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1.
Food Chem ; 316: 126272, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050116

RESUMO

Sea cucumbers attracted increasing interest due to its nutritional functions. Collagen is the most important structural biomacromolecule in sea cucumber body wall, and is highly related to the textual properties and food quality of sea cucumber. In this study, the type of constituent collagens of sea cucumber collagen fibrils was investigated, employing a commercially important species Apostichopus japonicus as the material. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis revealed that collagen fibrils of A. japonicas are heterotypic. Two clade A and one clade B fibrillar collagens and two FACIT collagens were identified from the fibrils. Besides, the heterogeneity was also revealed in the pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) of A. japonicus by using the proteomics strategy. It implied that the previous conclusions on the type of sea cucumber collagen deduced from SDS-PAGE analysis should be rechecked. The results provided novel insight into the composition of sea cucumber collagen fibrils.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 390: 122161, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999961

RESUMO

In this study, metallurgical-slag-based binder (MSB) with different dosages of calcium hydroxide (CH) was mixed with high-arsenic-containing mine tailings (HAMT) to form green mining fill samples (GMFs) for As solidification/stabilisation (S/S). The As leaching characteristics of the GMFs were evaluated using pH-dependent leaching tests, semi-dynamic leaching tests and toxicity leaching tests. The effective diffusion coefficient (De) decreased from 6.98 × 10-14 to 5.90 × 10-15 cm2/s and the leachability index (LI) increased from 13.53 to 14.73 after 3 wt.% CH was added to the GMFs. The GMFs containing 0 wt.% CH (GMF-0C) and those containing 3 wt.% CH (GMF-3C) reached pH = 2 with acid addition amounts of 9.0 meq/g-dry and 9.3 meq/g-dry at 90 d curing time, and the maximum As leaching concentrations of GMF-0C and GMF-3C reached 10.47 mg/L and 7.47 mg/L, respectively, indicating that GMF-3C exhibited better acid neutralisation and As retention capacities than GMF-0C. Further, a Tescan Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) was used to analyse the dominant hydration products of GMF-3C, which revealed that calcium silicate hydrate, CASH, ettringite and zeolite phases represented approximately 22.5 wt.% of the products. These results provide an understanding regarding the safe large-scale utilisation of GMFs.

3.
J Infect Chemother ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983614

RESUMO

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) is a high-mortality form of EBV infection. However, chronic hypoxemia is rare in these patients. We herein reported a case of severe hypoxemia due to intrapulmonary shunting in CAEBV. A 17-year-old girl presented with fever, dyspnea, cyanosis, and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory tests showed mild liver dysfunction and high copy numbers of EBV-DNA in the peripheral blood. A left supratrochlear lymph node biopsy showed infiltration of highly proliferative T lymphocytes with positive EBV encoded small RNA by in situ hybridization. Technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin and contrast-enhanced echocardiography confirmed the existence of intrapulmonary shunting, which was probably related to hepatopulmonary syndrome. The final diagnosis was CAEBV with intrapulmonary shunting. The patient was treated with cyclosporine A, etoposide, and dexamethasone. Finally, the patient died of respiratory failure. Intrapulmonary shunting is a rare complication of CAEBV. Early recognition and exploring the cause of hypoxemia should be highlighted in patients with CAEBV.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 381: 120992, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437801

RESUMO

The leaching characteristics of metallurgical slag-based binders (MSB) solidified/stabilized tailings containing arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb), were investigated via a series of semi-dynamic leaching tests using three kinds of leachant, for the simulation of actual leaching conditions. The effectiveness of solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment was evaluated by measuring the observed diffusion coefficients (Dobs). It was found that MSB efficiently prevented As and Sb leaching, providing Dobs values in the range of 10-15 to 10-13 cm2/s and 10-11 to 10-9 cm2/s, respectively, with the exception that the leaching mechanism of As was dissolution rather than diffusion under acetic acid leaching conditions. Physical encapsulation was found to be the dominant mechanism for Sb immobilization, while the dominant mechanism of As immobilization was precipitation in the monolithic MSB S/S treated tailings (MST). Results showed that the concentrations of leached As, Sb, Ca and Si, were affected by leachant pH and total acidity as well as the MSB constituent ratio. The effect of these parameters may be attributed to the stability of hydration products and their influence on the buffering capacity and structure of matrices, and the leachant pH and total acidity having the greatest influence on leaching characteristics.

5.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 40-49, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857155

RESUMO

Macrophages serve as the first line of communication between tumors and the rest of the immune system, and understanding the interplay between macrophage and tumor cells is essential for developing novel macrophage-based strategy against tumor. Here, we show that deletion of legumain in macrophages activates senescence of tumor cells. Macrophage derived IL-1ß mediates the pro-senescent effect of Lgmn-/- macrophages since blockage of IL-1ß reverses the senescence phenotype in both a coculture model of macrophage and tumor cells and an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer. Sustained activation of JAK1/STAT1 signaling and increased iNOS were found in the tumor cell-cocultured Lgmn-/- macrophages, which were necessary for IL-1ß expression and secretion. Applying a specific STAT1 agonist mimics the inductive effect of legumain deletion on IL-1ß expression in macrophages, and the effect can be blocked via inhibition of iNOS. Legumain and integrin αvß3 interact to prevent STAT1 signaling in macrophages, and blockage of integrin αvß3 stimulates STAT1 activation. Therapeutically, transplantation of bone marrow from Lgmn-/- mice suppresses the malignant growth of tumor by upregulating tumor cell senescence. Therefore, our finding highlights legumain in macrophages as a potential therapeutic target for tumors.

6.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803072

RESUMO

Hawthorn spider mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis Zacher, is one of the most devastating pests of deciduous fruit trees. The overall goal of this research is to develop a standardized protocol for real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in A. viennensis following the MIQE (minimum information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR experiments) guidelines. Based on the previous knowledge, we hypothesized that internal references for RT-qPCR analysis reside in housekeeping genes (HKGs). To test this hypothesis, we examined the stability of nine HKGs from A. viennensis, including 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A), Actin3, V-ATP vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), α-tubulin (α-tubulin), Ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13), 40S ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The expression profile of these candidates under intrinsic conditions was evaluated by a panel of computational programs, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. Based on RefFinder, a comprehensive software integrating all four above-mentioned algorithms, V-ATPase, Actin3, and GAPDH are the top three reference genes, which are stably expressed across all the intrinsic conditions, including developmental stage, sex, and diapause. In addition, we compared reference genes recommended for different developmental stages among the nine cell-content feeding arthropods, including four spider mites, A. viennensis, Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, and Panonychus citri, and five hemipterans, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Toxoptera citricida, Lipaphis erysimi, and Sogatella furcifera. Not surprisingly, rRNAs and ribosomal proteins, the most abundant RNA species, is the top choice, and follows by EF1A, Actin, GAPDH, and tubulin. Information present here lays the foundation for the genomic and functional genomic research in cell-content feeding arthropods in general and A. viennensis in particular.

7.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460787, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864723

RESUMO

Automatic data analysis for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a challenging task in untargeted metabolomics. In this work, we provide a novel comprehensive data analysis strategy for GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics (autoGCMSDataAnal) by developing a new automatic strategy for performing TIC peak detection and resolution and proposing a novel time-shift correction and component registration algorithm. autoGCMSDataAnal uses original acquired GC-MS datafiles as input to automatically perform TIC peak detection, component resolution, time-shift correction and component registration, statistical analysis, and compound identification. We utilize standards and complex plant samples to comprehensively investigate the performance of autoGCMSDataAnal. The results suggest that the developed strategy is comparable with several state-of-the-art methods that are widely used in GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics. Based on the proposed strategy, we develop a user-friendly MATLAB GUI for users who are unfamiliar with programming languages to facilitate their routine analysis, which can be freely downloaded at: http://software.tobaccodb.org/software/autogcmsdataanal.

8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invert syrup is a common adulterant in honey falsification, thus generating risk for consumers. Most of the methods developed are tedious and time-consuming for manufactures and consumers. However, terahertz spectroscopy provides analytical information in a simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly manner. Subsequently, 3 kinds of terahertz spectroscopic characteristics data, the absorption coefficient, the slope of the absorption coefficient spectra, and the area of the absorption coefficient spectra, were employed for determination of acacia honey adulterated with invert syrup. RESULTS: Single linear regression (SLR) models with different terahertz spectroscopic features were adopted to predict the syrup adulterant proportion in acacia honey. The best SLR model used the area of the absorption coefficient, displaying an adjusted correlation coefficient of 0.985 and a root-mean-square error of 3.201. Meanwhile, multiple linear regression (MLR) models using a successive projections algorithm for variables selection were implemented. The MLR model considered the integral area of the absorption coefficient spectra, as the inputs yielded the best result with less variables selected, higher R c 2 and R p 2 , lower root-mean-square error of calibration and prediction, as well as higher residual predictive deviation. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate terahertz spectroscopy combined with the integral area of the absorption coefficient spectra is reliable enough for invert syrup proportion quantification in acacia honey and is also a rapid and nondestructive determination method for other honey adulterants. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

9.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2489-2504.e4, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747615

RESUMO

Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and subsequent generations of matrix progeny make lineage choices by responding to spatiotemporal signals; however, the cues driving that specification are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dynamics of microRNA (miR)-29 expression are inversely proportional to HFSC lineage progression. Furthermore, we show that sustained miR-29a/b1 overexpression in anagen or telogen in mice causes a short-hair phenotype and eventual hair loss by inhibiting the proliferation of HFSCs and matrix cells and likely preventing their differentiation. Conversely, in a loss-of-function in vivo model, miR-29a/b1 deficiency accelerates HFSC lineage progression in telogen. Mechanistically, miR-29a/b1 blocks HFSC lineage specification by spatiotemporally targeting Ctnnb1, Lrp6, Bmpr1a, and Ccna2. We further show that skin-specific Lrp6 or Bmpr1a ablation partially accounts for the short-hair phenotype. Overall, these synergistic targets reveal miR-29a/b1 as a high-fidelity antagonist of HFSC lineage progression and a potential therapeutic target for hair loss.

10.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 8611-8620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695421

RESUMO

Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common primary malignant bone tumour in children and young adults. Apiosporamide, a 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloid from a deep-sea-derived fungus, Arthrinium sp. UJNMF0008, showed anti-proliferative effects toward a panel of human cancer cell lines, and the molecular mechanism in MG63 cells was then investigated in the current work. Methods: Cell viability was determined with MTT method. Cell proliferation was detected using colony-formation assay. Screening electron microscope was used for morphology observation. Cell cycle and apoptosis was analysed via flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was conducted to evaluate the mRNA expression related with cell apoptosis. The expression levels of proteins related to capase-mediated apoptotic pathway and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were detected by Western blotting. Results: Apiosporamide significantly decreased cell viability in cancer cells, and also exhibited excellent anti-proliferative effect. Apiosporamide caused cell cycle arrests at G0/G1 phase in MG63 cells. Moreover, apiosporamide induced apoptosis, activated caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, and regulated expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in MG63 cells. In addition, apiosporamide also attenuated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: Apiosporamide effectively suppressed MG63 cells proliferation by inducing apoptosis through PI3K/Akt and caspase-associated apoptotic pathway.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(22)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703260

RESUMO

In previous studies, Ti-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) free from Ni and Be were developed as promising biomaterials. Corresponding amorphous coatings might have low elastic modulus, remarkable wear resistance, good corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, the amorphous coatings obtained by the common methods (high velocity oxygen fuel, laser cladding, etc.) have cracks, micro-pores, and unfused particles. In this work, a Ti-based Ti47Cu38Zr7.5Fe2.5Sn2Si1Nb2 amorphous coating with a maximum thickness of about 100 µm was obtained by laser surface remelting (LSR). The in-situ formation makes the coating dense and strongly bonded. It exhibited better corrosion resistance than the matrix and its corrosion mechanism was discussed. The effects of LSR on the microstructural evolution of Ti-based prefabricated alloy sheets were investigated. The nano-hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ) was markedly increased by 51%, meanwhile the elastic modulus of the amorphous coating was decreased by 18%. This demonstrated that LSR could be an effective method to manufacture the high-quality amorphous coating. The in-situ amorphous coating free from Ni and Be had a low modulus, which might be a potential corrosion-resistant biomaterial.

12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 497, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs), as one of the largest families of TFs, play important roles in the regulation of many secondary metabolites including flavonoids. Their involvement in flavonoids synthesis is well established in vascular plants, but not as yet in the bryophytes. In liverworts, both bisbibenzyls and flavonoids are derived through the phenylpropanoids pathway and share several upstream enzymes. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned and characterized the function of PabHLH1, a bHLH family protein encoded by the liverworts species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. PabHLH1 is phylogenetically related to the IIIf subfamily bHLHs involved in flavonoids biosynthesis. A transient expression experiment showed that PabHLH1 is deposited in the nucleus and cytoplasm, while the yeast one hybrid assay showed that it has transactivational activity. When PabHLH1 was overexpressed in P. appendiculatum thallus, a positive correlation was established between the content of bibenzyls and flavonoids and the transcriptional abundance of corresponding genes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of these compounds. The heterologous expression of PabHLH1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in the activation of flavonoids and anthocyanins synthesis, involving the up-regulation of structural genes acting both early and late in the flavonoids synthesis pathway. The transcription level of PabHLH1 in P. appendiculatum thallus responded positively to stress induced by either exposure to UV radiation or treatment with salicylic acid. CONCLUSION: PabHLH1 was involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of flavonoids as well as bibenzyls in liverworts and stimulated the accumulation of the flavonols and anthocyanins in Arabidopsis.

14.
Anal Chem ; 91(24): 15757-15762, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724390

RESUMO

The detection of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in vivo faces challenges as ·OH has short lifetime and low concentration in the body. Fluorescence imaging within the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is a promising approach to in vivo organ and tissue imaging, but ·OH fluorescent probes emitting at this region have not been reported up to now because of the difficulty of probe design. Herein, we report the strategy to fabricate the first NIR-II probe for ·OH by directly breaking/recovering the conjugated system and rigid planar structure of an organic fluorophore, which could regulate the fluorescence intensity regardless of emission wavelength. This activable probe, Hydro-1080, emitted in 1000-1400 nm after responding to ·OH. Hydro-1080 exhibited excellent sensitivity (LOD = 0.5 nM) and selectivity to ·OH. It was able to track subtle variation of [·OH] in liver induced by external stimuli and offered clear images with high contrast. This work also indicates that this simple and straightforward strategy can be extended to develop NIR-II fluorescent probes efficiently.

15.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002953, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased metabolic risk, though data on long-term follow-up of cardiometabolic traits are limited. We postulated that Chinese women with PCOS would have higher risk of incident diabetes and cardiometabolic abnormalities than those without PCOS during long-term follow-up. METHODS AND FINDINGS: One hundred ninety-nine Chinese women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria and with a mean age of 41.2 years (SD = 6.4) completed a follow-up evaluation after an average of 10.6 ± 1.3 years. Two hundred twenty-five women without PCOS (mean age: 54.1 ± 6.7 years) who underwent baseline and follow-up evaluation over the same period were used for comparison. Progression of glycaemic status of women both with and without PCOS was assessed by using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) screening with the adoption of 2009 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. The frequency of impaired glucose regulation, hypertension, and hyperlipidaemia of women with PCOS at follow-up has increased from 31.7% (95% CI 25.2%-38.1%) to 47.2% (95% CI 40.3%-54.2%), 16.1% (95% CI 11.0%-21.2%) to 34.7% (95% CI 28.1%-41.3%), and 52.3% (95% CI 45.3%-59.2%) to 64.3% (95% CI 57.7%-71.0%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in follow-up women with PCOS is 26.1% (95% CI 20.0%-32.2%), almost double that in the cohort of women without PCOS (p < 0.001). Age-standardised incidence of diabetes among women with PCOS was 22.12 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 10.86-33.37) compared with the local female population incidence rate of 8.76 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 8.72-8.80) and 10.09 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 4.92-15.26, p < 0.001) for women without PCOS in our study. Incidence rate for women with PCOS aged 30-39 years was 20.56 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 12.57-31.87), which is approximately 10-fold higher than that of the age-matched general female population in Hong Kong (1.88 per 1,000 person-years, [95% CI 1.85-1.92]). The incidence rate of type 2 DM (T2DM) of both normal-weight and overweight women with PCOS was around double that of corresponding control groups (normal weight: 8.96 [95% CI 3.92-17.72] versus 4.86 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 2.13-9.62], p > 0.05; overweight/obese: 28.64 [95% CI 19.55-40.60] versus 14.1 per 1,000 person-years [95% CI 8.20-22.76], p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified that baseline waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] = 1.71 [95% CI 1.08-2.69], p < 0.05) and elevated triglyceride (OR = 6.63 [95% CI 1.23-35.69], p < 0.05) are associated with the progression to T2DM in PCOS. Limitations of this study include moderate sample size with limited number of incident diabetes during follow-up period and potential selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: High risk of diabetes and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chinese women with PCOS are highlighted in this long-term follow-up study. Diabetes onset was, on average, 10 years earlier among women with PCOS than in women without PCOS.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(86): 12996-12999, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608348

RESUMO

No methodology has been built to distinguish intracellular SERS nanosensors from cell outer membrane bound-ones. Here we propose a "turning off" strategy by combining etchable SERS nanosensors with a non-permeable etchant. The SERS signals outside the living cells can be rapidly removed, leaving only the internalized nanosensors for imaging and thereby allowing accurate intracellular pH and H2O2 sensing.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ouro/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40490-40502, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571477

RESUMO

The ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction promises high efficiency in photocurrent conversion and other light-driven processes, but the lattice mismatch between ZnO and Cu2O leads to slow electron transfer and low conversion efficiency. In addition, the stability of Cu2O is still the main challenging and limiting factor for device applications in real environments. CuxO is a mixed semiconductor of CuO and Cu2O, which is a promising alternative to Cu2O in device fabrication due to its better stability and photocatalytic efficiency. In this work, CuxO nanorods were attached to vertically aligned gold-decorated ZnO nanorods, creating a hierarchical ZnO/Au/CuxO nanoforest. In addition, the hierarchical surface shows superhydrophobicity, which can prevent Cu2O degradation by water and oxygen. Femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy was employed to investigate the electron transfer dynamics in the ZnO/Au/CuxO heterojunction. The nanoforest demonstrates enhanced electron mobility, increased lattice match, and higher photocurrent conversion efficiency compared with bare ZnO, CuxO, or ZnO/CuxO.

18.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566431

RESUMO

Two new naphthoate derivatives, including a symmetrical dimer (1) and a monomer (2), were separated from the roots of Morinda officinalis var. hirsuta. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic means especially MS and NMR methods. Biological evaluations revealed that the two compounds did not show inhibition against both cholinesterases AChE and BChE, while the dimer (1) did exhibit moderate growth inhibitory activity toward one human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS with an IC50 value of 18.5 ± 1.1 µM.

19.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(10): 939-950, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511468

RESUMO

In order to study the oxidative stability of hazelnut oil stored at room temperature, hazelnut oil accelerated oxidized at 62°C was used to determine peroxide value (POV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), the content of fatty acids and volatile oxidative products. The correlation between the content of fatty acids or volatile oxidative products and three peroxidation indexes was analyzed. The results showed that the relative content of linoleic acid in hazelnut oil decreased significantly at the duration of accelerated oxidation (p < 0.05), which was in line with the zero-order oxidation kinetics model. The absolute content of four fatty acids all accorded with the zero-order oxidation kinetics model. Both relative and absolute content of linoleic acid can set up a slightly negative linear correlation with POV, p-AV and TOTOX, respectively (p < 0.05). The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in hazelnut oil produced a variety of volatile oxidation products, among which hexanal, 2-octenal, 2-decenal and 3-octene-2-one could establish a significantly positive correlation with POV, p-AV and TOTOX at a certain period of time, which could be used as a new index to evaluate the oxidative decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids in hazelnut oil during storage.

20.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6473-6483, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531441

RESUMO

The aroma of grilled eel is affected by three key processing steps: curing, steaming, and grilling. This study was aimed at the determination of the difference between the characteristic volatiles in each processing stage and their influence on the final aroma of grilled eel. A total of 92 volatile compounds were identified by purge and trap (P&T) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) throughout the processing. Alcohol, ketone, aromatic compounds and methylated compounds were the most important volatiles in the eel meat during processing. Pyrazine was generated gradually during the entire process, and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine was only found in the sample after grilling. Distinct odors among the raw and treated samples could be indirectly distinguished according to their volatile compounds, analyzed by heatmap. Together, these results indicate a relationship between the final aroma and the whole processing. The odor coding made from the odor activity value (OAV) could be as a reference benchmark for the grilled eel product.

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