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1.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936883

RESUMO

T-2 toxin, as a highly toxic mycotoxin to humans and animals, induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in various cells and tissues. Apoptosis and mitochondrial fusion/fission are two tightly interconnected processes that are crucial for maintaining physiological homeostasis. However, the role of mitochondrial fusion/fission in apoptosis of T-2 toxin remains unknown. Hence, we aimed to explore the putative role of mitochondrial fusion/fission on T-2 toxin induced apoptosis in normal human liver (HL-7702) cells. T-2 toxin treatment (0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 µg/L) for 24 h caused decreased cell viability and ATP concentration and increased production of (ROS), as seen by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) and increase in mitochondrial fragmentation. Subsequently, the mitochondrial dynamic imbalance was activated, evidenced by a dose-dependent decrease and increase in the protein expression of mitochondrial fusion (OPA1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) and fission (Drp1 and Fis1), respectively. Furthermore, the T-2 toxin promoted the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm and induced cell apoptosis triggered by upregulation of Bax and Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, and further activated the caspase pathways. Taken together, these results indicate that altered mitochondrial dynamics induced by oxidative stress with T-2 toxin exposure likely contribute to mitochondrial injury and HL-7702 cell apoptosis.

2.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(1): e10-e11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858979
3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 577, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The meniscus plays a vital role in the normal biomechanics of the knee. However, it is not well studied at the molecular level. The purpose of this study was to determine whether molecular and pathological changes in the meniscal tissue vary depending on the presence or absence of meniscal and/or anterior cruciate ligament tear (ACL). METHODS: Six normal menisci (group A), seven simple torn menisci (group B) and seven torn menisci with concomitant anterior cruciate ligament tears (group C) were collected. We observed the pathological changes in the menisci and used real-time polymerase chain reaction along with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation to examine the levels of ACAN, ADAMTS5, COL10A1, CEBPß, MMP13 and miR-381-3p, miR-455-3p, miR-193b-3p, miR-92a-3p, respectively. Patients were scored preoperatively and postoperatively using the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form. RESULTS: Compared with group A, the expression levels of ADAMTS5, COL10A1, CEBPß, and MMP13 and all the miRNAs were increased while ACAN was down-regulated in groups B and C. Additionally, the gene expression and miRNA levels were higher in group C than that in group B, except for ACAN, which was lower. Several fibrochondrocytes strongly expressed ADAMTS5, CEBPß, and MMP13 in groups B and C and had high levels of miR-381-3p and miR-455-3p than that in group A. Postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores were higher in group B than in group C. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the meniscus tended to degenerate after it was injured, especially when combined with a torn ACL. The miRNAs investigated in this study might also contribute to meniscus degeneration. Patients with a combined injury patterns might have relatively worse joint function.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The heterogeneity of meniscus cells and the mechanism of meniscus degeneration is not well understood. Here, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was used to identify various meniscus cell subsets and investigate the mechanism of meniscus degeneration. METHODS: scRNA-seq was used to identify cell subsets and their gene signatures in healthy human and degenerated meniscus cells to determine their differentiation relationships and characterise the diversity within specific cell types. Colony-forming, multi-differentiation assays and a mice meniscus injury model were used to identify meniscus progenitor cells. We investigated the role of degenerated meniscus progenitor (DegP) cell clusters during meniscus degeneration using computational analysis and experimental verification. RESULTS: We identified seven clusters in healthy human meniscus, including five empirically defined populations and two novel populations. Pseudotime analysis showed endothelial cells and fibrochondrocyte progenitors (FCP) existed at the pseudospace trajectory start. Melanoma cell adhesion molecule ((MCAM)/CD146) was highly expressed in two clusters. CD146+ meniscus cells differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes and formed colonies. We identified changes in the proportions of degenerated meniscus cell clusters and found a cluster specific to degenerative meniscus with progenitor cell characteristics. The reconstruction of four progenitor cell clusters indicated that FCP differentiation into DegP was an aberrant process. Interleukin 1ß stimulation in healthy human meniscus cells increased CD318+ cells, while TGFß1 attenuated the increase in CD318+ cells in degenerated meniscus cells. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of meniscus progenitor cells provided new insights into cell-based meniscus tissue engineering, demonstrating a novel mechanism of meniscus degeneration, which contributes to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy.

5.
Mol Immunol ; 118: 40-51, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841966

RESUMO

To further elucidate the roles of T and B lymphocytes in fish subunit and DNA candidate vaccines for immunisation, the immune responses of T and B lymphocytes to recombinant protein (rOmpK) and plasmid OmpK (pOmpK) from Vibrio anguillarum plus cyclosporine A (CsA) were investigated in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The results showed that in the rOmpK-immunised groups, the percentages of CD4-1+ and CD4-2+ T (PCD4-1+ and PCD4-2+ T) lymphocytes significantly increased to a peak on days 5 or 7. The percentages of IgM+ B (PIgM+ B) lymphocytes and specific antibodies markedly increased to a peak at weeks 4 or 5. The nine immune-related genes were significantly up-regulated and the expression levels of CD4-1, CD4-2 and MHC II genes were higher than that of CD8α, CD8ß and MHC I genes. The CD4+ T lymphocytes, IgM+ B lymphocytes, and specific antibodies were significantly inhibited by CsA. Therefore, the responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes influenced the responses of the B lymphocytes and antibodies. In the pOmpK-immunised groups, the PCD4-1+, PCD4-2+, and PCD8ß+ T lymphocytes significantly increased to a peak on days 11 or 14, days 9 or 11, and days 7 or 9, respectively. The PIgM+ B lymphocytes and specific antibodies significantly increased to a peak at weeks 5 or 6. Immune related genes upregulated, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, IgM+ B lymphocytes and specific antibodies all suppressed by CsA, suggesting that the responses of T lymphocytes subpopulations influenced B lymphocytes and antibodies responses. Therefore, the subpopulations of T lymphocytes played an important role in the immune responses induced by subunit and DNA candidate vaccines of OmpK and regulated the immune responses of B lymphocytes in flounder.

6.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28410-28422, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684594

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose an accurate high-compressed look-up-table method that uses less memory to generate the hologram. In precomputation, we separate the longitudinal modulation factors and only calculate the basic horizontal and vertical factors. Therefore, we obtain other horizontal and vertical modulation factors of object points by simply shifting the basic horizontal and vertical modulation factors while computing holograms. We perform numerical simulations and optical experiments to verify the proposed method. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed method has the least memory usage, the fastest computation time and no distortion. The optical experimental results are in accord with the numerical simulation results. The proposed method is simple and effective to calculate computer-generated holograms for color dynamic holographic display with high speed, less memory usage and high accuracy that could be applied in the holographic field in the future.

7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1088: 63-71, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623717

RESUMO

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely explored in enrichment of low-abundance glycoproteins/glycopeptides prior to mass spectrometry analysis in glycoproteomics. Currently, most functional groups for recognizing glycoproteins/glycopeptides are usually immobilized on the nanomaterial surface based on covalent modification, which suffers from multistep treatment, surface-dependence, and harsh conditions. In this work, we first report a facile and rapid method for surface functionalization and subsequent glycopeptides enrichment via one-step assembly of maltose-modified oligopeptides with a sequence of Ala-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys (AEK8-maltose). In physiological conditions, AEK8-maltose readily self-organized into a complete coating layer dominated by ß-sheets on the surface of SiO2@Fe3O4 and C@Fe3O4 MNPs, which remain intact to repeat washing with acidic organic and aqueous solutions extensively used in the sample enrichment treatments. Thus, the resulting AEK8-maltose functionalized MNPs show excellent performance in enrichment of glycopeptides in standard glycoprotein digests (24 glycopeptides from horseradish peroxidase (HRP), 31 glycopeptides from immunoglobulin (IgG)) and human serum digests (282 glycopeptides), including rapid enrichment speed (5 min), high detection sensitivity (0.001 ng/µL HRP), high selectivity (mass ratios of HRP and bovine serum albumin (BSA) digests up to 1:150), good enrichment recovery (over 86.3%), remarkable stability (repeatable for more than 8 times), and excellent renewability, which are better than or comparable with the literature results reported to date. The current work based on self-assembling oligopeptides provides a mild, economic and nontoxic procedure for one-step surface functionalization of various nanomaterials.

8.
Heart Surg Forum ; 22(5): E396-E400, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with substantial risk for postoperative bleeding with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Numerous intraoperative techniques have been utilized to reduce this risk. This study was to assess postoperative bleeding-related parameters following Bentall procedures and to examine the impact of intraoperative surgical sealant application. METHOD: The medical/surgical records of 100 consecutive Bentall procedure cases were examined retrospectively for perioperative surgical sealant use and postoperative bleeding-related outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 100 patient cases, three died during the postoperative period, and 97 were evaluable. Surgical sealant was utilized in 56 patient cases (57.8%). The utilization versus no utilization of surgical sealant was associated with significant reductions in most postoperative bleeding-related parameters, including less drainage (P = .028), resternotomy for hemorrhage (P = .036), transfusion of red blood cells (P = .022 at 48 hours; P = .027 total in-hospital), transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (P = .04 at 48 hours; P = .004 total in-hospital), and a higher percentage of cases not needing blood transfusion (P = .002). The surgical sealant group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass circuit (P = .016) and aortic cross-clamp time (P = .001), with no significant between-group differences in intubation time (P = .636) or intensive care unit duration (P = .294). When excluding urgent cases or Stanford type A aortic dissections, intensive care unit duration significantly was shorter in the surgical sealant group (P = .017). Surgical sealant use was not associated with any adverse events. CONCLUSION: The application of surgical sealant to the anastomosis suture line in Bentall procedures reduces postoperative drainage, bleeding, and transfusion utilization. Further studies are warranted to investigate these benefits in prospective, randomized clinical trials.

9.
Exp Mol Med ; 51(10): 118, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586040

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play a key role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Few studies have examined the regulatory role of P21-activated kinases (PAKs), a family of serine/threonine kinases, in OA. The aim of this study was to determine whether miR-455-3p can regulate cartilage degeneration in OA by targeting PAK2. MiR-455-3p knockout mice showed significant degeneration of the knee cartilage. MiR-455-3p expression increased and PAK2 expression decreased in the late stage of human adipose-derived stem cell (hADSC) chondrogenesis and in chondrocytes affected by OA. Furthermore, in both miR-455-3p-overexpressing chondrocytes and PAK2-suppressing chondrocytes, cartilage-specific genes were upregulated, and hypertrophy-related genes were downregulated. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-455-3p regulates PAK2 expression by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of PAK2 mRNA. IPA-3, a PAK inhibitor, inhibited cartilage degeneration due to OA. Moreover, suppressing PAK2 promoted R-Smad activation in the TGF/Smad signaling pathway in chondrocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that miR-455-3p promotes TGF-ß/Smad signaling in chondrocytes and inhibits cartilage degeneration by directly suppressing PAK2. These results thus indicate that miR-455-3p and PAK2 are novel potential therapeutic agents and targets, respectively, for the treatment of OA.

10.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103765, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) and concentrations within resistant mutation window (MSW) of ciprofloxacin (CIP) on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), swimming motility and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and also to investigate the correlation between swimming motility and genes expression of lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and pqsR. METHODS: The collected strains were incubated under four different concentrations for 5 days. The MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were measured by the agar dilution method. The diameter of turbid cycle was used to signify the swimming motility. The biofilm formation was measured by the crystal violet stain method. The genes expression of lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and pqsR were measured by RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 11 P. aeruginosa which sensitive to CIP were collected. The incubation within concentrations of MSW made MICs to CIP increased more obviously than under sub-MIC (P < 0.05). The swimming motility showed a trend of being inhibited first and then promoted over time under sub-MIC (P < 0.05), whereas, it was promoted under concentrations within MSW. The biofilm formation was significantly promoted under the concentration of 4×MIC (P < 0.05). Under sub-MIC, the genes expression of rhlR and pqsR had a middle level positive correlation with the promotion of the swimming motility (P < 0.05, r = 0.788 and P < 0.05, r = 0.652, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Under the concentration of sub-MIC (0.5×MIC) and the concentrations within MSW (1×MIC, 2×MIC and 4×MIC), the effect of CIP on MICs, swimming motility and biofilm formation of P.aeruginosa was quite different. The genes expression of rhlR and pqsR had a middle level positive correlation with the promotion of the swimming motility.

11.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(50): 18191-18196, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633856

RESUMO

Herein we described an efficient RhII -catalyzed enantioselective cyclopropenation reaction of internal alkynes with a masked difluorodiazoethane reagent (PhSO2 CF2 CHN2 , Ps-DFA). This asymmetric transformation offers efficient access to a broad range of enantioenriched difluoromethylated cyclopropenes (40 examples, up to 99 % yield, 97 % ee). The synthetic utility of obtained strained carbocycles is demonstrated by subsequent stereodefined processes, including cross-couplings, hydrogenation, Diels-Alder reaction, and Pauson-Khand reaction.

12.
PeerJ ; 7: e7728, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579605

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Aberrant expression levels of miR-10b-5p in breast cancer has been reported while the molecular mechanism of miR-10b-5p in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of miR-10b-5p in breast cancer and the network of its target genes using bioinformatics analysis. In this study, the expression profiles and prognostic value of miR-10b-5p in breast cancer were analyzed from public databases. Association between miR-10b-5p and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed by non-parametric test. Moreover, the optimal target genes of miR-10b-5p were obtained and their expression patterns were examined using starBase and HPA database. Additionally, the role of these target genes in cancer development were explored via Cancer Hallmarks Analytics Tool (CHAT). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed to further investigate the interactive relationships among these genes. Furthermore, GO, KEGG pathway and Reactome pathway analyses were carried out to decipher functions of these target genes. Results demonstrated that miR-10b-5p was down-regulated in breast cancer and low expression of miR-10b-5p was significantly correlated to worse outcome. Five genes, BIRC5, E2F2, KIF2C, FOXM1, and MCM5, were considered as potential key target genes of miR-10b-5p. As expected, higher expression levels of these genes were observed in breast cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Moreover, analysis from CHAT revealed that these genes were mainly involved in sustaining proliferative signaling in cancer development. In addition, PPI networks analysis revealed strong interactions between target genes. GO, KEGG, and Reactome pathway analysis suggested that these target genes of miR-10b-5p in breast cancer were significantly involved in cell cycle. Predicted target genes were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 transfected with miR-10b mimic or antisense inhibitors. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-10b-5p functions to impede breast carcinoma progression via regulation of its key target genes and hopefully serves as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for breast cancer.

13.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460616, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630832

RESUMO

A fluorinated metal-organic framework material (F-MOF) was successfully prepared using tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (H2tfbdc) as the ligand and Zn(II) as the central metal ion. The F-MOF exhibited excellent adsorption performance for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with a maximum adsorption capacity of 419.8 mg g-1. A sensitive dispersive solid-phase extraction using the F-MOF as an adsorbent, coupled with GC-MS analysis, was developed for detecting trace PFOA with a limit of detection as low as 2.6 ng L-1. This method was applied to detect PFOA in environmental water samples, yielding satisfactory results.

14.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 8095-8104, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632062

RESUMO

Background: PTPRU is an important signaling molecule that regulates a variety of cellular processes; however, the role of PTPRU in cancer development has remained elusive. Here, we report that PTPRU serves as a tumor suppressor that inhibits cancer stemness by attenuating Hippo/YAP signaling pathway. Methods: Primary cancer cells and cell line cells were used in the study. The gene expression data were downloaded from R2 analysis and visualization platform and Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to study the relationship between survival and PTPRU expression. qRT-PCR and Western blot were employed to study the expression of target genes in tissues and cells. Sphere and colony formation, proliferation, migration activities and the expression of stem cell and EMT markers were employed for characterizing the stemness. Gene manipulation was achieved by lentivirus-mediated gene delivery system. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study the transcriptional activity of the promoter, and ChIP-qPCR was employed to study the target binding sequence of the protein. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to study the correlation between two genes. Student's t-test was used for determination of the significance between two experimental groups. Results: PTPRU is downregulated in colorectal and gastric cancer tissues and cancer stem cells. High expression of PTPRU predicts poor prognosis. Overexpression of PTPRU attenuates the stemness of gastric cancer stem cells and knockdown of PTRPU improves the maintenance of the stemness of cancer stem cells. Mechanistic analysis showed that PTPRU inhibits Hippo/YAP signaling by suppressing the expression of YAP in a transcriptional level. Overexpression of YAP restored PTPRU-induced inhibited stemness of gastric cancer stem cells. Conclusion: PTPRU serves as a tumor suppressor that inhibits the stemness of cancer stem cell by inhibiting Hippo/YAP signaling pathway.

15.
J Card Surg ; 34(12): 1498-1504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management strategy for secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) during aortic valve surgery for aortic regurgitations (ARs) remains controversial. This study aimed to compare the outcomes between mitral valve annuloplasty (MVP) and no intervention for managing 2+ or 3+ MR among severe patients with AR. METHODS: Eighty-seven eligible patients with complete echocardiographic follow-up were included, with 51 patients in the MVP group and 36 in the No-MVP group. The MVP group had a larger left atrial (LA) diameter (44.2 ± 6.6 vs 49.4 ± 7.6 mm; P = .001) and a higher proportion of 3+ MR (33.3% vs 76.5%; P < .001) than the No-MVP group. After 1:1 propensity-score matching, the patients treated with and without MVP were balanced on 14 preoperative characteristics. RESULTS: There was one in-hospital death in each group. In the propensity-score matched cohort, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the cumulative incidence of residual 2+ MR during a follow-up of 26.4 ± 14.8 months (P = .64). The No-MVP group was associated with a more significant change in the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (18.1 ± 7.9 vs 13.7 ± 8.7 mm; P = .02), while the changes in the LA diameter, left ventricular end-systolic dimension, and left ventricular ejection fraction were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of MR and the LA size may impact surgeons' decisions. MVP does not seem to add extra benefits to the outcomes, and it may be associated with worse left ventricular remodeling.

16.
Org Lett ; 21(20): 8244-8249, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513413

RESUMO

We report a general and efficient approach to construct achiral and chiral gem-difluoroallylic amines from a masked difluorodiazo reagent (PhSO2CF2CHN2) and readily available imines. This facile protocol takes advantage of the phenylsulfonyl and diazo moieties as efficient activating and directing groups to assist difluoroalkyl incorporation and facilitate the chemodivergent and stereoselective formation of gem-difluoroallylic amines.

17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508417

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA). However, knowledge of the biological roles of lncRNAs is limited in OA. We aimed to explore the biological function and molecular mechanism of HOTTIP in chondrogenesis and cartilage degradation. We used the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) model of chondrogenesis, in parallel with, tissue biopsies from normal and OA cartilage to detect HOTTIP, CCL3, and miR-455-3p expression in vitro. Biological interactions between HOTTIP and miR-455-3p were determined by RNA silencing and overexpression in vitro. We evaluated the effect of HOTTIP on chondrogenesis and degeneration, and its regulation of miR-455-3p via competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). Our in vitro ceRNA findings were further confirmed within animal models in vivo. Mechanisms of ceRNAs were determined by bioinformatic analysis, a luciferase reporter system, RNA pull-down, and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. We found reduced miR-455-3p expression and significantly upregulated lncRNA HOTTIP and CCL3 expression in OA cartilage tissues and chondrocytes. The expression of HOTTIP and CCL3 was increased in chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in vitro. Knockdown of HOTTIP promoted cartilage-specific gene expression and suppressed CCL3. Conversely, HOTTIP overexpression reduced cartilage-specific genes and increased CCL3. Notably, HOTTIP negatively regulated miR-455-3p and increased CCL3 levels in human primary chondrocytes. Mechanistic investigations indicated that HOTTIP functioned as ceRNA for miR-455-3p enhanced CCL3 expression. Taken together, the ceRNA regulatory network of HOTTIP/miR-455-3p/CCL3 plays a critical role in OA pathogenesis and suggests HOTTIP is a potential target in OA therapy.

18.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382421

RESUMO

A rapid and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its metabolite ochratoxin α (OTα), for the first time, in dairy cow plasma, milk, urine, heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. The established method was extensively validated by determining the linearity (R2 ≥ 0.990), sensitivity (lower limit of quantification, 0.1-0.2 ng mL-1), recovery (75.3-114.1%), precision (RSD ≤ 13.6%), and stability (≥83.0%). Based on the methodological advances, the carry-over of OTA was subsequently studied after oral administration of 30 µg/kg body weight OTA to dairy cows. As revealed, OTA and OTα were detected in urine, with maximal concentrations of 1.8 ng mL-1 and 324.6 ng mL-1, respectively, but not in milk, plasma, or different tissues, verifying the protection effects of rumen flora against OTA exposure for dairy cows. Moreover, 100 fresh milk samples randomly collected from different supermarkets in Shanghai were also analyzed, and no positive samples were found, further proving the correctness of the in vivo biotransformation results. Thus, from the currently available data, regarding OTA contamination issues on dairy cows, no significant health risks were related to OTA exposure due to the consumption of these products.

19.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 461(1-2): 57-64, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352610

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with alterations in coronary vascular smooth muscle and endothelial function. The current study examined the contractile response of the isolated coronary arterioles to serotonin in pigs with and without MetS and investigated the signaling pathways responsible for serotonin-induced vasomotor tone. The MetS pigs (8-weeks old) were fed with a hyper-caloric, fat/cholesterol diet and the control animals (lean) were fed with a regular diet for 12 weeks (n = 6/group). The coronary arterioles (90-180 µm in diameter) were dissected from the harvested pig myocardial tissues and the in vitro coronary arteriolar response to serotonin was measured in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors. The protein expressions of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), TXA2 synthase, and the thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor in the pigs' left ventricular tissue samples were measured using Western blotting. Serotonin (10-9-10-5 M) induced dose-dependent contractions of coronary-resistant arterioles in both non-MetS control (lean) and MetS pigs. This effect was more pronounced in the MetS vessels compared with those of non-MetS controls (lean, P < 0.05]. Serotonin-induced contraction of the MetS vessels was significantly inhibited in the presence of the selective PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine (10-6 M), the COX inhibitor indomethacin (10-5 M), and the TP receptor antagonist SQ29548 (10-6 M), respectively (P < 0.05). MetS exhibited significant increases in tissue levels of TXA2 synthase and TP receptors (P < 0.05 vs. lean), respectively. MetS is associated with increased contractile response of porcine coronary arterioles to serotonin, which is in part via upregulation/activation of PLA2, COX, and subsequent TXA2, suggesting that alteration of vasomotor function may occur at an early stage of MetS and juvenile obesity.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012617, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354010

RESUMO

Background Ischemic heart disease continues to be a leading cause of mortality in patients. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) provide a potential for treatment that may induce collateral vessel growth to increase myocardial perfusion. Methods and Results Nineteen male Yorkshire pigs were given a high-fat diet for 4 weeks, then underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. Two weeks later, the pigs received either intramyocardial vehicle (n=6), EVs (high-fat diet with myocardial EV injection [HVM]; n=8), or HVM and calpain inhibition (n=5). Five weeks later, myocardial function, perfusion, coronary vascular density, and cell signaling were examined. Perfusion in the collateral-dependent myocardium was increased during rapid ventricular pacing in the HVM group in both nonischemic (P=0.04) and ischemic areas of the ventricle (P=0.05). Cardiac output and stroke volume were significantly improved in the HVM group compared with the control group during ventricular pacing (P=0.006). Increased arteriolar density was seen in the HVM group in both nonischemic and ischemic myocardium (P=0.003 for both). However, no significant changes in the capillary density were observed between the control, HVM, and HVM and calpain inhibition groups (P=0.07). The group that received EVs with oral calpain inhibition had neither increased vessel density (P>0.99) nor improvement in blood flow or cardiac function (P=0.48) when compared with the control group. Conclusions These findings suggest that EVs promote angiogenesis in areas of chronic myocardial ischemia and improve cardiac function under conditions of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

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