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1.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11914217, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008462

RESUMO

Our objective was to gain insight in the calculation and interpretation of population health metrics that inform disease prevention. Using as model environmental exposure to lead (ELE), a global pollutant, we assessed population health metrics derived from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), the GBD (Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the hazard ratio relating mortality over 19.3 years of follow-up to a blood lead increase at baseline from 1.0 to 6.7 µg/dL (10th-90th percentile interval) was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-1.60). The population-attributable fraction of blood lead was 18.0% (10.9%-26.1%). The number of preventable ELE-related deaths in the United States would be 412 000 per year (250 000-598 000). In GBD 2010, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years globally lost due to ELE were 0.67 million (0.58-0.78 million) and 0.56% (0.47%-0.66%), respectively. According to the 2017 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development statistics, ELE-related welfare costs were $1 676 224 million worldwide. Extrapolations from the foregoing metrics assumed causality and reversibility of the association between mortality and blood lead, which at present-day ELE levels in developed nations is not established. Other issues limiting the interpretation of ELE-related population health metrics are the inflation of relative risk based on outdated blood lead levels, not differentiating relative from absolute risk, clustering of risk factors and exposures within individuals, residual confounding, and disregarding noncardiovascular disease and immigration in national ELE-associated welfare estimates. In conclusion, this review highlights the importance of critical thinking in translating population health metrics into cost-effective preventive strategies.

2.
Insect Sci ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039551

RESUMO

Swarming behavior facilitates pair formation, and therefore mating, in many eusocial termites. However, the physiological adjustments and morphological transformations of the flight muscles involved in flying and flightless insect forms are still unclear. Here, we found that the dispersal flight of the eusocial termite Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder led to a gradual decrease in ATP supply from oxidative phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the activities of critical mitochondrial respiratory enzymes from preflight to dealation. Correspondingly, using three-dimensional reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the flight muscles were found to be gradually deteriorated during this process. In particular, two tergo-pleural muscles (IItpm5 and IIItpm5) necessary to adjust the rotation of wings for wing shedding behavior were present only in flying alates. These findings suggest that flight muscle systems varied in function and morphology to facilitate the swarming flight procedure, which sheds light on the important role of swarming in successful extension and fecundity of eusocial termites. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 10, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918764

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The urinary proteome reflects molecular drivers of disease. OBJECTIVES: To construct a urinary proteomic biomarker predicting 1-year post-ICU mortality. METHODS: In 1243 patients, the urinary proteome was measured on ICU admission, using capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry along with clinical variables, circulating biomarkers (BNP, hsTnT, active ADM, and NGAL), and urinary albumin. Methods included support vector modeling to construct the classifier, Cox regression, the integrated discrimination (IDI), and net reclassification (NRI) improvement, and area under the curve (AUC) to assess predictive accuracy, and Proteasix and protein-proteome interactome analyses. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In the discovery (deaths/survivors, 70/299) and test (175/699) datasets, the new classifier ACM128, mainly consisting of collagen fragments, yielding AUCs of 0.755 (95% CI, 0.708-0.798) and 0.688 (0.656-0.719), respectively. While accounting for study site and clinical risk factors, hazard ratios in 1243 patients were 2.41 (2.00-2.91) for ACM128 (+ 1 SD), 1.24 (1.16-1.32) for the Charlson Comorbidity Index (+ 1 point), and ≥ 1.19 (P ≤ 0.022) for other biomarkers (+ 1 SD). ACM128 improved (P ≤ 0.0001) IDI (≥ + 0.50), NRI (≥ + 53.7), and AUC (≥ + 0.037) over and beyond clinical risk indicators and other biomarkers. Interactome mapping, using parental proteins derived from sequenced peptides included in ACM128 and in silico predicted proteases, including/excluding urinary collagen fragments (63/35 peptides), revealed as top molecular pathways protein digestion and absorption, lysosomal activity, and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary proteomic classifier ACM128 predicts the 1-year post-ICU mortality over and beyond clinical risk factors and other biomarkers and revealed molecular pathways potentially contributing to a fatal outcome.

4.
Blood Press ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833420

RESUMO

Purpose: Arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular complications. The association between arterial stiffness and blood lead (BL) remains poorly documented. We aimed to assess the association of central hemodynamic measurements, including pulse wave velocity (aPWV), with blood lead in a Flemish population.Materials and Methods: In this Flemish population study (mean age, 37.0 years; 48.3% women), 267 participants had their whole BL and 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 1985-2005. After 9.4 years (median), they underwent applanation tonometry to estimate central pulse pressure (cPP), the augmentation index (AI), pressure amplification (PA), and aPWV. The amplitudes of the forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves and reflection index (RI) were derived by a pressure-based wave separation algorithm.Results: BL averaged 2.93 µg/dL (interquartile range, 1.80-4.70) and UCd 4.79 µg (2.91-7.85). Mean values were 45.0 ± 15.2 mm Hg for cPP, 24.4 ± 12.4% for AI, 1.34 ± 0.21 for PA, 7.65 ± 1.74 m/s for aPWV, 32.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg for Pf, 21.8 ± 8.4 mm Hg for Pb, and 66.9 ± 18.4% for RI. The multivariable-adjusted association sizes for a 2-fold higher BL were: +3.03% (95% confidence interval, 1.56, 4.50) for AI; -0.06 (-0.08, -0.04) for PA; 1.02 mm Hg (0.02, 2.02) for Pb; and 3.98% (1.71, 6.24) for RI (p ≤ .045). In 206 participants never on antihypertensive drug treatment, association sizes were +2.59 mm Hg (0.39, 4.79) for cPP and +0.26 m/s (0.03, 0.50) for aPWV. Analyses adjusted for co-exposure to cadmium were consistent.Conclusion: In conclusion, low-level environmental lead exposure possibly contributes to arterial stiffening and wave reflection from peripheral sites.

6.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 180-190, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704501

RESUMO

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) are two common viral pathogens that cause severe economic losses in all salmonid species in culture, but especially in rainbow trout. Although vaccines against both diseases have been commercialized in some countries, no such vaccines are available for them in China. In this study, a recombinant virus was constructed using the IHNV U genogroup Blk94 virus as a backbone vector to express the antigenic gene, VP2, from IPNV via the reverse genetics system. The resulting recombinant virus (rBlk94-VP2) showed stable biological characteristics as confirmed by virus growth kinetic analyses, pathogenicity analyses, indirect immunofluorescence assays and western blotting. Rainbow trout were immunized with rBlk94-VP2 and then challenged with the IPNV ChRtm213 strain and the IHNV Sn1203 strain on day 45 post-vaccination. A significantly higher survival rate against IHNV was obtained in the rBlk94-VP2 group on day 45 post-vaccination (86%) compared with the PBS mock immunized group (2%). Additionally, IPNV loads decreased significantly in the rBlk94-VP2 immunized group in the liver (28.6-fold to 36.5-fold), anterior kidney (21.7-fold to 44.2-fold), and spleen (14.9-fold to 22.7-fold), as compared with the PBS mock control group. The mRNA transcripts for several innate and adaptive immune-related proteins (IFN-γ, IFN-1, Mx-1, CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgT) were also significantly upregulated after rBlk94-VP2 vaccination, and neutralizing antibodies against both IHNV and IPNV were induced on day 45 post-vaccination. Collectively, our results suggest that this recombinant virus could be developed as a vaccine vector to protect rainbow trout against two or more diseases, and our approach lays the foundations for developing live vaccines for rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , China , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/virologia , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/imunologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/imunologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/virologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Carga Viral/métodos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
7.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733156

RESUMO

In the 2016, WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is a main classifier for lower grade astrocytomas and IDH-mutated astrocytomas is now regarded as a single group with longer survival. However, the molecular and clinical heterogeneity among IDH mutant lower grade (WHO Grades II/III) astrocytomas have only rarely been investigated. In this study, we recruited 160 IDH mutant lower grade (WHO Grades II/III) astrocytomas, and examined PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A deletion and CDK4 amplification by FISH analysis, TERT promoter mutation by Sanger sequencing and ATRX loss and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry. We identified PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A homozygous deletion and CDK4 amplification in 18.8%, 15.0% and 18.1% of our cohort respectively, and these alterations occurred in a mutually exclusive fashion. PDGFRA amplification was associated with shorter PFS (P = 0.0003) and OS (P < 0.0001). In tumors without PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A homozygous deletion or CDK4 amplification was associated with a shorter OS (P = 0.035). Tumors were divided into three risk groups based on the presence of molecular alterations: high risk (PDGFRA amplification), intermediate risk (CDKN2A deletion or CDK4 amplification) and low risk (neither CDKN2A deletion and CDK4 amplification nor PDGFRA amplification). These three risk groups were significantly different in overall survival with mean survivals of 40.5, 62.9 and 71.5 months. The high-risk group also demonstrated a shorter PFS compared to intermediate- (P = 0.036) and low-risk (P < 0.0001) groups. One limitation of this study is the relatively short follow-up period, a common confounding factor for studies on low-grade tumors. Our data illustrate that IDH mutant lower grade astrocytomas is not a homogeneous group and should be molecularly stratified for risk.

8.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMO

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13239, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519974

RESUMO

Inflammation and immunoreaction markers were correlated with the survival of patients in many tumors. However, there were no reports investigating the relationships between preoperative hematological markers and the prognosis of medulloblastoma (MB) patients based on the molecular subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4). A total 144 MB patients were enrolled in the study. The differences of preoperative hematological markers among molecular subgroups of MB were compared by One-way ANOVA method. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the curves of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The comparison of survival rates in different groups were conducted by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors. Increased preoperative NLR (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, PFS, P = 0.004, OS, P < 0.001) and PLR (platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, PFS, P = 0.028, OS, P = 0.003) predicted poor prognosis in patients with MB, while preoperative MLR (monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio), MPV (mean platelet volume), PDW (platelet distribution width), and AGR (albumin-to-globulin ratio) were revealed no predictive value on the prognosis of patients with MB. Furthermore, high preoperative NLR and PLR predicted unfavorable prognosis in childhood MB patients. However, preoperative NLR and PLR were not associated with the prognosis in adult MB patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated preoperative NLR (PFS, P = 0.029, OS, P = 0.005) and PLR (PFS, P = 0.023, OS, P = 0.005) were the independent prognostic factors in MB patients. Emphatically, the levels of preoperative NLR and PLR in Group 3 MB were significantly higher than those in WNT MB. High preoperative NLR was associated with unfavorable OS in Group 3 (P = 0.032) and Group 4 (P = 0.027) tumors. Similarly, increased preoperative PLR predicted poor PFS (P = 0.012) and OS (P = 0.009) in Group 4 tumors. Preoperative NLR and PLR were the potential prognostic markers for MB patients. Preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly associated with the survival of Group 3 and Group 4 tumors.

11.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(5): 897-906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of studies examined the association between preterm delivery and kidney size and function later in life. However, the number of cases in published cohort studies is low. This study was aimed at performing a multicenter collaboration to pool data to obtain more accurate results to quantify the extent of renal impairment in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) children. METHODOLOGY: We performed a subject-level meta-analysis to pool data from Cracow (64 cases/34 controls) and Leuven (93 cases/87 controls). We assessed and analyzed cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ultrasound kidney length, and blood pressure (BP) in 11-year-old ELBW children compared with controls born at term. The prevalence of hypertension (HT) and prehypertension (preHT) in both groups was also analyzed. RESULTS: The study group comprised 157 former ELBW children (gestational age 23-33 weeks and birth weight 430-1,000 g) and 123 children born at term. Former ELBW children had lower mean eGFR (100.62 ± 16.53 vs. 111.89 ± 15.26 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001), smaller absolute kidney length (8.56 ± 0.78 vs. 9.008 ± 0.73 cm; <0.001), and higher systolic (111.8 ± 9.8 vs. 107.2 ± 9.07 mm Hg; p = 0.01) and diastolic (68.6 ± 6.8 vs. 66.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg; p = 0.03) BP. Smaller renal size in former ELBW children was positively associated with lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and severity of perinatal complications (intraventricular hemorrhage, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, and oxygen therapy). CONCLUSION: ELBW is associated with lower eGFR and a high frequency of preHT and HT.

12.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6252-6272, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444316

RESUMO

The prediction of clinical outcome for patients with infiltrative gliomas is challenging. Although preoperative hematological markers have been proposed as predictors of survival in glioma and other cancers, systematic investigations that combine these data with other relevant clinical variables are needed to improve prognostic accuracy and patient outcomes. We investigated the prognostic value of preoperative hematological markers, alone and in combination with molecular pathology, for the survival of 592 patients with Grade II-IV diffuse gliomas. On univariate analysis, increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and decreased albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), all predicted poor prognosis in Grade II/III gliomas. Multivariate analysis incorporating tumor status based on the presence of IDH mutations, TERT promoter mutations, and 1p/19q codeletion showed that in lower-grade gliomas, high NLR predicted poorer survival for the triple-negative, IDH mutation only, TERT mutation only, and IDH and TERT mutation groups. NLR was an independent prognostic factor in Grade IV glioma. We therefore propose a prognostic model for diffuse gliomas based on the presence of IDH and TERT promoter mutations, 1p/19q codeletion, and NLR. This model classifies lower-grade gliomas into nine subgroups that can be combined into four main risk groups based on survival projections.

15.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2505-2513, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377888

RESUMO

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was developed as a vector to aid the construction of vaccines against viral diseases such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, spring viremia of carp virus, and influenza virus H1N1. However, the optimal site for foreign gene expression in the IHNV vector has not been determined. In the present study, five recombinant viruses with the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene inserted into different genomic junction regions of the IHNV genomic sequence were generated using reverse genetics technology. Viral growth was severely delayed when the GFP gene was inserted into the intergenic region between the N and P genes. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assays showed that the closer the GFP gene was inserted towards the 3' end, the higher the GFP mRNA levels. Measurement of the GFP fluorescence intensity, which is the most direct method to determine the GFP protein expression level, showed that the highest GFP protein level was obtained when the gene was inserted into the intergenic region between the P and M genes. The results of this study suggest that the P and M gene junction region is the optimal site within the IHNV vector to express foreign genes, providing valuable information for the future development of live vector vaccines.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Vírus da Necrose Hematopoética Infecciosa/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Fluorometria , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/biossíntese , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Genética Reversa
16.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
18.
Blood Press ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352838

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous studies that addressed whether left ventricular hypertrophy is more closely associated with central than peripheral blood pressure (BP) have been inconsistent. Radial artery wave generated by applanation tonometry and calibrated with brachial BP in 162 adult Nigerians were analysed by using generalized transfer function to derive central BP. Materials and methods: We compared the associations of ECG voltages and left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) as continuous and binary variables respectively with central and brachial BP indices. Results: In a multivariable adjusted analysis, 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in brachial systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean arterial pressures increased the Sokolow-Lyon QRS voltage by 0.34 (CI, 0.21-0.48; p < 0.0001), 0.21 (CI, 0.07-0.36; p < 0.05); 0.22 (CI, 0.9-0.34; p < 0.001) and 0.29 (CI, 0.14-0.43) similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding Sokolow-Lyon QRS increase of 0.26 (0.12-0.40, p < 0.001); 0.14 (0.00-0.28, p < 0.05); 0.24 (0.11-0.39; p < 0.001) and 0.19 (0.05-0.34, p < 0.05) respectively observed for 1 SD increment in central pressures. The odds ratio (OR) relating ECG-LVH to 1 SD increase in brachial systolic, pulse, and mean arterial pressures were 2.62 (CI, 1.49-4.65, p < 0.001); 1.88 (CI, 1.19-2.95, p < 0.01) and 2.16 (CI, 1.22-3.82, p < 0.01) was similar to (p > 0.05) corresponding OR of 2.41 (1.33-4.36, p < 0.01); 2.04 (1.23-3.37, p < 0.01); 2.00 (1.11-3.63, p < 0.001) observed for I SD increment in central pressures. Conclusion: Central and peripheral BP are similarly associated with Sokolow-Lyon ECG voltage and hypertrophy.

19.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 606-613, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280648

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness and wave reflection predict cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and are associated with renal microvascular disease. We hypothesized that the retinal microvascular traits might be associated with central hemodynamic properties. In 735 randomly recruited Flemish (mean age, 50.3 years; 47.1% women), we derived central pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity by applanation tonometry and calculated forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves, using an automated pressure-based wave separation algorithm. We measured central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular equivalent and their ratio, using IVAN software (Vasculomatic ala Nicola, version 1.1). Mean values for pulse wave velocity (n=554), Pf and Pb were 7.50 m/s, 32.0 mm Hg, and 21.5 mm Hg, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CRAE was 4.62 µm and 1.26 µm smaller (P≤0.034) for a 1-SD increment in central mean arterial pressure (+11.3 mm Hg) and central pulse pressure (+15.2 mm Hg); a 1-SD increment in the augmentation ratio (+7.0%), aortic pulse wave velocity (+1.66 m/s), Pf (+10.0 mm Hg), and Pb (+8.5 mm Hg), was associated with smaller CRAE; the association sizes were -1.91 µm, -1.59 µm, -1.45 µm, and -2.38 µm (P≤0.014), respectively. Associations of arteriole-to-venule diameter ratio with the central hemodynamic traits mirrored those of CRAE. None of the multivariable-adjusted associations of central retinal venular diameter with the central hemodynamic traits reached significance with the exception of central diastolic blood pressure (-1.62 µm; P=0.030). In conclusion, in the general population, higher central pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, Pf, and Pb were associated with smaller CRAE.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Bélgica , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 67: 234-238, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221576

RESUMO

During neurological surgery, neurosurgeons have to transform the two-dimensional (2D) sectional images into three-dimensional (3D) structures at the cognitive level. The complexity of the intracranial structures increases the difficulty and risk of neurosurgery. Mixed reality (MR) applications reduce the obstacles in the transformation from 2D images to 3D visualization of anatomical structures of central nervous system. In this study, the holographic image was established by MR using computed tomography (CT), computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of patients. The surgeon's field of vision was superimposed with the 3D model of the patient's intracranial structure displayed on the mixed reality head-mounted display (MR-HMD). The neurosurgeons practiced and evaluated the feasibility of this technique in neurosurgical cases. We developed the segmentation image masks and texture mapping including brain tissue, intracranial vessels, nerves, tumors, and their relative positions by MR technologies. The results showed that the three-dimensional imaging is in a stable state in the operating room with no significant flutter and blur. And the neurosurgeon's feedback on the comfort of the equipment and the practicality of the technology was satisfactory. In conclusion, MR technology can holographically construct a 3D digital model of patient's lesions and improve the anatomical perception of neurosurgeons during craniotomy. The feasibility of the MR-HMD application in neurosurgery is confirmed.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/métodos , Holografia/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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