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1.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 53-61, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered global signal (GS) topography features in the resting-state fMRI of major depressive disorder (MDD), showing abnormally strong global signal representation in the default-mode network (DMN). Whether the abnormal local to global change also shapes activity during task states, and how it relates to psychopathological symptoms, e.g., abnormally slow time speed of motor, cognitive, and affective symptoms, remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated fMRI-based GS with its topographical representation during task states in unmedicated 51 MDD subjects and 28 healthy subjects. Task-related global signal correlation (GSCORR) was probed by a novel paradigm testing the processing of negative/neutral emotions during different time speeds, i.e., slow and fast. RESULTS: We observed a significant interaction between time speed and emotion of GSCORR in various DMN regions in healthy subjects. Next, we showed that MDD exhibits reduced task-related GSCORR in various DMN regions during specifically the fast processing of negative emotions. Finally, we demonstrated that GSCORR in DMN and other brain regions (motor-related regions, inferior frontal cortex) correlated with the degree of psychomotor retardation especially during the fast emotional stimuli. LIMITATIONS: The measurement of interoceptive variables like respiration rate or heart rate were not included in our fMRI acquisition. CONCLUSION: Together, we demonstrated the functional relevance of GS topography by showing reduced GSCORR in DMN during specifically the fast processing of negative emotions in MDD, suggesting the abnormal slowness, i.e., reduced time speed, to be a key feature of both brain and symptoms in MDD.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 227: 113937, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710744

RESUMO

Evodiamine and rutaecarpine are two alkaloids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Evodia rutaecarpa, which have been reported to have various biological activities in past decades. To explore the potential applications for evodiamine and rutaecarpine alkaloids and their derivatives, various kinds of evodiamine and rutaecarpine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their antifungal profile against six phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Magnaporthe oryzae were evaluated for the first time. Furthermore, a series of modified imidazole derivatives of rutaecarpine were synthesized to investigate the structure-activity relationship. The results of antifungal activities in vitro showed that imidazole derivative of rutaecarpine A1 exhibited broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against R. solani, B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, S. sclerotiorum, M. oryzae and F. graminearum with EC50 values of 1.97, 5.97, 12.72, 2.87 and 16.58 µg/mL, respectively. Preliminary mechanistic studies showed that compound A1 might cause mycelial abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum, mitochondrial distortion and swelling, and inhibition of sclerotia formation and germination. Moreover, the curative effects of compound A1 were 94.7%, 81.5%, 80.8%, 65.0% at 400, 200, 100, 50 µg/mL in vivo experiments, which was far more effective than the positive control azoxystrobin. Significantly, no phytotoxicity of compound A1 on oilseed rape leaves was observed obviously even at a high concentration of 400 µg/mL. Therefore, compound A1 is expected to be a novel leading structure for the development of new antifungal agents.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antidepressants are effective in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), while many patients fail to respond to antidepressants. Both 5-HT1A (HTR1A) and 5-HT1B (HTR1B) receptors play an important role in antidepressant activity. Meanwhile, DNA methylation is associated with MDD and antidepressant efficacy. In this study we investigate the influence of HTR1A and HTR1B methylation combined with stress/genotype on antidepressant efficacy. METHODS: A total of 291 MDD patients and 100 healthy controls received the Life Events Scale (LES) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) as stress assessment. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HTR1A and HTR1B involved in antidepressant mechanisms were tested. Methylation status in 181 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites of HTR1A and HTR1B were assessed. All MDD patients were divided into response (RES) and non-response (NRES) after 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Logistic regression was conducted for interactions between methylation, NLES/CTQ score and genotype. RESULTS: Low HTR1A-2-143 methylation is connected with better antidepressant efficacy in subgroup. Low HTR1A-2-143 methylation combined with low CTQ score is related to better antidepressant efficacy. The interaction between high HTR1B methylation with the rs6298 AA/AG genotype affects better antidepressant efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: HTR1A and HTR1B methylation combined with stress/genotype is associated with antidepressant efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 678384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777034

RESUMO

Background: The evaluation of treatment response to antidepressant therapy commonly depends on neuropsychologic assessments, as there are currently no suitable biomarkers. Previous research has identified a panel of increased proteins in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), including antithrombin III (ATIII), as potential biomarkers of depression. Methods: A total of 90 MDD patients were recruited. Of these, 74 patients received occipital repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as individualized, standard, or sham treatment for 5 days, and underwent the complete procedure, including clinical assessments, blood collection, and protein measurement. Results: After treatment, ATIII was significantly decreased in both the individualized and standard groups (both p < 0.001) relative to the sham group. In the individualized group, reduction in ATIII was associated with improvements in several neuropsychological assessments. Furthermore, ATIII at baseline in the standard group and after individualized rTMS showed good performance for evaluating or predicting the response to five-day treatment (AUC = 0.771, 95% CI, 0.571-0.971; AUC = 0.875, 95% CI, 0.714-1.000, respectively) and remission at follow-up (AUC = 0.736, 95% CI, 0.529-0.943; AUC = 0.828, 95% CI, 0.656-1.000, respectively). Lastly, both baseline ATIII and change in ATIII showed good predictive value for the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at follow-up (p = 0.024 and 0.023, respectively). Conclusion: Our study revealed a reduction in ATIII after occipital rTMS in MDD patients and a relationship between change in ATIII and therapeutic response. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the potential of ATIII as a biomarker for the evaluation and prediction of antidepressive effects.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 757230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804095

RESUMO

The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is one of the most destructive insect pests in Solanaceae crops, particularly in tomatoes. Current methods of management have proven somewhat effective but still require a more efficacious management strategy to limit its havoc on crop yield. Tomato is much more predisposed to T. absoluta as compared with other plants such as eggplants, but the underlying causes have not been fully determined. We conducted this study to unravel the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and primary/secondary metabolites that account for the differential response of tomatoes and eggplants to T. absoluta infestation. We performed widely targeted comparative metabolome and volatilome profiling by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), respectively, on eggplants and tomatoes under control and T. absoluta infestation conditions. Overall, 141 VOCs and 797 primary/secondary metabolites were identified, largely dominated by aldehyde, alcohols, alkanes, amine, aromatics, a heterocyclic compound, ketone, olefin, phenol, and terpenes. Most of the VOCs and primary/secondary metabolites from the terpene class were largely differentially regulated in eggplants compared with tomatoes. Eggplants emitted several compounds that were lower or completely absent in tomatoes either under control conditions or after T. absoluta infestation. The results from an electroantennogram showed that 35 differentially accumulated VOCs could elicit female T. absoluta response, implying that these volatile compounds significantly alter the behavior of this pest. These findings demonstrated that differentially accumulated metabolites and volatile compounds play major roles in eggplant resistance to T. absoluta infestation as these compounds were regulated upon attack by T. absoluta. Our findings can assist in integrated pest management efforts by developing appropriate control measures against T. absoluta in Solanaceae production.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151576, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774625

RESUMO

Flocculation has been widely employed in treatment of mineral tailings and water management. In this study, a chitosan-graft-poly(acrylamide-dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC)) was synthesized in-house. The adsorption and interaction mechanisms of Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and an anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) in a two-step flocculation process of kaolinite were explored using settlement tests, zeta potential measurement, quartz crystal micro-balance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The type of primary flocculant was critical for the two-step flocculation process. The treatment of the kaolinite suspension using 1 mg/L of Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) followed by adding 2 mg/L of APAM displayed more efficient flocculation performance. QCM-D results showed that three dissipative layers were assembled on model kaolinite surface after sequentially injecting 3.5 mg/L of Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC), 0.05 wt% kaolinite suspension and 2.5 mg/L of APAM. The above total adsorption amount (Δf of -64.9 Hz) was much higher than that of using the two flocculants in reverse order (Δf of -23.1 Hz). This result indicated that the adsorption layer of the positively charged Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) on kaolinite surface provided active adsorption sites for APAM. Further AFM measurement confirmed that the average adhesion between the silicon tip adsorbed Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and model kaolinite surface in 2.5 mg/L APAM solution increased from 0.25 ± 0.1 nN to 4.2 ± 0.3 nN with the effective interaction range of 700 nm, which was stronger than that measured between a bare silicon tip and silica substrate in single-component-flocculant solutions. The highly efficient two-step flocculation process could be ascribed to the strong electrostatic attraction between the kaolinite and the oppositely charged Chi-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and APAM. Findings in this study will benefit the development of environmentally friendly flocculant for mineral tailings and water treatment.

7.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 213: 106497, 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral hemodynamic disorders are involved in the occurrence and progression of vascular dementia (VaD), but the methods to detect hemodynamics remainmultifarious and uncertain nowadays. We aim to exploit a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach by static and dynamic parameters, which can be used to detect individual cerebrovascular hemodynamics quantitatively. METHODS: A patient-specific CFD model was constructed with geometrical arteries on the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and hemodynamic parameters on ultrasound Doppler, by which, the structural and simulated hemodynamic indexes could be obtained, mainly including the cerebral arterial volume (CAV), the number of visible arterial outlets, the total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) index and the total cerebrovascular resistance (tCVR) index. The hemodynamics were detected in subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) patients (n = 38) and cognitive normal controls (CNCs; n = 40). RESULTS: Compared with CNCs, the SVaD patients had reduced outlets, CAV and tCBF index (all P ≤ 0.001), increased volume of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and tCVR index (both P ≤ 0.01). The fewer outlets (OR = 0.77), higher Hachinski ischemic score (HIS) (OR = 3.65), increased tCVR index (OR = 1.98) and volume of WMH (OR = 1.12) were independently associated with SVaD. All hemodynamic parameters could differentiate the SVaD patinets and CNCs, especially the composite index calculated by outlets, tCVR index and HIS (AUC = 0.943). Fewer outlets and more WMH increased the odds of SVaD, which were partly mediated by the tCBF index (14.4% and 13.0%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The reduced outlets, higher HIS and tCVR index may be independent risk factors for the SVaD, and a combination of these indexes can differentiate SVaD patients and CNCs reliably. The tCBF index potentially mediates the relationships between hemodynamic indexes and SVaD. Although all simulated indexes only represented the true hemodynamics indirectly, this CFD model can provide patient-specific hemodynamic alterations non-invasively and conveniently.

8.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779465

RESUMO

The development of biodegradable nanomaterials for near-infrared photothermal antibacterial is of great significance to improve the biosafety of nano-antibacterial strategies in clinical application. In this study, a new nano-antibacterial strategy was developed, in which a biodegradable charge-transfer nanocomplex acted as a high-efficiency near-infrared light-activatable photothermal nanoconvertor. The charge-transfer nanocomplex was synthesized through oxidation-induced self-assembly of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine molecules. This nanocomplex can efficiently convert light energy around 900 nm into heat energy, with a photothermal conversion efficiency of up to 30%. More importantly, the nanocomplex can spontaneously degrade under physiological conditions within 12 hours. Utilizing the photothermal effect of this nanocomplex, both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria can be inactivated within 2 minutes. In addition, the inactivation mechanism was systematically discussed and the results indicated that the photothermal effect induced bacterial cell membrane damage was probably responsible for the antibacterial effect.

9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6943, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836962

RESUMO

The pathological role of reactive gliosis in CNS repair remains controversial. In this study, using murine ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke models, we demonstrated that microglia/macrophages and astrocytes are differentially involved in engulfing synapses in the reactive gliosis region. By specifically deleting MEGF10 and MERTK phagocytic receptors, we determined that inhibiting phagocytosis of microglia/macrophages or astrocytes in ischemic stroke improved neurobehavioral outcomes and attenuated brain damage. In hemorrhagic stroke, inhibiting phagocytosis of microglia/macrophages but not astrocytes improved neurobehavioral outcomes. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that phagocytosis related biological processes and pathways were downregulated in astrocytes of the hemorrhagic brain compared to the ischemic brain. Together, these findings suggest that reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis play individual roles in mediating synapse engulfment in pathologically distinct murine stroke models and preventing this process could rescue synapse loss.

10.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842456

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to access the efficacy of plasma small nucleolar RNAs in early diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: SNORD83A was selected based on databases and further verified in 48 paired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, as well as in plasma from 150 NSCLC patients and 150 healthy donors. The diagnostic efficiency of plasma SNORD83A, as well as in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen, was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: SNORD83A was significantly increased not only in tissues but also in plasma from NSCLC patients compared with those from healthy donors. Plasma SNORD83A was able to act as a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC. The diagnostic efficiency of carcinoembryonic antigen was also significantly elevated for early-stage NSCLC when combined with SNORD83A. Conclusion: SNORD83A can serve as a diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC.

11.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111064, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763856

RESUMO

Drought stress affects the apple yield and quality. Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) plays a fundamental role in many secondary metabolite reactions in higher plants (including those involving dopamine). Our aims of this study are: 1) to identify the role of TyDC in dopamine derivative biosynthesis and its function in long-term moderate drought conditions; and 2) to explore the role of MdTyDC in plant growth and development as well as the drought stress response. Wild type and three independently apple plants overexpression of MdTyDC were treated for long-term moderate drought stress. The growth and physiological parameters of apple plant, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant enzymes activity, water use efficiency (WUE), stomatal behavior, amino acid content and dopamine content were detected under long-term moderate drought stress. Overexpression of MdTyDC (OE) in apple showed better growth performance, higher photosynthetic capacity and higher capacity for photochemical reactions than wild type lines (WT). Under long-term moderate drought stress, OE lines showed higher WUE, increased ABA content, decreased stomatal aperture, higher antioxidant activity, lower accumulation of ROS and increases in amino acids, such as proline, phenylalanine and lysine. In addition, qRT-PCR revealed higher gene expression of MdTyDC and dopamine content in OE compared with WT lines under long-term moderate drought stress. These results indicate that MdTyDC confers long-term moderate drought tolerance by improving photosynthetic capacity, WUE, antioxidant activity, dopamine content and changing the contents of amino acids (such as proline accumulation).


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tirosina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Tirosina Descarboxilase/genética
12.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796365

RESUMO

Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the leading cause of trauma death. The development of safe and efficient hemostatic agents that can rapidly and effectively control bleeding is of great significance to rescue the injured. However, the mechanical, absorptive, and antibacterial properties of conventional two-dimensional hemostatic agents are not satisfactory. Herein, a series of effective three-dimensional hemostatic dressings (JWCNT/HBC sponges) are developed by chemical modification of joint-welded carbon nanotube (JWCNT) sponges with hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) for hemorrhage hemostasis. The JWCNT/HBC sponges exhibit high elasticity, porous structure, and suitable blood-absorption and blood-maintaining performance. Moreover, the introduction of HBC endows the JWCNT/HBC sponges with favorable blood compatibility and good antibacterial activity. The sponge treated with 0.5% HBC (JWCNT/0.5%HBC sponge) displays better antiseptic capability, faster blood clotting ability in vitro and shorter hemostasis time in vivo than the commercial gelatin sponge. The JWCNT/HBC sponges combine the advantages of JWCNT sponges and HBC in the adhesion and activation of platelets and red blood cells, thus becoming a good medical material for trauma hemostasis.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843231

RESUMO

Crop diseases caused by fungi threaten food security and exacerbate the food crisis. Inspired by the application of fungicide candidates from natural products in agrochemical discovery, a series of luotonin A derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antifungal activities against five plant fungi. Most of these compounds exhibited significant fungicidal activity against Botrytis cinerea in vitro with EC50 values less than 1 µg/mL. Among them, compounds w7, w8, w12, and w15 showed superior antifungal activity against B. cinerea with EC50 values of 0.036, 0.050, 0.042, and 0.048 µg/mL, respectively, which were more potent than boscalid (EC50 = 1.790 µg/mL). Preliminary mechanism studies revealed that compound w7 might pursue its antifungal activity by disrupting the fungal cell membrane and cell wall. Moreover, in vivo bioassay also indicated that compound w7 could be effective for the control of B. cinerea. The above results evidenced the potential of luotonin A derivatives as novel and promising candidate fungicides.

14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9590502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616447

RESUMO

Personalized courses recommendation technology is one of the hotspots in online education field. A good recommendation algorithm can stimulate learners' enthusiasm and give full play to different learners' learning personality. At present, the popular collaborative filtering algorithm ignores the semantic relationship between recommendation items, resulting in unsatisfactory recommendation results. In this paper, an algorithm combining knowledge graph and collaborative filtering is proposed. Firstly, the knowledge graph representation learning method is used to embed the semantic information of the items into a low-dimensional semantic space; then, the semantic similarity between the recommended items is calculated, and then, this item semantic information is fused into the collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm. This algorithm increases the performance of recommendation at the semantic level. The results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively recommend courses for learners and has higher values on precision, recall, and F1 than the traditional recommendation algorithm.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639194

RESUMO

Humulus lupulus Linn. is a traditional medicinal and edible plant with several biological properties. The aims of this work were: (1) to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of H. lupulus ethanolic extract; (2) to study the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of isoxanthohumol, an isoprene flavonoid from H. lupulus, against Botrytis cinerea; and (3) to explore the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol on B. cinerea. The present data revealed that the ethanolic extract of H. lupulus exhibited moderate antifungal activity against the five tested phytopathogenic fungi in vitro, and isoxanthohumol showed highly significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, with an EC50 value of 4.32 µg/mL. Meanwhile, it exhibited moderate to excellent protective and curative efficacies in vivo. The results of morphologic observation, RNA-seq, and physiological indicators revealed that the antifungal mechanism of isoxanthohumol is mainly related to metabolism; it affected the carbohydrate metabolic process, destroyed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and hindered the generation of ATP by inhibiting respiration. Further studies indicated that isoxanthohumol caused membrane lipid peroxidation, thus accelerating the death of B. cinerea. This study demonstrates that isoxanthohumol can be used as a potential botanical fungicide for the management of phytopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humulus/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2101167, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606177

RESUMO

Poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) is a widely used functional conjugated polymer with applications ranging from organic optoelectronics and fluorescence sensors to optical imaging and theranostics. However, the fluorescence efficiency of PPE in aggregate states is generally not as good as their solution states, which greatly compromises their performance in fluorescence-related applications. Herein, a series of PPE derivatives with typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties is designed and synthesized. In these PPEs, the diethylamino-substituted tetraphenylethene units function as the long-wavelength AIE source and the alkyl side chains serve as the functionalization site. The obtained AIE-active PPEs with large π-conjugation show strong aggregate-state fluorescence, interesting self-assembly behaviors, inherently enhanced alkyne vibrations in the Raman-silent region of cells, and efficient antibacterial activities. The PPE nanoparticles with good cellular uptake capability can clearly and sensitively visualize the tumor region and residual tumors via their fluorescence and Raman signals, respectively, to benefit the precise tumor resection surgery. After post-functionalization, the obtained PPE-based polyelectrolyte can preferentially image bacteria over mammalian cells and possesses efficient photodynamic killing capability against Gram-positive and drug-resistant bacteria. This work provides a feasible design strategy for developing functional conjugated polymers with multimodal imaging capability as well as photodynamic antimicrobial ability.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709552

RESUMO

The beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua, is a widely distributed polyphagous pest of economically important crops worldwide. The management of this pest insect continues to face many challenges. Despite synthetic chemicals posing a serious threat to the environment, these remain the conventional approach for controlling S. exigua in the field. An over-reliance on chemical control has not only led to selection for resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies, but has also polluted various components of ecosystem. Given these increasing pressures on the ecosystem, there is a need to implement integrated pest management (IPM) approaches exploiting a wider range of tools (biotechnological approaches, microbial control, biological control, cultural control, and use of host plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. The IPM approach can not only reduce the hazard of chemical residues in the environment and associated health problems, but may also provide best strategies to control insect pests. This review synthesizes published information on insecticide resistance of S. exigua and explores alternative IPM approaches to control S. exigua.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of de-rotational distal femoral osteotomy (DDFO) in patients who underwent primary medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) failure with increased femoral anteversion along with high-grade J sign. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2019, 14 patients underwent DDFO revision surgery due to failed MPFLR. The pre- and postoperative J sign grade, Caton-Deschamps index (CDI), tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, femoral anteversion angle (FAA), patellar lateral tilt angle (PLTA), MPFL graft laxity, and patient-reported outcomes (Kujala, Lysholm, Tegner, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores) were collected. The anterior-posterior and proximal-distal distances between the actual point and the Schöttle point were also calculated. RESULTS: Fourteen patients underwent MPFLR revision by DDFO combined with MPFLR. The mean PLTA improved from 40.7° ± 11.9° to 20.5° ± 8.7° (P < 0.001). The mean FAA significantly decreased from 42.7° ± 12.0° to 14.1° ± 5.2° (P < 0.001). The mean patellar laxity index (PLI) decreased from 82.4% preoperatively to 15.1% postoperatively (P < 0.001). None of these patients experienced subluxation or re-dislocation during follow-up of 29.7 ± 5.0 months after revision surgery. Meanwhile, the Tegner score at the last follow-up ranged from 3 to 6, with a median of 5. The Kujala, Lysholm, and IKDC subjective scores showed significant improvements, from a mean of 51.0 ± 6.8 preoperatively to 75.4 ± 5.1 postoperatively (P < 0.001), 49.2 ± 7.9 to 75.2 ± 7.2 (P < 0.001), and 42.9 ± 6.2 to 76.8 ± 6.0 (P < 0.001), respectively. The proportion of patients with a high-grade J sign was significantly lower postoperatively than preoperatively (100% vs. 14%). Four out of 14 patients (29%) showed femoral tunnel mal-positioning. CONCLUSION: MPFLR revision by DDFO combined with MPFLR achieved favorable clinical outcomes in patients with increased femoral anteversion along with high-grade J sign. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

19.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623289

RESUMO

In order to make redundant robot manipulators (RRMs) track the complex time-varying trajectory, the motion-planning problem of RRMs can be converted into a constrained time-varying quadratic programming (TVQP) problem. By using a new punishment mechanism-combined recurrent neural network (PMRNN) proposed in this article with reference to the varying-gain neural-dynamic design (VG-NDD) formula, the TVQP problem-based motion-planning scheme can be solved and the optimal angles and velocities of joints of RRMs can also be obtained in the working space. Then, the convergence performance of the PMRNN model in solving the TVQP problem is analyzed theoretically in detail. This novel method has been substantiated to have a faster calculation speed and better accuracy than the traditional method. In addition, the PMRNN model has also been successfully applied to an actual RRM to complete an end-effector trajectory tracking task.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12156-12170, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623798

RESUMO

Enlightened from our previous work of structural simplification of quinine and innovative application of natural products against phytopathogenic fungi, lead structure 2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinolinol (3) was selected to be a candidate and its diversified design, synthesis, and antifungal evaluation were carried out. All of the synthesized compounds Aa1-Db1 were evaluated for their antifungal activity against four agriculturally important fungi, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that compounds Ac3, Ac4, Ac7, Ac9, Ac12, Bb1, Bb10, Bb11, Bb13, Cb1. and Cb3 exhibited a good antifungal effect, especially Ac12 had the most potent activity with EC50 values of 0.52 and 0.50 µg/mL against S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea, respectively, which were more potent than those of the lead compound 3 (1.72 and 1.89 µg/mL) and commercial fungicides azoxystrobin (both >30 µg/mL) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (2.12 and 5.28 µg/mL). Moreover, compound Ac12 displayed excellent in vivo antifungal activity, which was comparable in activity to the commercial fungicide boscalid. The preliminary mechanism revealed that compound Ac12 might cause an abnormal morphology of cell membranes, an increase in membrane permeability, and release of cellular contents. These results indicated that compound Ac12 displayed superior in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activities and could be a potential fungicidal candidate against plant fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Fusarium , Hidroxiquinolinas , Quinolinas , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Botrytis , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Quinina , Rhizoctonia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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