mogroside V and 1-3 glucose residues' mogrosides, respectively. The validated convenient UPLC-QTOF/MS and UPLC-MS/MS methods were established to use in the pharmacokinetic studies of mogrosides in normal and T2DM rats. Additionally, the expression of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was also detected by immunohistochemical analysis, which assessed the function of passive intestinal permeability in T2DM rats. RESULTS: The results showed that for rats treated with mogroside V, its metabolite mogroside IIIA1 has a significant increase (p < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, 163.80 ± 25.56 ng/mL) and area under the plasma concentration (AUC0-t, 2327.44 ± 474.63 h·ng/mL) in T2DM rats compared with in normal rats. The mean residence time (MRT0-t, 12.04 ± 0.97 h) of mogroside V showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in T2DM rats. However, the mogrosides IIIA1, IIA1and IA1 showed no statistical differences in the normal and T2DM rats after administered with 1-3 glucose residues' mogrosides. Furthermore, the expression level of ZO-1 in the duodenum and colon of T2DM rats were downregulated. CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetic profiles of mogroside V and its metabolite mogroside IIIA1 in T2DM rats and normal rats showed some difference, it might be affected by the metabolic changes in the pathological state of T2DM.

3.
Bioresour Technol ; 342: 125940, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852435

RESUMO

Water is crucial for biofuel production. It is important to study the influence of biofuel technology on water resource for the development of biofuel. Life cycle water footprint for the syngas production via chemical looping gasification of corn straw and wheat straw is developed in this paper. The results show that the total water consumption of syngas production via corn straw and wheat straw chemical looping gasification are 1139.84 and 2170.41 L H2O/m3 syngas, respectively. The total water consumption of the aforementioned approaches is both dominated by crop growth stage. Additionally, different allocation methods have significant impact on the total water consumption. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that water consumption of crop yield and crop growth can have an almost same but opposite impact on water consumption efficiency. Based on the results, guidance can be provided for crop straw to syngas via chemical looping gasification to lower water use.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796441

RESUMO

The superior photocatalytic activity of semiconductor-based photocatalytic materials has attracted great attention. In this work, a series of novel Ag3PO4/g-C3N4-x (APO/CNx) composites with the Z-scheme structure were fabricated through a facile precipitation method. B naphthol, a typical phenolic compound, was selected to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of all as-prepared photocatalysts. The obtained APO/CNx composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of B naphthol under visible-light irradiation. Experimental results showed that the degradation rate toward B naphthol could reach to 90.5% for 180 min, which was almost 3.66 times higher than pure g-C3N4, indicating that the presence of nitrogen vacancies and Z-scheme structure could efficiently improve the photocatalytic performance of pure g-C3N4. Furthermore, the results of trapping experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy manifest that •O2- and •OH radicals were the predominant active substances for B naphthol degradation, and the possible mechanism of improved photocatalytic performance was elucidated. This work will provide an innovative perspective for constructing Z-scheme photocatalysts for the application of photocatalytic in the field of wastewater treatment.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127597, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782200

RESUMO

Global spread of ampicillin (AMP) in the aquatic environment have attracted much attention recently. Marine anammox bacteria (MAB) have potentials in saline wastewater treatment due to their good salt tolerance. However, to date, the effect resulting from AMP on MAB is still unknown. Herein, the effect of AMP on MAB, involving microbial community evolution and genetic response, was investigated for the first time. A lab-scale reactor inoculated by MAB sludge was operated under saline condition (35 g/L) and AMP stress of different gradients. Within 200 cycles, nitrogen removal performance was monitored and sludge samples were withdrawn for high-throughput sequencing analyses and qPCR. The results confirmed that the nitrogen removal capacity of MAB declined with increasing AMP dosage, and almost collapsed at 300 mg/L AMP. The total nitrogen removal rate and specific anammox activity finally dropped to 0.17 kg N m-3 d-1 and 101.86 mg N g-1VSS d-1, respectively. Pseudoalteromonas (38.13%) dominated the reactor on Cycle 190, which formed a new symbiosis with MAB. And the emergence of oleophilic bacteria such as Colwellia (2.53%) was also observed. Moreover, antibiotic resistance genes were detected with increased abundance and diversity, indicating the AMP dosing significantly promoted microbial community evolution and genetic response.

6.
Gland Surg ; 10(9): 2766-2779, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733726

RESUMO

Background: The cumulative risk of distant recurrence of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer in the past 20 years has ranged from 22% to 52% after 5 years of endo-therapy. The TNM stage, histological grade, and age are important clinical factors related to recurrence, however the exact mechanism of tamoxifen resistance is still unclear. Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 10 pairs of patients who had relapsed and non-relapsed after tamoxifen treatment based on matching their clinicopathological factors. After analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, 10 hub genes were identified using Cytoscape software. Next, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) database were used to verify the expression and overall survival (OS) of the 10 hub genes respectively, and GSE96058 and Kaplan-Meier Plotter website were used to further verify the OS of C3, CX3CL1, CXCL2, and SAA1. Finally, Immune Cell Abundance Identifier (ImmuCellAI) and the TIMER database were used to estimate immune cell infiltration and the expression of prognostic genes. Results: The DEGs were mainly enriched in the inflammatory response and cytokine-receptor interaction. The expression and the survival analysis identified CX3CL1, CXCL2, and SAA1 as prognostic factors, whose overexpression in HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) negative breast cancer possibly predicted a longer disease-free survival. The expression levels of these 3 genes are positively correlated with immune cell infiltration. Their high expression levels may predict longer disease-free survival in breast cancer after tamoxifen treatment and may be biomarkers for tamoxifen-resistant therapy. Conclusions: In conclusion, the high expression of CX3CL1, CXCL2, and SAA1 may predict longer disease-free survival in breast cancer after tamoxifen treatment and may be a biomarker for tamoxifen therapy.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695986

RESUMO

Automatic defect detection of tire has become an essential issue in the tire industry. However, it is challenging to inspect the inner structure of tire by surface detection. Therefore, an X-ray image sensor is used for tire defect inspection. At present, detection of defective tires is inefficient because tire factories commonly conduct detection by manually checking X-ray images. With the development of deep learning, supervised learning has been introduced to replace human resources. However, in actual industrial scenes, defective samples are rare in comparison to defect-free samples. The quantity of defective samples is insufficient for supervised models to extract features and identify nonconforming products from qualified ones. To address these problems, we propose an unsupervised approach, using no labeled defect samples for training. Moreover, we introduce an augmented reconstruction method and a self-supervised training strategy. The approach is based on the idea of reconstruction. In the training phase, only defect-free samples are used for training the model and updating memory items in the memory module, so the reproduced images in the test phase are bound to resemble defect-free images. The reconstruction residual is utilized to detect defects. The introduction of self-supervised training strategy further strengthens the reconstruction residual to improve detection performance. The proposed method is experimentally proved to be effective. The Area Under Curve (AUC) on a tire X-ray dataset reaches 0.873, so the proposed method is promising for application.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado , Humanos , Radiografia , Raios X
8.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 240, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better protection can be provided during neurosurgery due to the establishment of somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) and motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring technologies. However, some studies have showed that inhaled halogenated anesthetics have a significant impact on neurophysiological monitoring. METHODS: A total of 40 consecutive patients undergoing neurosurgery were randomly assigned to two groups receiving inhaled anesthetics, either desflurane or sevoflurane. Multiples levels (concentrations of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9) of anesthetics were administered at minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), and then the latencies and amplitudes of SEPs and MEPs were recorded. RESULTS: SEP and MEP signals were well preserved in patients who underwent neurosurgery under general anesthesia supplemented with desflurane or sevoflurane at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 MAC. In each desflurane or sevoflurane group, the amplitudes of SEPs and MEPs decreased and the latencies of SEPs were prolonged significantly as the MAC increased (P < 0.05). The SEP latencies of both the upper and lower limbs in the desflurane group were significantly longer, and the SEP amplitudes were significantly lower than those in the sevoflurane group (P < 0.05). The MEP amplitudes in the desflurane group were significantly lower than those in the sevoflurane group (P < 0.05), only the amplitudes of the upper limbs at 0.3 MAC did not vary significantly. CONCLUSIONS: SEPs and MEPs were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both desflurane and sevoflurane. At the same MAC concentration, desflurane appeared to have a stronger inhibitory effect than sevoflurane. All patients studied had normal neurological examination findings, hence, these results may not be applicable to patients with preexisting deficits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( www.chictr.org.cn ), Clinical Trials identifier ChiCTR2100045504 (18/04/2021).

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 727939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658962

RESUMO

Background: There are few studies on the epidemiology of depression, insomnia, and their association with quality of life (QOL) in older adults living in rural China. This study examined the prevalence of depressive and insomnia symptoms, and their association with QOL in community-dwelling older adults in a rural area in Anhui province, China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the rural areas of four cities (Hefei, Huaibei, Anqing, and Xuancheng) in Anhui province between July and October, 2019 using random sampling method. All community-dwelling residents from the selected villages who met the study entry criteria were invited to participate in this study. Depressive and insomnia symptoms and QOL were assessed with the Chinese version of self-reported Center for Epidemiological Survey Depression Scale (CES-D), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the 26-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Results: A total of 871 older adults were included. The prevalence of overall depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms were 34.0% [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 30.8-37.1%], 45.7% (95% CI: 42.4-49.0%) and 20.3% (95% CI: 17.6-23.0%), respectively. Older adults with depressive symptoms, insomnia symptoms, and comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms had lower scores in QOL compared to those without. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with living with families [Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.31-2.54] and negatively associated with current drinking (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.33-0.72). Insomnia symptoms were negatively associated with fair and good financial status (fair: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.38-0.75; good: OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.14-0.64) and current drinking (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.93), and positively associated with more frequent major medical conditions (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.16-1.51). Comorbid depressive and insomnia symptoms were positively associated with living with families (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.36-3.00), and negatively associated with fair and good financial status (fair: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.89; good: OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.95) and current drinking (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35-0.92). Conclusion: Depressive and insomnia symptoms were common in older adults living in rural areas in China. Considering the negative health outcomes caused by depressive and insomnia symptoms, regular screening and effective treatments should be developed for this population.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 710498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566714

RESUMO

Objectives: Leptin is a crucial regulator of energy balance and is associated with obesity. In recent years, it has also been recognized as involved in the psychopathological mechanism. Our study aimed to elucidate the relationships between serum leptin levels, body mass index (BMI), and psychopathology symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A cross-sectional assessment of 324 inpatients with schizophrenia was conducted. Schizophrenia symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Serum leptin levels were assessed by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Significant differences in sex, BMI, and negative symptom subscale (PANSS-N) scores were found between the groups with high and low leptin levels in the study. Leptin levels were positively correlated with BMI (B = 2.322, t = 9.557, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with PANSS-N scores (B = -0.303, t = -2.784, P = 0.006). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the increase in leptin levels is responsible for antipsychotic-induced weight gain and improved psychopathological symptoms.

11.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567730

RESUMO

The charge stability of electret materials can directly affect the performance of electret-based devices such as electrostatic energy harvesters. In this paper, a spray-coating method is developed to deposit an electret layer with enhanced charge stability. The long-term stability of a spray-coated electret is investigated for 500 days and shows more stable performance than a spin-coated layer. A second-order linear model that includes both the surface charge and space charge is proposed to analyze the charge decay process of electrets in harsh environments at a high temperature (120 °C) and high humidity (99% RH); this model provides better accuracy than the traditional deep-trap model. To further verify the stability of the spray-coated electret, an electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated with MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) technology. The electret material can work as both the bonding interface and electret layer during fabrication. A maximum output power of 11.72 µW is harvested from a vibrating source at an acceleration of 28.5 m/s2. When the energy harvester with the spray-coated electret is exposed to a harsh environment (100 °C and 98% RH), an adequate amount of power can still be harvested even after 34 h and 48 h, respectively.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118120, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520951

RESUMO

Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) microplastics (MPs), as carriers, can bind with pesticides, which propose harmful impacts to aqueous ecosystems. Meanwhile, carbofuran and carbendazim (CBD), two widely used carbamate pesticides, are toxic to humans because of the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. The interaction between two MPs and two pesticides could start in farmland and be maintained during transportation to the ocean. Herein, the adsorption behavior and mechanism of carbofuran and carbendazim (CBD) by PE and PP MPs were investigated via characterization and density functional theory (DFT) simulation. The adsorption kinetic and thermodynamic data were best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and the Freundlich models. The adsorption behaviors of individual carbofuran/CBD on both MPs were very similar. The CBD adsorption rate and capacity of PE and PP MPs were higher than those of carbofuran. This phenomenon explained the lower negative effects of DOM (oxalic acid, glycine (Gly)) on CBD adsorption relative to those of carbofuran. The presence of oxalic acid and Gly decreased the PE adsorption by 20.40-48.02% and the PP adsorption by 19.27-42.11%, respectively. It indicated the significance of DOM in carbofuran cycling. The adsorption capacities were negatively correlated with MPs size, indicating the importance of specific surficial area. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy before and after adsorption suggested that the adsorption process did not produce any new covalent bond. Instead, intermolecular van der Waals forces were one of the primary adsorption mechanisms of carbofuran and CBD by MPs, as evidenced by DFT calculations. Based on the zeta potential, the electrostatic interaction explained the higher adsorption CBD by MPs than carbofuran.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acetilcolinesterase , Adsorção , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Ecossistema , Humanos , Microplásticos , Tamanho da Partícula , Plásticos , Polietileno , Polipropilenos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126262, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492997

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and tetracycline (TC) cause serious environmental risks. Nanomaterials have been extensively applied for environmental remediation. The size and content of nanoparticles directly affect the removal of contaminants. However, size regulation and quantitative determination of nanoparticles cannot be easily realized. In this study, hydrogels with different polymerization degrees were prepared by adjusting the contents of acrylamide (AM) and sodium lignosulfonate polymeric monomers. Ferrous sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles of different sizes were synthesized in situ within the hydrogels. The nanoparticle size decreased from 600 to 200 nm with increasing hydrogel polymerization degree, and an incomplete crystalline state was observed at the highest polymerization degree. By combining energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) images with the maximum between-class variance (Otsu) method, the content of nanoparticles was calculated to be 7.81%, 15.05%, 22.62%, 27.10%, 21.97%, and 23.95%. The distribution state of FeS compounds was also obtained. A low polymerization degree resulted in high FeS dispersal, and a high polymerization degree affected the uniformity distribution based on irregular ion diffusion. The obtained nanocomposites with different polymerization degrees were applied to the removal of Cd and TC in water. The removal capacity for both contaminants revealed a trend of initially increasing and then decreasing. The initial increase was related to the increasing content and decreasing size of the FeS nanoparticles, while the following decrease was due to the decreasing content and incomplete crystallization of the FeS nanoparticles. Overall, changing the proportion of polymeric monomers is an effective way to regulate particle size, and the Otsu method combined with EDS mapping images is a feasible method for calculating the content of nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Nanopartículas , Compostos Ferrosos , Hidrogéis , Lignina , Tetraciclina
14.
Brain Res Bull ; 177: 31-38, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The kinase MST4 limits inflammatory responses through direct phosphorylation of the adaptor TRAF6. TRAF6 interacts with NLRP3 to promote the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, the role of MST4 in neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and how it interacts with NLRP3 inflammasome remain unclear. METHODS: Mice were administered MST4 AAV four weeks before collagenase-induced ICH. ICH mice received either hesperadin (MST4 selective inhibitor), or MCC950 (NLRP3 inflammasome selective inhibitor). Neurological deficits and brain water content were assessed. Western blot and immunofluorescence were performed to evaluate the proteins content and localization in MST4/NLRP3 signaling pathway. RESULTS: The expression of endogenous MST4 and NLRP3 was increased after ICH compared to sham group. MST4 and NLRP3 were respectively colocalized in microglia. Upregulation of MST4 gene inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, the release of IL-1ß and TNF-α, and significantly improved brain edema and neurological deficits. Hesperadin pretreatment inhibited the expression of MST4 and increased the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated proteins, which aggravated neurological deficits and cerebral edema. MCC950 markedly alleviated neurological deficits and brain edema but had no effect on the expression of MST4 protein. CONCLUSIONS: MST4 alleviates inflammatory progression and brain injury in ICH mice possibly by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19018, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561467

RESUMO

According to the statistics of 160 typical fire and explosion accidents in oil storage areas at home and abroad nearly 50 years, 122 of them occurred the secondary accidents in the emergency responses. Based on 122 accident cases, 21 causal factors leading to secondary accidents are summarized. In order to quantify the influencing degree of these causal factors on the accident consequences, a multiple linear regression model was established between them. In the modeling process, these factors are decomposed into the criterion layer, variable layer, and bottom layer. The improved analytic hierarchy process (IAHP) was used to establish the relationship between the bottom factors and variable factors, and the regression analysis method was used to establish the relational model between variable layer and criterion layer. For 122 cases of the secondary accidents, this study took the year as a statistical dimension, and obtained 40 groups of sample data. The first 34 groups of sample data were used to build the causal factors model, and the last 6 groups of sample data were tested the generalization ability of the model by using the established regression model combined with grey prediction model. The results show that the prediction ability of the established model was better than that of the grey prediction model alone. Moreover, the relative contribution and change trend of the causal factors were evaluated using the mutation progression method, and corresponding preventive countermeasures were proposed. It was found that human professional skills, knowledge and literacy, environmental issues, and firefighting facilities are the main influencing factors that lead to the secondary accidents. These three kinds of factors show a gradual improvement trend, and the existing prevention measures should be maintained and further improved. The problem of inherent objects or equipment factors has not been effectively improved and has a worsening trend, which is the focus of prevention in the future, and the prevention and control efforts need to be moderately increased. The research results have important guiding significance for understanding the quantitative influences of causal factors on the accident consequences, improving emergency response capabilities, reducing accident losses, and avoiding secondary accidents.

16.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102528, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396603

RESUMO

Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are used for cancer and infectious diseases, albeit with limited efficacy. Modulating the formation of DC-T-cell synapses may greatly increase their efficacy. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on DCs and DC-T-cell synapse formation are evaluated. In particular, size-dependent interactions are observed between GO nanosheets and DCs. GOs with diameters of >1 µm (L-GOs) demonstrate strong adherence to the DC surface, inducing cytoskeletal reorganization via the RhoA-ROCK-MLC pathway, while relatively small GOs (≈500 nm) are predominantly internalized by DCs. Furthermore, L-GO treatment enhances DC-T-cell synapse formation via cytoskeleton-dependent membrane positioning of integrin ICAM-1. L-GO acts as a "nanozipper," facilitating the aggregation of DC-T-cell clusters to produce a stable microenvironment for T cell activation. Importantly, L-GO-adjuvanted DCs promote robust cytotoxic T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike 1, leading to >99.7% viral RNA clearance in mice infected with a clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strain. These findings highlight the potential value of nanomaterials as DC vaccine adjuvants for modulating DC-T-cell synapse formation and provide a basis for the development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Grafite/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Grafite/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanoestruturas/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 62: 102742, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the patterns and correlates of antipsychotic prescriptions among recently discharged inpatients with schizophrenia in China. METHODS: The study included discharged patients from 41 tertiary psychiatric hospitals in 29 provinces between March 19-30, 2019. A total of 1032 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrieved from medical records upon discharge. RESULTS: Patients received a total of 13 unique antipsychotic medications, which included 9 s-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and 4 first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). The utilization rates of SGAs and FGAs were 98.8 % and 6.1 % respectively. The three most commonly antipsychotic medications were risperidone (35.1 %), olanzapine (31.3 %), and clozapine (24.6 %). The mean chlorpromazine equivalent dose was 452.12 ± 230.74 mg/day. The utilization rate of mood stabilizers was 18.9 %, 8.8 % for antidepressants, 20.3 % for sleep improvers, and 9.9 % for anticholinergics. More than two fifths patients (43.1 %) received two or more antipsychotic medications. Predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy included younger age, residing in Central or West China, a longer duration of illness, a history of prior hospitalizations, and having agitated behavior during the hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy in China is common on inpatients settings. The proportion of antipsychotic polypharmacy in China is higher than in many other countries, despite limited data to support the efficacy of many combinations. Clozapine remains one of most commonly prescribed antipsychotics in China, either as a monotherapy or combination therapy.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , China , Clozapina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Olanzapina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148979, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274671

RESUMO

The shift of microbial community and signaling molecules release were studied to explore the potential mechanism of anammox consortium under salt stress. Due to increased salinity, the abundance of "Candidatus Brocadia" decreased from 29.5% to 1.9%. "Candidatus Brocadia" was reduced by the salinity shock. Besides, "Candidatus Scalindua", marine anammox bacteria, was detected at 18 g L-1 NaCl and dominated the reactor. Principle coordinates analysis further proved that salinity was the driving force on the distribution and diversity of anammox consortium. Also, quorum sensing feedback mechanism of anammox bacteria under salt stress was investigated for the first time. The concentration of N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-DL-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) increased from 0.27 ± 0.02 to 1.24 ± 0.09 µM at 7 to 9 g L-1 NaCl. The concentration of 3OC6-HSL maintained at a high level at 9 to 12 g L-1 NaCl. Nacylated-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs)-mediated QS became more active and then improved the coordinated interaction in anammox consortium. High concentration of AHLs promoted the bacteria to produce more extracellular polymeric substances, which increased the bacterial tolerance to salt stress.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Percepção de Quorum , Bactérias , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Estresse Salino
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 656230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234699

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has indicated that there are significant sex differences in serum BDNF levels and metabolic indicators in patients with schizophrenia. Studies have found that BDNF is involved in blood sugar regulation. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is currently a sensitive indicator for measuring insulin resistance. Our study aims to explore the sex differences in the relationship between serum BDNF levels and HOMA-IR in patients with chronic schizophrenia (CS). Methods: A total of 332 patients with CS were enrolled in this study. General information of all participants was collected. Haematological indicators were collected, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Sex differences in serum BDNF levels, HOMA-IR index and other metabolic indexes were investigated. Then, linear regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between the HOMA-IR index and BDNF levels in male and female patients. Results: The HOMA-IR index of female patients was significantly higher than that of males, but there was no significant difference in serum BDNF levels between male patients and female patients. There was a positive correlation between BDNF level and HOMA-IR index, and this relationship only existed in female patients. Conclusion: The results show that there are significant sex differences in HOMA-IR in patients with CS. In addition, only in female patients was there a positive correlation between the HOMA-IR index and BDNF level, which suggests that sex factors should be taken into account in evaluating the relationship between BDNF and blood glucose in patients with CS.

20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(8): 1109-1114, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226412

RESUMO

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a type of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that causes various respiratory tract infections including asthma. Chlamydia species infect humans and cause respiratory infection by rupturing the lining of the respiratory which includes the throat, lungs and windpipe. Meanwhile, the function of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in Ch. pneumoniae respiratory infection and its association with the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in adulthood and causing allergic airway disease (AAD) are not understood properly. We therefore investigated the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. In this study, Ch. pneumonia strain was propagated and cultured in HEp-2 cells according to standard protocol and infant C57BL/6 mice around 3-4 weeks old were infected to study the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. We observed that IL-4 is linked with Chlamydia respiratory infection and its absence lowers respiratory infection. IL-4R α2 is also responsible for controlling the IL-4 signaling pathway and averts the progression of infection and inflammation. Furthermore, the IL-4 signaling pathway also influences infection-induced AHR and aids in increasing AAD severity. STAT6 also promotes respiratory infection caused by Ch. pneumoniae and further enhanced its downstream process. Our study concluded that IL-4 is a potential target for preventing infection-induced AHR and severe asthma.

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