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1.
J Int Med Res ; 48(5): 300060520925372, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the modified direct closure method and traditional skin grafting for wounds at the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap donor site. METHODS: Among 29 consecutive patients with wounds at the ALT flap donor site, 14 underwent the modified direct closure method (MDC group) and 15 underwent traditional skin grafting (SG group). The operative time, follow-up time, complications, Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) score, and Scar Cosmesis Assessment and Rating (SCAR) score of the two groups were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up times in the MDC and SG group were 16.1 and 16.7 months, respectively. Two patients showed partial skin necrosis after skin grafting, but the remaining patients' wounds healed uneventfully. The operative time in the MDC group was an average of about 64 minutes shorter than that in the SG group. The average VSS and SCAR scores in the MDC group were 2.1 and 3.0 points lower, respectively, than those in the SG group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with traditional skin grafting, the modified direct closure method is more efficient for repair of wounds at the ALT flap donor site because of its shorter operative time, better postoperative appearance of the donor site, and higher patient satisfaction.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417953

RESUMO

Being immersed in seawater for a few days, microorganisms will adhere to the surface of different materials and form biofilms. After being immersed in seawater for 1 week, high-throughput sequencing method was used to analyze the bacterial community structure of the biofilms on the surface of microbeads with different materials including steel, SiO2, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Operational taxonomic unit clustering results showed that some differences existed in the bacterial communities attached to the surface of different microbeads. Each microbead made by different material had its unique bacterial community. The heatmap indicated that the dominant genera on the surface of different microbeads were different from each other. Quantitative analysis showed that the relative abundance of dominant genera were different among different types of microbeads. Beta diversity analysis and principal component analysis showed that difference in the bacterial community on surface of steel-bead and PVC-bead was the most significant.

3.
Diabetes Metab ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470380

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between mean fasting glucose (FG) and variability in visit-to-visit FG and risk of mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 48,077 Chinese men and women with T2D. The yearly mean and coefficient of variation for fasting glucose (mean-FG and FG-CV, respectively) were based on at least two measurements taken each year over a mean duration of 4.5 years. Deaths and their causes were identified using the Shanghai Vital Statistics registry. Mean-FG and FG-CV served as time-dependent variables in Cox models to estimate their associations with risk of mortality; hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for baseline risk factors. Potential non-linear associations were examined by restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: During an average 4.5 years of follow-up, 2095 men and 1923 women died. Men with low mean-FG and women with low or high FG were at greater risk of death. Mean-FG was not associated with either cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer-specific mortality, whereas higher yearly FG-CV was associated with all-cause and CVD-/cancer-specific mortality in both genders. Compared with a yearly FG-CV of 1.76 (5th percentile), men and women with an FG-CV of 14.14 (75th percentile) had HRs (95% CI) of 1.41 (1.24-1.61) and 1.44 (1.26-1.65), respectively, for all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Variability of visit-to-visit FG may be a more sensitive predictor of risk of death than mean-FG in people with T2D.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137712, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325606

RESUMO

Extensive and improper overuse of antibiotics resulted in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). As the typical semi-enclosed continental shelf sea, the Bohai Sea has been considered as one of the most polluted marine areas in China. However, no comprehensive investigation on the spatial distribution of ARGs in sediments from the Bohai Sea has been reported. A large-scale sampling was performed in the Bohai Sea areas. The abundances of ARGs (6 classes, 29 ARG subtypes), class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1), hmt-DNA and 16S rRNA gene were evaluated. IntI1 was detected with higher abundances in coastal areas ranging from 2.8 × 105 to 2.5 × 108 copies/g. The total ARGs abundances varied over 3 orders of magnitude in different sampling sites with the maximum at 4.9 × 108 copies/g. Sulfonamides resistance genes were ubiquitous and abundant with the abundances ranging from 5.7 × 104 to 1.8 × 107 copies/g, and quinolones resistance genes varied greatly in different samples. The contour map demonstrated that ARGs were more abundant in the Laizhou Bay, the south of Bohai Bay and the eastern of central sea basin. Most of the target ARG subtypes were detected with 100% detection frequencies. The genes of sul1, sul2 and tetX were detected with both higher absolute and relative abundance, while the abundance of ß-lactams ARG subtypes was lower. Principal component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that no significant differences in the ARGs abundance existed in different samples, and the sediment qualities played important roles in the distribution of ARGs. Bacterial communities were investigated and 768 strong and significant connections between ARGs and bacteria were identified. The possible hosts of ARGs were revealed by network analysis with higher relative abundance in coastal areas than the sea.

5.
Org Lett ; 22(8): 2950-2955, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233495

RESUMO

Herein, we report the iron-catalyzed borylation of aryl ethers and aryl amines via cleavage of C-O and C-N bonds. This protocol does not require the use of Grignard reagents and displays a broad substrate scope, which allows the late-stage borylation. It also provides facile access to multisubstituted arenes through C-H functionalization using 2-pyridyloxy as the directing group.

6.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126323, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126332

RESUMO

This study investigated occurrence, source, and risks of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in coastal groundwater and adjacent seawater influenced by reclaimed water irrigation in a typical coastal region of China. All target EDCs were detected in coastal groundwater and reclaimed water while only estrone, bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol were detected in seawater. Concentrations of BPA that was the predominant EDC in coastal groundwater ranged from 35.9 to 52.9 ng/L and estradiol was easy to accumulate in groundwater under reclaimed water irrigation. Concentrations of all target EDCs in seawater ranged from 18.9 to 30.9 ng/L, much lower than those in groundwater. Ecological risks posed by EDCs in groundwater and seawater were very high. Estrone contributed to 51.3%-62.9% of total acute risk quotients for seawater while detected 17-α-ethynylestradiol contributed to 41.1%-56.2% of total acute risk quotients for groundwater. Estradiol equivalent concentrations of target EDCs in groundwater/seawater were in the range of (3.5-7.6)/(1.4-2.3) ng/L while non-cancer risks posed by EDCs in groundwater/seawater were acceptable. Dual-isotope analysis illustrated that reclaimed water was the main source of EDCs in coastal groundwater. About 82% of EDCs was discharged into the Laizhou Bay through the submarine groundwater discharge based on the flux analysis. The pollution of the coastal groundwater through reclaimed water irrigation subsequently led to EDCs pollution of the adjacent seawater through the submarine groundwater discharge. Therefore, effective control of EDCs in reclaimed water for irrigation will be beneficial to control EDCs in groundwater and seawater of the coastal regions.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Estradiol/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Etinilestradiol/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Fenóis/análise , Água do Mar/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Água/análise
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166883

RESUMO

A known trinuclear structure was used to design the heterobimetallic mixed-valent, mixed-ligand molecule [CoII (hfac)3 -Na-CoIII (acac)3 ] (1). This was used as a template structure to develop heterotrimetallic molecules [CoII (hfac)3 -Na-FeIII (acac)3 ] (2) and [NiII (hfac)3 -Na-CoIII (acac)3 ] (3) via isovalent site-specific substitution at either of the cobalt positions. Diffraction methods, synchrotron resonant diffraction, and multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction were applied beyond simple structural investigation to provide an unambiguous assignment of the positions and oxidation states for the periodic table neighbors in the heterometallic assemblies. Molecules of 2 and 3 are true heterotrimetallic rather than a statistical mixture of two heterobimetallic counterparts. Trinuclear platform 1 exhibits flexibility in accommodating a variety of di- and trivalent metals, which can be further utilized in the design of molecular precursors for the NaMM'O4 functional oxide materials.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 305: 123037, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105846

RESUMO

The efficient removal of nitrogen pollutants in the aquaculture systems is still a challenge due to the low concentration of organic carbon and high concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the wastewater. The simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) bioreactor was firstly used for the treatment of aquaculture wastewater in recirculating aquaculture system. The bioreactor operated for 180 days without adding extra organic carbon. After 60-day operation, the bioreactor reached the stable stage with the average concentration of ammonia/nitrate/nitrite/COD in the effluent with 0.26/0.75/0.47/0.27 mg/L. The Pseudoxanthomonas was the dominant genus in the biofilm samples. The typical nitrogen functional bacteria and genes for nitrification, anammox and denitrification were detected with different abundance in different procedures along the bioreactor. Network analysis revealed the significant correlations between nitrogen functional bacteria and genes. The SNAD bioreactor achieved the effective removal for nitrogen and COD under high DO conditions in recirculating aquaculture system.

9.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 681-688, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922247

RESUMO

Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1)/p8, a transcriptional regulator, has the ability to facilitate lung cancer cell survival. Adeno­associated virus (AAV)­based vectors are efficient vehicles for gene transfer and expression. In this study, an AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA vector was constructed that effectively inhibited the expression of NUPR1 in a tumor xenograft model derived from lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Trifluoperazine (TFP), which is an antipsychotic drug, has the ability to bind to NUPR1 and mimic NUPR1 deficiency in cancer cells. It was also found that the combination of TFP and AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA delivery led to significant tumor growth inhibition in nude mice bearing human lung cancer xenografts. Moreover, AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA therapy induced premature senescence in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest a putative role for the combination of AAV­NUPR1 shRNA and TFP in lung cancer therapy.

10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 80: 104190, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927072

RESUMO

Acute infections with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) usually cause Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among infants and young children with several large outbreaks worldwide. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms underlying enterovirus infections remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of host cells in response to EV71 and CVA16 infections using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Of over 480,000 loci studied, significant differential methylation was observed between EV71 infected-cells and control cells at 3957 CpG sites, out of which 2478 were hypermethylated and 1479 were hypomethylated, whereas CVA16 infection resulted in methylation level changes of 5194 CpG sites with 4288 hypermethylated and 906 hypomethylated. These differential methylated loci displayed a wide range of genomic distributions in chromosomes, inside and surrounding areas (shores and shelves) of CpG islands, as well as functional gene regions including promoter, gene body and 3'UTR. Based on methylation alterations, 1189 genes were identified to be potentially co-associated with the replication processes of two enteroviruses. GO function annotation and enrichment analysis of 1189 common differentially methylated genes reflected a broad spectrum of biological regulatory events during viral infection. KEGG pathway analysis indicated the involvement of diverse signaling pathways including viral myocarditis, Notch signaling and antigen processing and presentation. Our present study provides a novel insight into enterovirus-host interaction network at epigenetic profile, thus contributing to improved understanding of HFMD pathogenesis.

11.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125908, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972491

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been frequently detected in various matrices all over the world to attract wide attention due to the potential risks. Rare information is available on the pollution of ARGs in the waters of critical ecologically fragile regions such as the coastal zone at a continental scale. Therefore, this study performed field sampling during winter and summer along 18000 km coastline of China to investigate the distribution of target ARGs in coastal waters at a continental scale. The absolute abundances of ARGs in coastal waters showed drastic spatio-temporal variation with a mean value of 8.79 × 104/1.39 × 105 copies/mL in summer/winter, much lower than those in tail water from the maricultural zone or wastewater. The average absolute abundance of class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) in coastal waters was 9.68 × 103/4.15 × 104 copies/mL in summer/winter, still lower than that in tail water or wastewater. Quinolone resistance genes were the dominant ARGs in coastal waters to account for over 50% of total ARGs in most of sampling sites. Bacterial communities in coastal waters showed significant difference both at phylum and genus levels. Abundances of ARGs in coastal waters of this study were comparable with those in other regions previously reported. Tail water and wastewater might be the essential sources of ARGs in coastal waters. The findings of this study provided comprehensive information on the pollution status of ARGs in coastal waters at a continental scale, indicating that ARGs pollution has become a crucial stress affecting the sustainable development of coastal regions.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Genes Bacterianos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Poluição da Água/análise , Antibacterianos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Integrons , Quinolonas , Estações do Ano , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125907, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978658

RESUMO

Coastal waters are the critical ecologically fragile regions under the influence of the fastest economic developing pace and the extensive anthropogenic activities in coastal zone. Little information on the seasonal distribution, risks, and sources of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which are emerging contaminants to pose potential risks at very low concentrations in coastal waters at continental-scale is available. This study investigated the coastline-based distribution, risks, and sources of target EDCs in coastal water of China. EDCs in coastal waters of China showed significant spatio-temporal variation with phenolic compounds serving as predominant EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA) was detected in all water samples with average concentration of 449.2/186.3 ng/L in winter/summer while estrone was the main steroidal estrogen with the average concentration of 87.2/2.7 ng/L in winter/summer. EDCs in coastal waters of South China Sea Area showed higher concentrations. EDCs in coastal waters exerted high ecological risks and estrone/BPA averagely accounted for over 61%/71% of total risk quotient in winter/summer. Average estradiol equivalent concentration of all target EDCs reached 68.87/1.76 ng/L in winter/summer. EDCs in coastal waters did not pose potential non-cancer health risks for humans. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was firstly used to identify and quantify possible sources of EDCs. The PMF analysis showed that wastewater and sewage might be the main source for EDCs in coastal waters. EDCs in coastal waters showed high estradiol equivalent concentration and ecological risks at continental-scale, highlighting that EDCs contamination has become a crucial stress affecting the sustainable development of coastal regions.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos , China , Estradiol/análise , Estrogênios/análise , Estrona/análise , Humanos , Fenóis , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(1): 94-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157531

RESUMO

A person's ability to discriminate fine differences in tone frequency is vital for everyday hearing such as listening to speech and music. This ability can be improved through training (i.e., tone frequency learning). Depending on stimulus configurations and training procedures, tone frequency learning can either transfer to new frequencies, which would suggest learning of a general task structure, or show significant frequency specificity, which would suggest either changes in neural representations of trained frequencies, or reweighting of frequency-specific neural responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that frequency specificity in tone frequency learning can be abolished with a double-training procedure. Specifically, participants practiced tone frequency discrimination at 1 or 6 kHz, presumably encoded by different temporal or place coding mechanisms, respectively. The stimuli were brief tone pips known to produce significant specificity. Tone frequency learning was indeed initially highly frequency specific (Experiment 1). However, with additional exposure to the other untrained frequency via an irrelevant temporal interval discrimination task, or even background play during a visual task, learning transferred completely (1-to-6 kHz or 6-to-1 kHz; Experiments 2-4). These results support general task structure learning, or concept learning in our term, in tone frequency learning despite initial frequency specificity. They also suggest strategies to design efficient auditory training in practical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 387: 121683, 2020 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771886

RESUMO

Sulfur has been shown to mitigate the toxic effects of metals on soil organisms. Here we report the effects of sulfur on cadmium toxicity to the collembolan Folsomia candida in soil, including its effects on glutathione (GSH) level, catalase (CAT) activity and metallothionein (MT) content. Following sulfur treatment, catalase, glutathione and metallothionein activities were all significantly increased in cadmium-contaminated soil, and as the cadmium concentration increased, the activities decreased. In addition, because of the reducing effects of pH and organic matter on cadmium bioavailability, the bioavailable cadmium varied among soils of different pH values and organic matter contents, causing the catalase activity, glutathione content and metallothionein levels of F. candida to vary among soils. Our study suggests that sulfur can affect the toxicity of certain concentrations of cadmium and that soil properties are very important to consider. This study provides insight into the effects of sulfur application on soil animals.

15.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 107: 110324, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761161

RESUMO

Bismuth (Bi)-based nanoagents for synergistic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) are attracting attention and are highly desired for malignant tumor diagnosis and treatment, but producing these materials is still a challenge. Here, we designed theranostic nanoparticles (NPs) based on AgBiS2 for computed tomography (CT) imaging and phototherapy of malignant tumors. These AgBiS2 NPs could effectively convert light into heat (with a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 36.51%) and significantly increase the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Remarkably, the combined PTT/PDT successfully inhibited the growth of a highly malignant osteosarcoma in vivo. In addition, AgBiS2 NPs exhibited an enhanced CT contrast ability for tumor imaging and killed clinically derived Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to prevent infection. In conclusion the ability of AgBiS2 NPs to be used in phototherapy and CT imaging and their antibacterial abilities indicate that they are promising candidates for malignant tumor theranostics.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121025, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446351

RESUMO

The fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in reclaimed water reuse system with integrated membrane process (IMR) was firstly investigated. Results indicated that ARGs, class 1 integrons (intI1) and 16S rRNA gene could be reduced efficiently in the IMR system. The absolute abundance of all detected ARGs in the reuse water after reverse osmosis (RO) filtration of the IMR system was 4.03 × 104 copies/mL, which was about 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that in the raw influent of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Maximum removal efficiency of the detected genes was up to 3.8 log removal values. Daily flux of the summation of all selected ARGs in the IMR system decreased sharply to (1.02 ±â€¯1.37) ×1014 copies/day, which was 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that in the activated sludge system (CAS) system. The strong clustering based on ordination analysis separated the reuse water from other water samples in the WWTPs. Network analysis revealed the existence of potential multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria. The potential multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, including Clostridium and Defluviicoccus, could be removed effectively by microfiltration and RO filtration. These findings suggested that the IMR system was efficient to remove ARGs and potential multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria in the wastewater reclamation system.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109852, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670243

RESUMO

Microplastics have become emerging pollutants and served as potential vectors for harmful bacteria, while rare information on the emergency and propagation of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) on the surface of microplastics is available. This study investigated the enrichment of ARB, especially multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB), on the surface of microplastics in mariculture system. Polyethylene terephthalate accounted for the highest proportion (75%) in the collected microplastics. The counts of cultivable ARB in microplastic samples were 6.40 × 106-2.48 × 108 cfu/g, which were 100-5000 times higher than those in water samples. The ratios of cultivable ARB to total cultivable bacteria from microplastic samples were higher than those from water samples. High-throughput sequencing showed that the diversity and abundance of cultivable ARB in the microplastic samples was high with the predominant bacterial genera of Vibrio, Muricauda and Ruegeria. Total 160 MARB isolates were obtained and most of isolates were obtained from the microplastic samples. MARB isolates resisting or intermediating to four and three antibiotics accounted for much higher proportions in the microplastic samples, and the higher percentage of antibiotic resistance was to penicillin, sulfafurazole, erythromycin and tetracycline. The dominant multiple antibiotic resistance profile was TET-SFX-ERY-PEN, which accounted for 25.4% in microplastic samples and 23.9% in water samples. In typical MARB isolates, the positive detection rate of ARGs was up to 80.0% in microplastic samples while that was 65.3% in water samples. Five types of class 1 integrons (intI1) associated gene cassette arrays and seven types of gene cassettes were detected in microplastic samples, which were more than those in water samples. These results revealed that microplastics were hazardous pollutants for the enrichment of ARB, especially superbugs, and the spread of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Rhodobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Integrons/genética , Microplásticos/química , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Propriedades de Superfície , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
18.
Opt Lett ; 44(23): 5772-5775, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774776

RESUMO

The nanoscale wavelength and polarization router, which can simultaneously separate wavelength and polarization modes, is an essential component of on-chip nanophotonic devices. Here, an on-chip wavelength and polarization router is realized experimentally based on a three-layer hybrid waveguide of Au-SiO2-LiNbO3 etched with asymmetric nano-cavities. The central area size of the device is only 1.60×1.96 µm2. A broad operation band covers from 500 nm to 1150 nm with low cross talk of under 10 dB. The monolithic-LiNbO3is introduced for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to on-chip multichannel wavelength and polarization routers. This work plays a key role for dense chip integration, visible light displays, and communications, and can inspire LiNbO3-based nanophotonic devices.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 224-237, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is a well-known lifestyle risk factor for CRC, and an increasing number of studies have revealed that alcohol intake is also tightly associated with CRC metastasis. However, the effect of alcohol on CRC metastasis and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed to investigate the characteristics of patients with alcohol-related CRC. The effects of ethanol on the biological behaviours of CRC cells were assessed through in vivo and in vitro assays using the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet and ethanol, respectively. The ethanol-mediated signalling pathway and downstream factors were screened through ELISA, western blot, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. FINDINGS: Most patients with alcohol-related CRC, particularly those with tumour metastasis, were characterized by a notably higher circulating ethanol level and a lower systemic acetaldehyde level. Moreover, CRC cells accumulated in ethanol, but not acetaldehyde, to notably higher levels compared with adjacent normal cells. Alcohol intake significantly promoted CRC metastasis via the ethanol-mediated TGF-ß/Smad/Snail axis, and ethanol induced the cytoplasmic mislocalization of RUNX3 and further promoted the aggressiveness of CRC by targeting Snail. Pirfenidone (PFD) significantly eliminated the effects of ethanol on CRC metastasis by specifically blocking TGF-ß signalling. INTERPRETATION: Alcohol intake plays a vital role in CRC metastasis via the ethanol-mediated TGF-ß/RUNX3/Snail axis, and PFD might be a novel therapeutic management strategy for CRC.

20.
Appl Opt ; 58(29): 8031-8038, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674356

RESUMO

This paper presents an improved autofocus method for human red blood cell images in a microscope. The products of the sum modulus difference and the real-valued fast Fourier transform function are multiplied to obtain an improved sharpness evaluation using the properties of a Gaussian function. It is superior to traditional evaluations in terms of unimodality, steepness, and sensitivity. A new quantitative criterion is proposed to represent the ability of sharpness evaluation against noise. An adaptive focus window with great robustness is proposed that can reduce the computation cost and adverse effects of the background. The better performances of the proposed algorithms are all proved by experiment results, and they can help to find the quasi-focus position more quickly and accurately.

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