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1.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Rural , Viroses/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(4): 423-7, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957455

RESUMO

The diseases recommended to be treated by acupuncture and the recommendation in the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) were summarized, and the diseases recommended were analyzed. The guidelines which mentioned acupuncture in NICE and NGC were searched and classified according to the types of diseases and intensity of recommendations. As a result, 45 guidelines in NGC were included, involving 59 recommendations; 29 guidelines in the NICE, involving 29 recommendations. The diseases recommended by NICE and NGC were mainly pain-related diseases, and the diseases recommended by NGC were wider. However, both needed to further describe the specific operation methods of acupuncture.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura
3.
Virol J ; 16(1): 35, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only one PyV detected in tree shrews, though the genomic properties of tree shrews are highly similar to those of the primates. METHODS: Swab and organ samples of tree shrews collected in the Yunnan Province of China, were tested by viral metagenomic analysis and random PCR to detect the presence of PVs and PyVs. By PCR amplification using specific primers, cloning, sequencing and assembling, genomes of two PVs and one PyV were identified in the samples. RESULTS: Two novel PVs and a novel PyV, named tree shrew papillomavirus 1 and 2 (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and polyomavirus 1 (TbelPyV1) were characterized in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). The genomes of TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 are 7410 bp, 7526 bp, and 4982 bp in size, respectively. The TbelPV1 genome contains 7 putative open-reading frames (ORFs) coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E4, E6, E7, L1, and L2; the TbelPV2 genome contains 6 ORFs coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2; and the TbelPyV1 genome codes for the typical small and large T antigens of PyV, as well as the VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid proteins. Genomic comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 represented 2 novel PV genera of Papillomaviridae, and TbelPyV1 represented a new species of genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 were both detected in oral swabs, while TbelPyV1 was detected in oral swabs and spleens. CONCLUSION: Two novel PVs (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and a novel PyV (TbelPyV) were discovered in tree shrews and their genomes were characterized. TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 have the highest similarity to Human papillomavirus type 63, Ursus maritimus papillomavirus 1, and Human polyomavirus 9, respectively. TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 only showed oral tropism, while TbelPyV1 showed oral and spleen tropism.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Tupaia/virologia , Animais , China , Genômica , Metagenômica , Boca/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral
4.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(3): 543, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737494

RESUMO

In the version of this Letter originally published, in the 'Phylogenetic analysis' section of the Methods, the authors mistakenly stated that the GenBank accession number for the Ravn virus genome sequence was FJ750958. The correct accession number is DQ447649 for Ravn virus, Kenya, 1987. Accordingly, the label 'RAVN2007' in Fig. 1b should have been 'RAVV1987'. This mistake does not change any conclusions in this study. This statement and figure have now been amended in all versions of the Letter, and the Supplementary Information file has been updated accordingly.

5.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(3): 390-395, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617348

RESUMO

Filoviruses, especially Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are notoriously pathogenic and capable of causing severe haemorrhagic fever diseases in humans with high lethality1,2. The risk of future outbreaks is exacerbated by the discovery of other bat-borne filoviruses of wide genetic diversity globally3-5. Here we report the characterization of a phylogenetically distinct bat filovirus, named Menglà virus (MLAV). The coding-complete genome of MLAV shares 32-54% nucleotide sequence identity with known filoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis places this new virus between EBOV and MARV, suggesting the need for a new genus taxon. Importantly, despite the low amino acid sequence identity (22-39%) of the glycoprotein with other filoviruses, MLAV is capable of using the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as entry receptor. MLAV is also replication-competent with chimeric MLAV mini-genomes containing EBOV or MARV leader and trailer sequences, indicating that these viruses are evolutionally and functionally closely related. Finally, MLAV glycoprotein-typed pseudo-types transduced cell lines derived from humans, monkeys, dogs, hamsters and bats, implying a broad species cell tropism with a high risk of interspecies spillover transmission.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Filoviridae/classificação , Filoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cães , Ebolavirus/classificação , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Marburgvirus/classificação , Proteína C1 de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Filogenia , Transdução Genética , Tropismo Viral , Internalização do Vírus
6.
Virol Sin ; 33(1): 44-58, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500690

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the prototype of the family Hepeviridae and the causative agent of common acute viral hepatitis. Genetically diverse HEV-related viruses have been detected in a variety of mammals and some of them may have zoonotic potential. In this study, we tested 278 specimens collected from seven wild small mammal species in Yunnan province, China, for the presence and prevalence of orthohepevirus by broad-spectrum reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. HEV-related sequences were detected in two rodent species, including Chevrier's field mouse (Apodemus chevrieri, family Muridae) and Père David's vole (Eothenomys melanogaster, family Cricetidae), with the infection rates of 29.20% (59/202) and 7.27% (4/55), respectively. Further four representative full-length genomes were generated: two each from Chevrier's field mouse (named RdHEVAc14 and RdHEVAc86) and Père David's vole (RdHEVEm40 and RdHEVEm67). Phylogenetic analyses and pairwise distance comparisons of whole genome sequences and amino acid sequences of the gene coding regions showed that orthohepeviruses identified in Chinese Chevrier's field mouse and Père David's vole belonged to the species Orthohepevirus C but were highly divergent from the two assigned genotypes: HEV-C1 derived from rat and shrew, and HEV-C2 derived from ferret and possibly mink. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that these newly discovered orthohepeviruses had hepatic tropism. In summary, our work discovered two putative novel genotypes orthohepeviruses preliminarily named HEV-C3 and HEV-C4 within the species Orthohepevirus C, which expands our understanding of orthohepevirus infection in the order Rodentia and gives new insights into the origin, evolution, and host range of orthohepevirus.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/virologia , Variação Genética , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , China , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepevirus/genética , Hepevirus/fisiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Tropismo Viral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Virol Sin ; 33(1): 87-95, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500692

RESUMO

Previous studies indicated that fruit bats carry two betacoronaviruses, BatCoV HKU9 and BatCoV GCCDC1. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of these coronaviruses, we conducted a longitudinal surveillance in fruit bats in Yunnan province, China during 2009-2016. A total of 59 (10.63%) bat samples were positive for the two betacorona-viruses, 46 (8.29%) for HKU9 and 13 (2.34%) for GCCDC1, or closely related viruses. We identified a novel HKU9 strain, tentatively designated as BatCoV HKU9-2202, by sequencing the full-length genome. The BatCoV HKU9-2202 shared 83% nucleotide identity with other BatCoV HKU9 stains based on whole genome sequences. The most divergent region is in the spike protein, which only shares 68% amino acid identity with BatCoV HKU9. Quantitative PCR revealed that the intestine was the primary infection organ of BatCoV HKU9 and GCCDC1, but some HKU9 was also detected in the heart, kidney, and lung tissues of bats. This study highlights the importance of virus surveillance in natural reservoirs and emphasizes the need for preparedness against the potential spill-over of these viruses to local residents living near bat caves.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Variação Genética , Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 13(11): e1006698, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190287

RESUMO

A large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been detected in horseshoe bats since 2005 in different areas of China. However, these bat SARSr-CoVs show sequence differences from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in different genes (S, ORF8, ORF3, etc) and are considered unlikely to represent the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV. Herein, we report the findings of our 5-year surveillance of SARSr-CoVs in a cave inhabited by multiple species of horseshoe bats in Yunnan Province, China. The full-length genomes of 11 newly discovered SARSr-CoV strains, together with our previous findings, reveals that the SARSr-CoVs circulating in this single location are highly diverse in the S gene, ORF3 and ORF8. Importantly, strains with high genetic similarity to SARS-CoV in the hypervariable N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 gene, the ORF3 and ORF8 region, respectively, were all discovered in this cave. In addition, we report the first discovery of bat SARSr-CoVs highly similar to human SARS-CoV in ORF3b and in the split ORF8a and 8b. Moreover, SARSr-CoV strains from this cave were more closely related to SARS-CoV in the non-structural protein genes ORF1a and 1b compared with those detected elsewhere. Recombination analysis shows evidence of frequent recombination events within the S gene and around the ORF8 between these SARSr-CoVs. We hypothesize that the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV may have originated after sequential recombination events between the precursors of these SARSr-CoVs. Cell entry studies demonstrated that three newly identified SARSr-CoVs with different S protein sequences are all able to use human ACE2 as the receptor, further exhibiting the close relationship between strains in this cave and SARS-CoV. This work provides new insights into the origin and evolution of SARS-CoV and highlights the necessity of preparedness for future emergence of SARS-like diseases.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Pool Gênico , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Recombinação Genética/genética
10.
J Gen Virol ; 98(4): 739-748, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475035

RESUMO

Bats have been reported to carry diverse adenoviruses. However, most bat adenoviruses have been identified on the basis of partial genome sequences, and knowledge on the evolution of bat adenoviruses remains limited. In this study, we isolated and characterized four novel adenoviruses from two distinct bat species, and their full-length genomes were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that these isolates represented three distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. However, all isolates had an exceptionally low G+C content and relatively short genomes compared with other known mastadenoviruses. We further analysed the relationships among the G+C content, 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) representation and genome size in the family Adenoviridae. Our results revealed that the CpG representation in adenoviral genomes depends primarily on the level of methylation, and the genome size displayed significant positive correlations with both G+C content and CpG representation. Since ancestral adenoviruses are believed to have contained short genomes, those probably had a low G+C content, similar to the genomes of these bat strains. Our results suggest that bats are important natural reservoirs for adenoviruses and play important roles in the evolution of adenoviruses.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Composição de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
11.
Virol J ; 14(1): 98, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent the most diverse mammals on the planet and are important reservoirs of human pathogens. Coronaviruses infect various animals, but to date, relatively few coronaviruses have been identified in rodents worldwide. The evolution and ecology of coronaviruses in rodent have not been fully investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we collected 177 intestinal samples from thress species of rodents in Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus were detected in 23 rodent samples from three species, namely Apodemus chevrieri (21/98), Eothenomys fidelis (1/62), and Apodemus ilex (1/17). We further characterized the full-length genome of an alphacoronavirus from the A. chevrieri rat and named it as AcCoV-JC34. The AcCoV-JC34 genome was 27,649 nucleotides long and showed a structure similar to the HKU2 bat coronavirus. Comparing the normal transcription regulatory sequence (TRS), 3 variant TRS sequences upstream the spike (S), ORF3, and ORF8 genes were found in the genome of AcCoV-JC34. In the conserved replicase domains, AcCoV-JC34 was most closely related to Rattus norvegicus coronavirus LNRV but diverged from other alphacoronaviruses, indicating that AcCoV-JC34 and LNRV may represent a novel alphacoronavirus species. However, the S and nucleocapsid proteins showed low similarity to those of LRNV, with 66.5 and 77.4% identities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2 formed a distinct lineage with all known coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Both alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses were detected in Apodemus chevrieri in the Yunnan Province of China, indicating that Apodemus chevrieri is an important host for coronavirus. Several new features were identified in the genome of an Apodemus chevrieri coronavirus. The phylogenetic distance to other coronaviruses suggests a variable origin and evolutionary route of the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2. These results indicate that the diversity of rodent coronaviruses is much higher than previously expected. Further surveillance and functional studies of these coronaviruses will help to better understand the importance of rodent as host for coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Arvicolinae/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Murinae/virologia , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(3): 482-486, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221123

RESUMO

Genetically divergent filoviruses detected in Rousettus and Eonycteris spp. bats in China exhibited 61%-99% nt identity with reported filoviruses, based on partial replicase sequences, and they demonstrated lung tropism. Co-infection with 4 different filoviruses was found in 1 bat. These results demonstrate that fruit bats are key reservoirs of filoviruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/veterinária , Filoviridae/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Filoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Filoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Humanos
13.
Virol J ; 14(1): 40, 2017 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for these hepatitis viruses. In order to further assess the distribution of hepatitis viruses in bat populations in China, we tested the presence of these hepatitis viruses in our archived bat liver samples that originated from several bat species and various geographical regions in China. METHODS: A total of 78 bat liver samples (involving two families, five genera, and 17 species of bat) were examined using nested or heminested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers. Full-length genomic sequences of two virus strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: Four samples were positive for hepadnavirus, only one was positive for hepevirus, and none of the samples were positive for hepatovirus or hepacivirus. The hepadnaviruses were discovered in the horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus sinicus and Rhinolophus affinis, and the hepevirus was found in the whiskered bat Myotis davidii. The full-length genomic sequences were determined for one of the two hepadnaviruses identified in R. sinicus (designated BtHBVRs3364) and the hepevirus (designated BtHEVMd2350). A sequence identity analysis indicated that BtHBVRs3364 had the highest degree of identity with a previously reported hepadnavirus from the roundleaf bat, Hipposideros pomona, from China, and BtHEVMd2350 had the highest degree of identity with a hepevirus found in the serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, from Germany, but it exhibited high levels of divergence at both the nucleotide and the amino acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report that the Chinese horseshoe bat and the Chinese whiskered bat have been found to carry novel hepadnaviruses and a novel hepevirus, respectively. The discovery of BtHBVRs3364 further supports the significance of host switches evolution while opposing the co-evolutionary theory associated with hepadnaviruses. According to the latest criterion of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), we hypothesize that BtHEVMd2350 represents an independent genotype within the species Orthohepevirus D of the family Hepeviridae.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Hepadnaviridae/classificação , Hepadnaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , Filogenia , Animais , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Genoma Viral , Hepadnaviridae/genética , Hepevirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
J Gen Virol ; 97(7): 1625-1635, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032099

RESUMO

Bats carry diverse RNA viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. Compared to bat-borne RNA viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne DNA viruses. In this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (BtAdV WIV9-11) from Rhinolophus sinicus. Their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (AdVs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. An unusually large E3 gene was identified in their genomes. Phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses suggested that these isolates represent a distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. Cell susceptibility assays revealed a broad cell tropism for these isolates, indicating that they have a potentially wide host range. Our results expand the understanding of genetic diversity of bat AdVs.


Assuntos
Proteínas E3 de Adenovirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , DNA Viral/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos , Tropismo Viral
16.
Virol Sin ; 31(1): 31-40, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26920708

RESUMO

Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária
18.
Virol J ; 13: 27, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses, which cause two disease types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Hantaviruses related human cases have been observed throughout Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. To date, 23 distinct species of hantaviruses, hosted by reservoir, have been identified. However, the diversity and number of hantaviruses are likely underestimated in China, and hantavirus species that cause disease in many regions, including Yunnan province, are unknown. RESULTS: In August 2012, we collected tissue samples from 189 captured animals, including 15 species belonging to 10 genera, 5 families, and 4 orders in Fugong county, Yunnan province, China. Seven species were positive for hantavirus: Eothenomys eleusis (42/94), Apodemus peninsulae (3/25), Niviventer eha (3/27), Cryptotis montivaga (2/8), Anourosorex squamipes (1/1), Sorex araneus (1/1), and Mustela sibirica (1/2). We characterized one full-length genomic sequence of the virus (named fugong virus, FUGV) from a small oriental vole (Eothenomys eleusis). The full-length sequences of the small, medium, and large segments of FUGV were 1813, 3630, and 6531 nt, respectively. FUGV was most closely related to hantavirus LX309, a previously reported species detected in the red-backed vole in Luxi county, Yunnan province, China. However, the amino acid sequences of nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein (G), and large protein (L) were highly divergent from those of Hantavirus LX309, with amino acid differences of 11.2, 15.3, and 12.7 %, respectively. In phylogenetic trees, FUGV clustered in the lineage corresponding to hantaviruses carried by rodents in the subfamily Arvicolinae. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of hantavirus infection in small mammals was found in Fugong county, Yunnan province, China. A novel hantavirus species FUGV was identified from the small oriental vole. This virus is phylogenetic clustering with another hantavirus LX309, but shows highly genomic divergence.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/virologia , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Hantavirus/classificação , Hantavirus/genética , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
J Virol ; 90(6): 3253-6, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719272

RESUMO

We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Ligação Viral
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 20(9): 1433-42, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25144604

RESUMO

Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008-2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espacial
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