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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913348

RESUMO

Vascular dementia (VD) is the second most common dementia disease after Alzheimer's diseases (AD) in the world. Donepezil is used to treat mild to moderate AD, and it has been shown to treat cognitive impairment and memory deficits caused by VD. However, the action mechanism of donepezil against VD has not been clarified. In this study, a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) model was established in rats to simulate the pathology of VD. Two weeks after the surgery, the rats were administered donepezil (10 mg · kg-1 · d-1, ig) for 3 weeks, and then subjected to behavioral tests. We showed that donepezil treatment significantly improved the performance of BCCAO rats in Morris Water Mazes test and Step-down test. Furthermore, we showed that donepezil treatment significantly attenuated neurodegeneration and restored the synapse dendritic spines density in cortex and hippocampus. We revealed that donepezil treatment significantly increased BDNF expression in cortex and hippocampus. Interestingly, donepezil treatment significantly decreased nuclear translocation of HDAC6 and the binding between HDAC6 and BDNF promoter IV in cortex, but not in the hippocampus. The attenuated neurodegeneration by donepezil in cortex and hippocampus might due to the reduced ROS levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPK, whereas increased phosphorylation of AKT was only detected in cortex. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that donepezil attenuates neurodegeneration in cortex and hippocampus via increasing BDNF expression; the regulation of donepezil on HDAC6 occurred in cortex, but not in the hippocampus. This study further clarifies the pharmacological mechanism of donepezil, while also emphasizes the promising epigenetic regulation of HDAC6.

2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 866: 172801, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738935

RESUMO

Ginseng has been traditionally used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM) in China. Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active ingredient in processed ginseng, which elicits proven biological and pharmacological effects. Although a correlation between nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been identified, the mechanism underlying the potential function and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in DM have not been elucidated to date. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects and underlying mechanism of Rg1 on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1DM in mice through short or long-term observation. Concurrently, we intended to explore the relationships between inflammasome, pyroptosis and oxidative stress and the role of NLRP3 and Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in the development and progression of DM. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis, we found that Rg1 attenuated abnormally elevated blood glucose, reduced inflammatory factors IL-1ß and IL-18 in the blood, decreased ALT and AST levels, promoted insulin secretion, and weakened the function of NLRP3 in mouse liver and pancreas. In addition, Rg1 protected against STZ-induced reactive oxygen species-mediated inflammation by upregulating Nrf2/ARE pathway, which further activated antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, Rg1 also regulated H3K9 methylation in liver and pancreas, as detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, these data provide new understanding about the mechanism of Rg1 action, suggesting that it is a potential drug applied for preventing the occurrence and development of T1DM.

3.
Trends Mol Med ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836419

RESUMO

Spliceosomes comprise small nuclear (sn)RNAs and proteins. Through genome-wide analyses in large-scale tumor samples, recent studies by Shuai et al., Suzuki et al., and Inoue et al. have identified recurrent spliceosomal mutations that induced genome-wide splicing alterations of cancer-related genes to promote malignancy. These discoveries suggest novel RNA-based therapeutics in anticancer treatment.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 331, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD8+ T cells differentiate into exhausted status within tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which constitutes a solid barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. A detailed characterization of exhausted T cells and their prognostic value in HCC is lacking. METHODS: We collected fresh tumor tissues with adjacent non-tumor liver tissues and blood specimens of 56 HCC patients, as well as archived samples from two independent cohorts of HCC patients (n = 358 and n = 254), who underwent surgical resection. Flow cytometry and multiplex immunostaining were used to characterize CD8+ T cells. Patient prognosis was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: CD8+ T cells were classified into three distinct subpopulations: PD1Hi, PD1Int and PD1-. PD1Hi CD8+ T cells were significantly enriched in tumor compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. PD1Hi CD8+ T cells highly expressed exhaustion-related inhibitory receptors (TIM3, CTLA-4, etc.) and transcription factors (Eomes, BATF, etc.). In addition, PD1Hi CD8+ T cells expressed low levels of cytotoxic molecules and displayed a compromised capacity to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines while the expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was up-regulated following mitotic stimulation. Furthermore, PD1Hi CD8+ T cells shared features with tissue resident memory T cells and were also characterized in an aberrantly activated status with an apoptosis-prone potential. In two independent cohorts of HCC patients (n = 358 and n = 254), we demonstrated that PD1Hi or TIM3+PD1Hi CD8+ T cells were significantly correlated with poor prognosis, and the latter was positioned in close proximity to PD-L1+ tumor associated macrophages. CONCLUSION: The current study unveils the unique features of PD1Hi CD8+ exhausted T cells in HCC, and also suggests that exhausted T cells could act as a biomarker to select the most care-demanding patients for tailored therapies.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2658, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798569

RESUMO

The soil-borne, asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) is the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Autophagy plays a crucial role in the development and virulence of Fol. The Fol endosomal system is highly dynamic and has been shown to be associated with conidiogenesis and pathogenicity. Rab GTPases and the regulators are highly conserved in regulating autophagy and endocytosis in most eukaryotes. Identification and characterization of additional Rab regulators in fungal pathogens should facilitate the understanding of the autophagy and endocytosis in different filamentous fungi. Here, we have identified and characterized the yeast VPS9 homolog FolVPS9 in Fol. Targeted gene deletion showed that FolVPS9 is important for growth, conidiation and virulence in Fol. Cytological examination revealed that FolVps9 co-localized with FolVps21 (a marker of early endosome) and played a critical role in endocytosis and autophagosome degradation. Pull-down assays showed that FolVps9 interacted with FolVps21, which was also important for development and plant infection in Fol. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FolVps9 specifically interacts with the GDP-bound form of FolVps21. Furthermore, a constitutively active form of FolVps21 (Q72L) was able to rescue defects of ΔFolvps9 and ΔFolvps21 mutants. In summary, our study provides solid evidence that FolVps9 acts as a FolVps21 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEFs) to modulate endocytosis and autophagy, thereby controlling vegetative growth, asexual development and pathogenicity in Fol.

6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 130: 109806, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a neurocristopathy with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and highly genetic heterogeneity. To date, mutations of PAX3, SOX10, MITF, EDNRB, EDN3 and SNAI2 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of WS. In this study, we aimed to identify pathogenic genes among WS families and to analyze the pathogenic relationship between genotypes and phenotypes. METHODS: In this study, all six families studied were from Hubei province, China.WS patients underwent screening for all deafness genes including PAX3, SOX10, MITF, EDNRB, EDN3 and SNAI2 using Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS) and validation of mutations using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Clinical evaluation revealed prominent phenotypic variability in Hubei WS patients. Two WS1 families and four WS2 families were diagnosed in six families. Sensorineural hearing loss was the most common, followed by iris pigmentary abnormality. Molecular genetic analysis of the WS genes for six families revealed five novel heterozygous mutations. Two mutations occurred in the PAX3 gene: one nonsense mutation c.667C > T(p.Arg223Ter) and one missense mutation c.220C > T(p.Arg74Cys).One missense mutation c.331T > C (p.Phe111Leu) and one nonsense mutation c.346C > T(p.Gln116Ter) were detected in the SOX10 gene. Two mutations were detected in the MITF gene: one splice site mutation c.859-1G > A and one nonsense mutation c.859G > T(p.Glu287Ter). Among them, the mutations (SOX10 c.331T > C and MITF c.859G > T) were de novo mutations. CONCLUSION: In this study, six mutations were found to be associated with the phenotype of patients. Our data helped illuminate the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of WS in Hubei province and could have implications for the genetic counseling of WS in Hubei province.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814405

RESUMO

Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs), as a promising solution to harvest mechanical energy from ambient environment, have attracted much attention over the past decade. Here, the core-shell structured BaTiO3@Carbon (BT@C) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple surface-modifying method and then used to fabricate the efficient PENGs with poly [(vinylidene fluoride)-co-trifluoroethylene] (P(VDF-TrFE)). The carbon shell with the uniform thickness of 10-15nm can increase the content of polar ß phase in P(VDF-TrFE), and significantly enhance the interfacial polarization between BT NPs and polymer matrix during poling process. Out of all compositions, 15wt% BT@C/ P(VDF-TrFE) PENG exhibited the optimal piezoelectric performance with an output voltage of ~17V and the maximum power of 14.3µW under bending-releasing mode. More importantly, the PENG can also efficiently harvest other types of mechanical energy from human activities and exhibits stable output after 1500 bending-releasing cycles. When the PENG was bent and beat by bicycle spokes, a peak voltage of 16V was generated, which can light up 12 white LEDs directly and charge the commercial capacitors. Our research provides a new strategy to fabricate flexible and efficient PENGs from nanoscale viewpoint, it can be hopefully applied in energy harvesting system and wearable electric sensors.

8.
Hortic Res ; 6: 136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814989

RESUMO

Fresh-cut roses (Rosa hybrida) are one of the most important ornamental crops worldwide, with annual trade in the billions of dollars. Gray mold disease caused by the pathogen Botrytis cinerea is the most serious fungal threat to cut roses, causing extensive postharvest losses. In this study, we optimized a detached petal disc assay (DPDA) for artificial B. cinerea inoculation and quantification of disease symptoms in rose petals. Furthermore, as the identification of rose genes involved in B. cinerea resistance could provide useful genetic and genomic resources, we devised a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) procedure for the functional analysis of B. cinerea resistance genes in rose petals. We used RhPR10.1 as a reporter of silencing efficiency and found that the rose cultivar 'Samantha' showed the greatest decrease in RhPR10.1 expression among the cultivars tested. To determine whether jasmonic acid and ethylene are required for B. cinerea resistance in rose petals, we used VIGS to silence the expression of RhLOX5 and RhEIN3 (encoding a jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway protein and an ethylene regulatory protein, respectively) and found that petal susceptibility to B. cinerea was affected. Finally, a VIGS screen of B. cinerea-induced rose transcription factors demonstrated the potential benefits of this method for the high-throughput identification of gene function in B. cinerea resistance. Collectively, our data show that the combination of the DPDA and VIGS is a reliable and high-throughput method for studying B. cinerea resistance in rose.

9.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851554

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to explore functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) of the executive control networks (ECNs) and the default mode network (DMN) in patients with right-sided TLE (rTLE) by applying independent component analysis (ICA) and Granger causal analysis (GCA).Methods: Twenty-seven patients with rTLE and 20 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and Attention Network Test (ANT).Results: The FC analysis showed compared to HCs, patients with rTLE demonstrated reduced FC strength in the right inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) and the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). The left superior temporal gyrus (STG) displayed reduced FC values whereas the left thalamus revealed increased FC values in rTLE. ROI-wise GCA revealed that patients with rTLE displayed increased EC from the left thalamus to the left STG, and as well as enhanced EC from the right IPG to the right MTG compared to HCs. Voxel-wise GCA showed positive EC from the left thalamus to the left insula while the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) exhibited increased EC to the right MTG in patients. The ANT results demonstrated executive dysfunction in patients compared to HCs. The increased FC in the left thalamus showed a negative association with ECF in patients.Conclusion: We speculated that recurrent seizures take effect on disruption among the brain networks, and self-modulation occurs simultaneously to compensate for cognitive decline. Our findings revealed new insights on the neuropathophysiological mechanisms of rTLE.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883145

RESUMO

Customizable nanostructures built through the DNA-origami technique hold tremendous promise in nanomaterial fabrication and biotechnology. Despite the cutting-edge tools for DNA-origami design and preparation, it remains challenging to separate structural components of an architecture built from - thus held together by - a continuous scaffold strand, which in turn limits the modularity and function of the DNA-origami devices. To address this challenge, here we present an enzymatic method to clean up and reconfigure DNA-origami structures. We target single-stranded (ss) regions of DNA-origami structures and remove them with CRISPR-Cas12a, a hyper-active ssDNA endonuclease without sequence specificity. We demonstrate the utility of this facile, selective post-processing method on DNA structures with various geometrical and mechanical properties, realizing intricate structures and structural transformations that were previously difficult to engineer. Given the biocompatibility of Cas12a-like enzymes, this versatile tool may be programmed in the future to operate functional nanodevices in cells.

11.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869503

RESUMO

Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem.) or luffa is a diploid herbaceous plant with 26 chromosomes (2n = 26) and belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. To address the limited knowledge of the genome of Luffa species, the chromosome-level genome of L. cylindrica (L.) Roem. was assembled and analysed using PacBio long reads and Hi-C data. We combined Hi-C data with a draft genome assembly to generate chromosome-length scaffolds. Thirteen scaffolds corresponding to the 13 chromosomes were assembled from 1,156 contigs to a final size of 669 Mb with a contig N50 size of 5 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 53 Mb. After removing redundant sequences, 416.31 Mb (62.18% of the genome) of repeat sequences was detected. Subsequently, 31,661 protein-coding genes with an average of 5.69 exons per gene were identified in the L. cylindrica (L.) Roem. genome using de novo methods, transcriptome data and homologue-based approaches. In addition, 27,552 protein-coding genes (87.02%) were annotated in five databases. According to the phylogenetic analysis, L. cylindrica (L.) Roem. is closely related to Cucurbita and Cucumis species and diverged from their common ancestor approximately 28.6-67.1 million years ago. Genome collinearity analysis was performed in Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and L. cylindrica (L.) Roem., and it demonstrated a high degree of conserved gene order in these three species. The completeness of the genome will provide high-quality genomic knowledge on breeding and reveal genetic variation in L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.

12.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(6): 846-854, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879740

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of advanced glycated albumin (AGE-alb) on pyroptosis of macrophages and the underlying molecular mechanisms. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AGE-alb (1, 2, 4 and 6 g/L) and control albumin (C-alb, 4 g/L) for 24 h, or preincubated with MCC950 (1 µmol/L) for 1 h and then treated with AGE-alb (4 g/L) for 24 h. Cell viability and caspase-1 activity were measured by MTT and assay kits, respectively. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and the levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-18 in media were detected. Cell death degree was evaluated by TUNEL and Hoechst 33342/PI staining. The protein levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), procaspase-1 and cleaved caspase-1 were assessed by Western blot. The results showed that AGE-alb treatment caused obvious decrease in cell viability and increases in LDH leakage and the percentages of TUNEL- or PI-positive cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, AGE-alb promoted IL-1ß and IL-18 secretion, upregulated NLRP3 expression, and increased caspase-1 activity especially at the dose of 4 and 6 g/L. However, MCC950 (an NLRP3 inhibitor) pretreatment inhibited significantly the decrease in cell viability and the increases in LDH leakage and percentages of TUNEL- or PI-positive cells induced by AGE-alb. Furthermore, MCC950 attenuated obviously AGE-alb-induced IL-1ß and IL-18 secretion and caspase-1 activation. These results indicate that AGE-alb may induce macrophage pyroptosis, and the mechanism is at least partially by activating NLRP3-caspase-1 pathway.

13.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax6916, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692967

RESUMO

Intake of addictive substances acutely modifies dopaminergic transmission in the striatum and prefrontal cortex, which is the neural substrate underlying time processing. However, the persistent effects of methamphetamine (meth) abuse (e.g., during abstinence) on temporal processing have not been fully elucidated. Here, we recruited different samples in two experiments. We first compared the potential differences in motor timing between healthy controls and meth dependents with varied length of abstinence and then examined the ability of perceptual timing between the healthy subjects and the meth group at short abstinence. We found that motor timing, but not perceptual timing, was altered in meth dependents, which persisted for at least 3 months of abstinence. Dose-dependent effects on time perception were only observed when short-term abstinent meth abusers processed long time intervals. We conclude that time perception alteration in meth dependents is task specific and dose dependent.

14.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225045, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703104

RESUMO

Deperetellidae is a clade of peculiar, Asian endemic tapiroids from the early and middle Eocene. The previously published material mainly comprises maxillae, mandibles, and some postcranial elements. However, the absence of cranial materials and primitive representatives of the deperetellids obscures their phylogenetic relationships within Tapiroidea. Furthermore, derived deperetellids have completely molarized premolars, but the pattern of their evolution remains unclear. Here, we report a nearly complete skull and some carpals of a new basal deperetellid tapiroid, Irenolophus qii gen. et sp. nov., from the late early Eocene of the Erlian Basin, Inner Mongolia, China. We suggest that deperetellids (along with Tapiridae) probably also arose from some basal 'helaletids', based on the reduced, flat, lingually depressed metacones on the upper molars, the trend towards the bilophodonty on the lower molars, and a shallow narial notch with the premaxilla in contact with the nasal. The molarization of the premolars in Deperetellidae from Irenolophus through Teleolophus to Deperetella was initiated and gradually enhanced by the separation between the paraconule and the protocone. That pattern differs from the protocone-hypocone separation in helaletids, tapirids, and most rhinoceroses, and the metaconule-derived pseudohypocone in amynodontids. However, the specific relationship of deperetellids within Tapiroidea and the roles of different patterns of premolar molarization in perissodactyl evolution need further and comprehensive study.

15.
J Toxicol Pathol ; 32(4): 253-260, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719752

RESUMO

Silicosis is a serious occupational disease characterized by pulmonary fibrosis, and its mechanism and progression have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, silicosis models of rat were established by a one-time dusting method, and the rats were sacrificed after 30, 60, and 120 days (herein referred to as the 30, 60, and 120 days groups, respectively). The rats without dust exposure were used as the control. The lungs were removed to observe pathological changes using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy, and the degree of collagen type I and III deposition in the lung was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase were measured by spectrophotometry, and the expression levels of fibrosis-related genes (transforming growth factor beta 1, type I collagen, type III collagen) were assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results suggested that the rats in the model groups exhibited obvious collagen fibrosis and that the severity of the lung injury increased as the time after exposure to SiO2 increased. There was a significant response to lung inflammation in the model rats, especially in the 30 days group. The degree of lipid peroxidation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells and lung tissues in experiment group rats significantly increased. Among the three fibrosis-related genes, transforming growth factor beta 1was elevated in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells and lung tissues of the experiment group rats, while collagen type I and III were only elevated in lung tissues. Hence, we concluded that as silicosis progressed, inflammation, fibrosis, and the expression of fibrosis-related genes showed different time-dependent changes and that a number of causal relationships existed among them.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714238

RESUMO

The choice of which clothes to wear affects how one is perceived, as well as constitutes an expression of one's personal style. Based on the recent advances in image-to-image translation by the conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN), we propose a new framework with a multidiscriminator by incorporating different types of conditional information into the discriminator of cGAN for clothing matches. In contrast with most extant frameworks under cGAN, with one generator and one discriminator, the proposed framework investigates the potential of utilizing conditional information delivered by multidiscriminators to guide the generator. Under this framework, we propose an Attribute-GAN with two discriminators and a category-attribute GAN (CA-GAN) with three discriminators. In order to evaluate the performance of our proposed models, we built a large-scale data set that consists of 19,081 pairs of collocation clothing images with 90 manually labeled attributes. Experimental results demonstrate that with supervision of the additional attribute discriminator or category discriminator, the quality of the generated clothing images by GANs is consistently improved in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

17.
BMC Biol ; 17(1): 89, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells provides a unique opportunity to study human heart development in vitro and offers a potential cell source for cardiac regeneration. Compared to the large body of studies investigating cardiac maturation and cardiomyocyte subtype-specific induction, molecular events underlying cardiac lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells at early stage remain poorly characterized. RESULTS: In order to uncover key molecular events and regulators controlling cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state during differentiation, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq sequencing and obtained high-quality data for 6879 cells collected from 6 stages during cardiac differentiation from human embryonic stem cells and identified multiple cell subpopulations with distinct molecular features. Through constructing developmental trajectory of cardiac differentiation and putative ligand-receptor interactions, we revealed crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells, which could potentially provide a cellular microenvironment supporting cardiac lineage commitment at day 5. In addition, computational analyses of single-cell RNA-Seq data unveiled ETS1 (ETS Proto-Oncogene 1) activation as an important downstream event induced by crosstalk between cardiac progenitor cells and endoderm cells. Consistent with the findings from single-cell analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) against ETS1 revealed genomic occupancy of ETS1 at cardiac structural genes at day 9 and day 14, whereas ETS1 depletion dramatically compromised cardiac differentiation. CONCLUSION: Together, our study not only characterized the molecular features of different cell types and identified ETS1 as a crucial factor induced by cell-cell crosstalk contributing to cardiac lineage commitment from a pluripotent state, but may also have important implications for understanding human heart development at early embryonic stage, as well as directed manipulation of cardiac differentiation in regenerative medicine.

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 522, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WRKYs are a major family of plant transcription factors that play roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, a comprehensive study of the WRKY family in roses (Rosa sp.) has not previously been performed. RESULTS: In the present study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the WRKY genes in the rose (Rosa chinensis), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, chromosomal locations, and collinearity. Using a phylogenetic analysis, we divided the 56 RcWRKY genes into three subgroups. The RcWRKYs were unevenly distributed across all seven rose chromosomes, and a study of their collinearity suggested that genome duplication may have played a major role in RcWRKY gene duplication. A Ka/Ks analysis indicated that they mainly underwent purifying selection. Botrytis cinerea infection induced the expression of 19 RcWRKYs, most of which had undergone gene duplication during evolution. These RcWRKYs may regulate rose resistance against B. cinerea. Based on our phylogenetic and expression analyses, RcWRKY41 was identified as a candidate regulatory gene in the response to B. cinerea infection, which was confirmed using virus-induced gene silencing. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides useful information to facilitate the further study of the function of the rose WRKY gene family.

19.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(10): 105701, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747646

RESUMO

The electronic stopping power for low-velocity ions (including protons, [Formula: see text]-particles, and [Formula: see text]) is investigated in a novel semimetal HgTe system, where the data are obtained with the aid of Ehrenfest dynamics combined with time-dependent density functional theory. For the light projectile ions (protons and [Formula: see text]-particles), the linear and nonlinear behaviors of electronic stopping power in three different channel directions are analyzed in detail. In the case where the projectile ion is a proton, the linear results for the threshold velocity are correlated with an indirect band gap; the direction of the electronic stopping power depends on the radial drag force, the channeling electronic density and the trapped charge. More notably, we report an interesting channel-geometry fact, i.e. that the electronic stopping power of HgTe is powerfully modulated by the impact parameters. The parallel off-center tracks increase the electronic stopping power, making it more consistent with the SRIM data. In the case of an [Formula: see text]-particle as the projectile ion, nonlinear behavior that varies with velocity can be ascribed to the charge transfer, which is another mode of energy dissipation. In addition, when the slightly heavier projectile [Formula: see text] travels through the medium HgTe, the projectile [Formula: see text] can capture more free charges than the protons and [Formula: see text]-particles under the same circumstances. Especially, for the projectile in the off-channel, the electronic stopping power is close to the SRIM data with the decrease of the impact parameter. These results extend the study of radiation damage to a new field of materials.

20.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748879

RESUMO

Previous studies indicated that cyclin D1 shown the potential as a tumor biomarker. However, the prognostic value of cyclin D1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains controversial. This study investigated the correlation of cyclin D1 expression with the prognostic and clinicopathological features in RCC patients. We systematically searched the database of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science updated on November 26, 2017. Eighteen studies with 2282 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Results demonstrated that cyclin D1 overexpression in RCC showed significant favorable prognostic impact on disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.74) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.85) without significant heterogeneity. In subgroup of clear cell RCC, the prognostic effect on DFS was robust and the pooled HR was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.27-0.57). However, no association between overall survival (OS) and cyclin D1 expression was observed. Stratified analysis in DFS studies by sample size, staining patterns race and metastasis status showed similar results. Otherwise, cyclin D1 overexpression predicted a reduced prevalence of high TNM stage (T3 + T4) (OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99), high-grade tumor (G3 + G4) (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.81) and large tumor size (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19-0.62). Our meta-analysis indicated that cyclin D1 overexpression could predict the favorable prognosis in patients with RCC.

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