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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1644-1649, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046495

RESUMO

The transformation of 2H-MoS2 from semiconducting 2H to metallic 1T phases is critical for its electrochemical and device applications, where the formation and dynamics of electronic heterostructures play a key role. Using first-principles calculations, we explore detailed atomic structures and migration processes of such interfaces. While armchair interfacial bonding is severely weakened by the distortion in 1T phase, stable structures form for either Mo- or S-orientated zigzag interfaces with low contact resistance. Different zigzag interfaces have distinct local bonding, which renders interface migration behaviors strongly anisotropic. For Mo-oriented interfaces, both a low formation energy and the migration barrier of the kinks make them prone to fast migration. In contrast, the S-oriented interfaces are more immobile due to the high formation energies of kinks and thus dominate the physical properties of the whole heterostructures. Our findings not only explain various experimental observations but also provide insights into phase transition behaviors in 2D MoS2.

2.
Life Sci ; : 117428, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057901

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Arl4c is overexpressed in several cancer tissues and is involved in cancer development. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism that regulates Arl4c expression in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of Arl4c and to explore potential chemotherapeutic drugs targeting Arl4c. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine Arl4c expression levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cancer specimens. Protein expression was detected by western blot. Overexpression of Arl4c-Flag protein was used to detect the ubiquitination of Arl4c. A short interfering RNA against Arl4c was used for gene silencing. RESULTS: Arl4c was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues, and knockdown of Arl4c expression by siRNA decreased lung cancer A549 and 95-D cell proliferation. In addition, Arl4c expression was downregulated via inhibition of the AKT pathway in A549 and 95-D cells, whereas exposure to benzo (a) pyrene (a carcinogen in smoke) increased Arl4c expression in 16HBE cells via AKT activation. Finally, we found that chemotherapy drug hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) could decrease Arl4c expression levels by inhibiting the activation of the AKT pathway in A549 and 95-D cells. Moreover, accumulation of ubiquitinated Arl4c protein was increased by HCPT and LY294002 (an AKT inhibitor) treatment whereas the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 attenuated the inhibitory effect of HCPT and LY294002 on Arl4c expression. CONCLUSION: Here, we highlighted the AKT pathway as an important regulatory pathway for Arl4c expression in lung cancer cells and identified HCPT as a promising drug for lung adenocarcinoma treatment that functioned by targeting Arl4c expression.

3.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005557

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous multislice (SMS)-accelerated, readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI, RESOLVE) with the use of special-purpose coils for head and neck assessment, particularly in patients diagnosed with head and neck malignant tumors, through comparison with the conventional RESOLVE and RESOLVE with readout partial-Fourier technique (RESOLVE-RPF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 24 patients with histologically proven malignant head and neck tumors were included in this prospective study. The MR exam included conventional RESOLVE, RESOLVE-RPF, prototypic SMS-RESOLVE, and prototypic SMS-RESOLVE with special-purpose coils (SMS-RESOLVE + Coils), acquired at b-values of both 0 and 800 s/mm2. Image quality was evaluated qualitatively (reader score) and quantitatively (tumor distortion, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), SNR efficiency) and compared. For volunteer imaging, the image quality of target tissues at three different typical levels (oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, and thyroid level) were evaluated. For patient imaging, the image quality of primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes was evaluated. RESULTS: The acquisition time was 3:37 minutes for RESOLVE, 2:58 minutes for RESOLVE-RFP, 2:01 minutes for SMS-RESOLVE and 2:01 minutes for SMS-RESOLVE + Coils, with a 44% reduction compared to the conventional RESOLVE. No significant differences in the reader scores, tumor distortion, or ADC values of the lesions were found among the protocols. The SNR and CNR at the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal level of SMS-RESOLVE + Coils were markedly improved and significantly higher than those of RESOLVE, as well as the SNR, SNR efficiency of tumors and lymph nodes. No significant differences in quantitative measurements were found at the thyroid level. CONCLUSION: SMS-RESOLVE + Coils protocol is an effective and promising approach to optimally reducing the total acquisition time, and could be a good alternative with a superior SNR and SNR efficiency in comparison with conventional RESOLVE. However, the limited application in the lower neck region needs further investigation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 772, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034131

RESUMO

Lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have offered great opportunities in the engineering of monolayer electronics, catalysis and optoelectronics. To explore the full potential of these materials, developing methods to precisely control the spatial scale of the heterostructure region is crucial. Here, we report the synthesis of ultra-long MoS2 nano-channels with several micrometer length and 2-30 nanometer width within the MoSe2 monolayers, based on intrinsic grain boundaries (GBs). First-principles calculations disclose that the strain fields near the GBs not only lead to the preferred substitution of selenium by sulfur but also drive coherent extension of the MoS2 channel from the GBs. Such a strain-driven synthesis mechanism is further shown applicable to other topological defects. We also demonstrate that the spontaneous strain of MoS2 nano-channels can further improve the hydrogen production activity of GBs, paving the way for designing GB based high-efficient TMDs in the catalytic application.

5.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1315-1321, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951420

RESUMO

Due to its in-plane structural anisotropy and highly polymorphic nature, borophene has been shown to form a diverse set of linear superlattice structures that are not observed in other two-dimensional materials. Here, we show both theoretically and experimentally that concentric superlattice structures can also be realized in borophene via the energetically preferred self-assembly of coherent twin boundaries. Since borophene twin boundaries do not require the creation of additional lattice defects, they are exceptionally low in energy and thus easier to nucleate and even migrate than grain boundaries in other two-dimensional materials. Due to their high mobility, borophene twin boundaries naturally self-assemble to form novel phases consisting of periodic concentric loops of filled boron hexagons that are further preferred energetically by the rotational registry of borophene on the Ag(111) surface. Compared to defect-free borophene, concentric superlattice borophene phases are predicted to possess enhanced mechanical strength and localized electronic states. Overall, these results establish defect-mediated self-assembly as a pathway to unique borophene structures and properties.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(3): 2102-2112, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338841

RESUMO

The therapeutic effect of metformin (Met) on atherosclerosis was studied here. Effects of methionine and Met on the induction of inflammatory response and H2 S expression in peritoneal macrophages were evaluated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry assay, western blot, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were conducted to observe the levels of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), DNA methyltransferases 1 (DNMT1), DNMT3a, DNMT3b, tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α), interleukin 1b (IL-1ß), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Luciferase and bisulfite sequencing assays were also utilized to evaluate the CSE promoter activity as well as the methylation status of CSE in transfected cells. Methionine significantly elevated Hcy, TNF-a, H 2 S, and IL-1ß expression while decreasing the level of CSE in C57BL/6 mice. In contrary, co-treatment with Methionine and Met reduced the detrimental effect of Methionine. Homocysteine (Hcy) decreased H 2 S expression while promoting the synthesis of IL-1ß and TNF-α in THP-1 and raw264.7 cells. Treatment of THP-1 and raw264.7 cells with methionine and Met reduced the activity of methionine in dose dependently. Moreover, Hcy increased the expression of DNMT and elevated the level of methylation in the CSE promoter, whereas the co-treatment with methionine and Met attenuated the effects of Hcy. Methionine significantly decreased plasma level of CSE while increasing the severity of inflammatory responses and plasma level of Hcy, which in turn suppressed H 2 S synthesis and enhanced DNA hypermethylation of CSE promoter to promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In contrary, co-treatment with methionine and Met reduced the detrimental effect of methionine.

7.
Otol Neurotol ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During skull base tumor surgery, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dissection is commonly performed. The impact of this procedure on patients' postoperative diet and TMJ function is a matter of concern to surgeons. METHODS: We reviewed the Craniomandibular Index (CMI) for 32 patients (15 men and 17 women) who underwent TMJ dissection during surgery for skull base tumors between August 2015 and May 2018. RESULTS: Fifteen patients underwent removal of the mandibular condyle, and 17 had the condyle preserved. Twenty-one patients mainly underwent infratemporal fossa approach, and 11 underwent extended temporal bone resection. No significant difference between pre- and postoperative diet was observed in any group. Significant differences in CMI index were seen in all groups. The highest score was 0.115 of Dysfunction Index, observed postoperatively in the group that underwent condyle removal. CONCLUSIONS: For skull base tumor surgery, TMJ dissection has no significant impact on postoperative diet. Patients who underwent removal of the mandibular condyle have significantly worse postoperative TMJ function.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax0246, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598552

RESUMO

Two-dimensional boron, borophene, was realized in recent experiments but still lacks an adequate growth theory for guiding its controlled synthesis. Combining ab initio calculations and experimental characterization, we study edges and growth kinetics of borophene on Ag(111). In equilibrium, the borophene edges are distinctly reconstructed with exceptionally low energies, in contrast to those of other two-dimensional materials. Away from equilibrium, sequential docking of boron feeding species to the reconstructed edges tends to extend the given lattice out of numerous polymorphic structures. Furthermore, each edge can grow via multiple energy pathways of atomic row assembly due to variable boron-boron coordination. These pathways reveal different degrees of anisotropic growth kinetics, shaping borophene into diverse elongated hexagonal islands in agreement with experimental observations in terms of morphology as well as edge orientation and periodicity. These results further suggest that ultrathin borophene ribbons can be grown at low temperature and low boron chemical potential.

9.
Nanoscale ; 11(33): 15605-15611, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403639

RESUMO

Two-dimensional boron (borophene) features structural polymorphs and distinct in-plane anisotropy, opening opportunities to achieve tailored electronic properties by intermixing different phases. Here, using scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations, delocalized one-dimensional nearly free electron states (NFE) in the (2,3) or ß12 borophene sheet on the Ag(111) surface were observed. The NFE states emerge from a line defect in borophene, manifested as a structural unit of the (2,2) or χ3 sheet, which creates an in-plane potential well that shifts the states toward the Fermi level. The NFE states are held near the 2D plane of borophene, rather than in the vacuum region as observed in other nanostructures. Furthermore, borophene can provide a rare prototype to further study novel NFE behaviors, which may have potential applications in transport or field emission nanodevices based on boron.

10.
Nat Mater ; 18(10): 1098-1104, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332336

RESUMO

The semiconductor-electrolyte interface dominates the behaviours of semiconductor electrocatalysis, which has been modelled as a Schottky-analogue junction according to classical electron transfer theories. However, this model cannot be used to explain the extremely high carrier accumulations in ultrathin semiconductor catalysis observed in our work. Inspired by the recently developed ion-controlled electronics, we revisit the semiconductor-electrolyte interface and unravel a universal self-gating phenomenon through microcell-based in situ electronic/electrochemical measurements to clarify the electronic-conduction modulation of semiconductors during the electrocatalytic reaction. We then demonstrate that the type of semiconductor catalyst strongly correlates with their electrocatalysis; that is, n-type semiconductor catalysts favour cathodic reactions such as the hydrogen evolution reaction, p-type ones prefer anodic reactions such as the oxygen evolution reaction and bipolar ones tend to perform both anodic and cathodic reactions. Our study provides new insight into the electronic origin of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface during electrocatalysis, paving the way for designing high-performance semiconductor catalysts.

11.
Nanoscale ; 11(23): 11099-11106, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165833

RESUMO

Carbon and boron can mix to form numerous two-dimensional (2D) compounds with strong covalent bonds, yet very few possess a bandgap for functional applications. Motivated by the structural similarity between graphene and recently synthesized borophene, we propose a new family of semiconducting boron carbide monolayers composed of B4C3 pyramids and carbon hexagons, denoted as (B4C3)m(C6)n (m, n are integers) by means of the global minimum search method augmented with first-principles calculations. These monolayers are isoelectronic to graphene yet exhibit increased bandgaps with decreasing n/m, due to the enhanced localization of boron multicenter bonding states as a consequence of the electronic transfer from boron to carbon. In particular, the B4C3 monolayer is even more stable than the previously synthesized BC3 monolayer and has a direct bandgap of 2.73 eV, with the promise for applications in optical catalysis and optoelectronics. These results are likely to inform the on-going effort on the design of semiconducting 2D materials based on other light elements.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(19): 7899-7905, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021631

RESUMO

Synthetic two-dimensional (2D) materials without layered bulk allotropes are approaching a new frontier of materials flatland, one with properties richer than those of graphene-like materials. This is the case even as only a few chemical elements and blends have shown synthetic 2D forms. While hydrogen and metals are earth-abundant and form numerous compounds, rarely are 2D materials with only robust metal-hydrogen bonds. Here, a large new family of 2D materials is found from metal hydrides by high-throughput computational search augmented with first-principles calculations. There are 110 thermally and dynamically stable 2D materials that range from metallic materials to wide-gap semiconductors. A subgroup of these materials even varies from topological insulators to nodal-loop semimetals as well as from antiferromagnetic semiconductors to ferromagnetic half-metals. Unexpectedly, these monolayers resemble graphene in an ability to form weak interlayer interaction due to the variable multicenter bonding of hydrogen that eliminates the otherwise prevalent dangling bonds, rather than the covalent bonds between stacked layers as in previously reported synthetic 2D materials. This feature will favor potential experimental synthesis of these metal hydride monolayers.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(4): 3816-3822, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844248

RESUMO

Borophene (the first two-dimensional (2D) allotrope of boron) is emerging as a groundbreaking system for boron-based chemistry and, more broadly, the field of low-dimensional materials. Exploration of the phase space for growth is critical because borophene is a synthetic 2D material that does not have a bulk layered counterpart and thus cannot be isolated via exfoliation methods. Herein, we report synthesis of borophene on Au(111) substrates. Unlike previously studied growth on Ag substrates, boron diffuses into Au at elevated temperatures and segregates to the surface to form borophene islands as the substrate cools. These observations are supported by ab initio modeling of interstitial boron diffusion into the Au lattice. Borophene synthesis also modifies the surface reconstruction of the Au(111) substrate, resulting in a trigonal network that templates growth at low coverage. This initial growth is composed of discrete borophene nanoclusters, whose shape and size are consistent with theoretical predictions. As the concentration of boron increases, nanotemplating breaks down and larger borophene islands are observed. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that borophene grown on Au(111) possesses a metallic electronic structure, suggesting potential applications in 2D plasmonics, superconductivity, interconnects, electrodes, and transparent conductors.

14.
Adv Mater ; 31(42): e1803772, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687984

RESUMO

Selective transport of mass through membranes, so-called separation, is fundamental to many industrial applications, e.g., water desalination and gas separation. Graphynes, graphene analogs yet containing intrinsic uniformly distributed pores, are excellent candidates for highly permeable and selective membranes owing to their extreme thinness and high porosity. Graphynes exhibit computationally determined separation performance far beyond experimentally measured values of commercial state-of-the-art polyamide membranes; they also offer advantages over other atomically thin membranes like porous graphene in terms of controllability in pore geometry. Here, recent progress in proof-of-concept computational research into various graphynes for water desalination and gas separation is discussed, and their theoretically predicted outstanding permeability and selectivity are highlighted. Challenges associated with the future development of graphyne-based membranes are further analyzed, concentrating on controlled synthesis of graphyne, maintenance of high structural stability to withstand loading pressures, as well asthe demand for accurate computational characterization of separation performance. Finally, possible directions are discussed to align future efforts in order to push graphynes and other 2D material membranes toward practical separation applications.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 30(7): 075701, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523979

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se) exhibit two phases: the ground state 2H and the metastable 1T. Here, WSe2 and MoS2 monolayers have been studied, and we show by comprehensive first-principles calculations that the stability of the two phases can be switched in MX2 nanoribbons. The 2H phase is found to have increasingly higher energy than the 1T phase at a smaller ribbon width, and the width for favoring the 1T phase reaches up to 2.50 nm for WSe2. The phase crossover is due to higher coordination of edge M atoms in 1T phase than in 2H phase and an interesting electronic reconstruction of 1T lattice in the ribbon interior. The edge configuration of 1T phase diminishes the edge dangling bonds and thereby enhances the stability of MX2 nanoribbons. Our findings underscore the importance of edges in determining the structures of 2D MX2 and are crucial for their future scientific studies and potential applications.

16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(12): 1109-1119, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523296

RESUMO

Water contains tremendous energy in a variety of forms, but very little of this energy has yet been harnessed. Nanostructured materials can generate electricity on interaction with water, a phenomenon that we term the hydrovoltaic effect, which potentially extends the technical capability of water energy harvesting and enables the creation of self-powered devices. In this Review, starting by describing fundamental properties of water and of water-solid interfaces, we discuss key aspects pertaining to water-carbon interactions and basic mechanisms of harvesting water energy with nanostructured materials. Experimental advances in generating electricity from water flows, waves, natural evaporation and moisture are then reviewed to show the correlations in their basic mechanisms and the potential for their integration towards harvesting energy from the water cycle. We further discuss potential device applications of hydrovoltaic technologies, analyse main challenges in improving the energy conversion efficiency and scaling up the output power, and suggest prospects for developments of the emerging technology.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(23): 6841-6846, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449097

RESUMO

Flexoelectricity, the coupling effect of the strain gradient and charge polarization, is an important route to tune electronic properties of low-dimensional materials. Here our extensive first-principles calculations reveal that structural wrinkling and corrugation will cause significant flexoelectricity in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. The flexoelectricity is induced by the strain gradients created along the finite thickness of the wrinkled TMD monolayers and becomes more dominant in determining out-of-plane polarizations with decreasing wavelengths of the TMD wrinkles. According to the first-principles calculations and whole structural symmetry, a theoretical model is developed to describe the total out-of-plane polarizations and flexoelectric effect of the wrinkled TMD monolayers. The unveiled flexoelectricity in monolayer TMDs highlights a potential for their application in energy conversion devices.

18.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 11(8): 1290-1295, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140631

RESUMO

AIM: To report the long-term outcomes of a large cohort of upper lid retraction patients treated with subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide injections. METHODS: This retrospective clinical study was conducted from 2009 to 2016. The documents of 97 patients (126 eyes) were reviewed. The patients were treated with subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide injections monthly and evaluated pre- and post-treatment by taking measurements of the upper margin reflex distance (MRD1, the distance between the upper-lid margin and the pupil center), lid aperture, lagophthalmos and proptosis. The patients were divided into the cured group, the improved group and the ineffective group based on the final treatment effectiveness. The improved group and the ineffective group were combined into non-cured group. RESULTS: The follow-up time was 23.45±14.86mo. Of the patients, 63 (64.9%) were assigned to the cured group, 22 (22.7%) in the improved group, 12 (12.4%) in the ineffective group. Injection times for cured group was 4.66±1.74, and for non-cured group was 5.17±2.08 (P≤0.05). The MRD1 was significantly reduced between baseline and 1mo after the initiation of treatment in the cured and improved groups (P<0.001). The values did not change significantly after 4mo for the improved group, while they continued to decrease in the cured group. In the ineffective group, the MRD1 did not significantly change after treatment. A statistically significant difference was observed between the baseline and post-treatment values of the mean muscle thickness (2.95±0.99 mm vs 2.04±0.63 mm, P<0.05) and surface area (27.27±10.5 mm2vs 18.3±7.04 mm2, P<0.05) of the levator superioris with magnetic resonance imaging examination. Twelve patients (12.4%) relapsed after treatment and required additional subconjunctival injections. The main side effects included menstrual cycle disturbances (32%) and elevations of intra-ocular pressure (18.6%). CONCLUSION: A repeated subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone is an effective and relatively safe treatment for upper lid retraction due to thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. This is related to the anti-inflammation effect of the medicine and the levator thickness can become thinner. Patients must be monitored regularly for recurrences and side effects.

19.
Nat Mater ; 17(9): 783-788, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013053

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) boron (that is, borophene) was recently synthesized following theoretical predictions1-5. Its metallic nature and high in-plane anisotropy combine many of the desirable attributes of graphene6 and monolayer black phosphorus7. As a synthetic 2D material, its structural properties cannot be deduced from bulk boron, which implies that the intrinsic defects of borophene remain unexplored. Here we investigate borophene line defects at the atomic scale with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and density functional theory (DFT). Under suitable growth conditions, borophene phases that correspond to the v1/6 and v1/5 models are found to intermix and accommodate line defects in each other with structures that match the constituent units of the other phase. These line defects energetically favour spatially periodic self-assembly that gives rise to new borophene phases, which ultimately blurs the distinction between borophene crystals and defects. This phenomenon is unique to borophene as a result of its high in-plane anisotropy and energetically and structurally similar polymorphs. Low-temperature measurements further reveal subtle electronic features that are consistent with a charge density wave (CDW), which are modulated by line defects. This atomic-level understanding is likely to inform ongoing efforts to devise and realize applications based on borophene.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(6): 444-450, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875501

RESUMO

The synthesis of 2D materials with no analogous bulk layered allotropes promises a substantial breadth of physical and chemical properties through the diverse structural options afforded by substrate-dependent epitaxy. However, despite the joint theoretical and experimental efforts to guide materials discovery, successful demonstrations of synthetic 2D materials have been rare. The recent synthesis of 2D boron polymorphs (that is, borophene) provides a notable example of such success. In this Perspective, we discuss recent progress and future opportunities for borophene research. Borophene combines unique mechanical properties with anisotropic metallicity, which complements the canon of conventional 2D materials. The multi-centre characteristics of boron-boron bonding lead to the formation of configurationally varied, vacancy-mediated structural motifs, providing unprecedented diversity in a mono-elemental 2D system with potential for electronic applications, chemical functionalization, materials synthesis and complex heterostructures. With its foundations in computationally guided synthesis, borophene can serve as a prototype for ongoing efforts to discover and exploit synthetic 2D materials.

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