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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471838

RESUMO

Biomarkers of breast cancer such as hormone receptors (HR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) can be altered after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, whether the conversion of these receptors affects the prognosis of patients remains to be determined. We sought to evaluate the prognostic value of HR and HER2 receptors before and after NAC and to analyze their clinical implications. Relevant studies were used to calculate the pooled hazard ratios, 95% confidence interval (95% CI). This meta-analysis included eight studies with 2847 patients. Compared to patients with HR+ → +, patients with HR+ → - have shorter disease free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio = 2.64, 95% CI 1.86-3.75) and overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio = 2.99, 95% CI 1.97-4.54). Furthermore, patients with HR- → + tend to achieve better DFS (hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.60-1.17) compared to patients with HR- → -. Patients with HR- → + gain better OS (hazard ratio = 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.99) compared to patients exhibiting HR- → -. When comparing patients with HER2+ → - to patients with HER2+ → +, patients with HER2+ → - tended to achieve better DFS (hazard ratio = 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.53) though results for OS (hazard ratio = 1.16, 95% CI 0.54-2.49) were not statistically significant. Our data strongly support the need for redetection of HR and HER2 receptor status of surgical sample following neoadjuvant therapy. Changes in HR status induced by NAC can be used as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients for predicting both OS and DFS. HER2 change may also be valuable for predicting prognosis. Further research should explore therapeutic strategies for those presenting receptor status conversion.

2.
Opt Express ; 27(15): 20397-20411, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510134

RESUMO

We propose a novel compound grating structure that exhibits a tunable ultra-narrowband transmission in the near infrared regime. The thin microstructure can realize a steep wave form through a Fano-like resonance by coupling different propagation-type SPP modes and with a narrow line width formed by the energy band gap. Additionally, the out-of-band suppression is remarkably enhanced. It effectively solves the constraint relationship between high transmittance, narrow line width, and weak side peak of the plasmonic filter, and the structure is suitable for integration with detectors in the near infrared regime.

3.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22161-22172, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510511

RESUMO

Iterative point-wise reinforcement learning (IPWRL) is proposed for highly accurate indoor visible light positioning (VLP). By properly updating the height information in an iterative fashion, the IPWRL not only effectively mitigates the impact of non-deterministic noise but also exhibits excellent tolerance to deterministic errors caused by the inaccurate a priori height information. The principle of the IPWRL is explained, and the performance of the IPWRL is experimentally evaluated in a received signal strength (RSS) based VLP system and compared with other positioning algorithms, including the conventional RSS algorithm, the k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm and the PWRL algorithm where iterations exclude. Unlike the supervised machine learning method, e.g., the KNN, whose performance is highly dependent on the training process, the proposed IPWRL does not require training and demonstrates robust positioning performance for the entire tested area. Experimental results also show that when a large height information mismatch occurs, the IPWRL is able to first correct the height information and then offers robust positioning results with a rather low positioning error, while the positioning errors caused by the other algorithms are significantly higher.

4.
Brief Bioinform ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504171

RESUMO

Essential genes are those whose loss of function compromises organism viability or results in profound loss of fitness. Recent gene-editing technologies have provided new opportunities to characterize essential genes. Here, we present an integrated analysis that comprehensively and systematically elucidates the genetic and regulatory characteristics of human essential genes. First, we found that essential genes act as 'hubs' in protein-protein interaction networks, chromatin structure and epigenetic modification. Second, essential genes represent conserved biological processes across species, although gene essentiality changes differently among species. Third, essential genes are important for cell development due to their discriminate transcription activity in embryo development and oncogenesis. In addition, we developed an interactive web server, the Human Essential Genes Interactive Analysis Platform (http://sysomics.com/HEGIAP/), which integrates abundant analytical tools to enable global, multidimensional interpretation of gene essentiality. Our study provides new insights that improve the understanding of human essential genes.

6.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 382-389, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404885

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular opportunistic, parasitic protozoan. Microglia have been classified into two main types: M1 (classically activated macrophages) and M2 (alternatively activated macrophages). BV2 cells were used in this study, together with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-γ or interleukin (IL)-4, which were used to induce resting microglia. Expression levels of M1/M2 markers were determined at both mRNA and protein levels, using PCR, western blot, and flow cytometry. Furthermore, cells were infected with T. gondii PLK strain, and the dynamic changes in M1/M2 marker expression levels were determined. An in vitro polarization model was successfully established. Expression of Nos2 and M1-associated markers was significantly upregulated at 12 h post-infection in BV2 cells. Further, the JAK/STAT1 and NF-κB signaling pathways were also activated following T. gondii infection. This demonstrated that T. gondii infection induces M1-type microglial polarization in vitro. The present study demonstrated that T. gondii infection affects microglial activation in vitro and elucidated the effects of activated microglia on T. gondii proliferation. This data may serve as a useful reference for more detailed elucidation of interactions between T. gondii and the innate immune system.

7.
Thromb Res ; 181: 127-134, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cardiovascular disease, in which pulmonary embolism (PE) is potentially life-threatening. Accurate biological markers for the early diagnosis of VTE are needed. The purpose of this study was to analyze and validate the predictive value of microRNAs for the diagnosis of VTE. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and is current through Sep 27, 2018. The diagnostic value of microRNAs for VTE was analyzed by creating a summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Our analysis included 12 articles assessing a total of 1057 individuals. The most frequently researched microRNA was miR-134, and the pooled results of the predictive ability of this miRNA with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) showed an average sensitivity of 0.82 (0.69-0.91) and an average specificity of 0.83 (0.68-0.92). The average AUC for the SROC curves was 0.89 (0.86-0.92). For other microRNAs, AUC values >0.8 were considered as potential diagnostic indices. These microRNAs included miR-1233, miR-134, miR-145, miR-483-3p, miR-582, miR-532, and miR-195. CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNAs may act as novel diagnostic biomarkers for VTE, and miR-1233, miR-134, miR-145, miR-483-3p, miR-582, miR-532, and miR-195 are prime candidates. Of these, research on miR-134 is the most extensive and reliable.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8265958, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467637

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm in men. Despite the high incidence, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of PCa are still largely unknown, which limits the therapeutic options and leads to poor prognosis. Herein, based on the expression profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we investigated the interactions between long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA by constructing a competing endogenous RNA network. Several competing endogenous RNAs could participate in the tumorigenesis of PCa. Six lncRNA signatures were identified as potential candidates associated with stage progression by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, 32 signatures from the coexpression network had potential diagnostic value for PCa lymphatic metastasis using machine learning algorithms. By targeting the coexpression network, the antifungal compound econazole was screened out for PCa treatment. Econazole could induce growth restraint, arrest the cell cycle, lead to apoptosis, inhibit migration, invasion, and adhesion in PC3 and DU145 cell lines, and inhibit the growth of prostate xenografts in nude mice. This systematic characterization of lncRNAs, microRNAs, and mRNAs in the risk of metastasis and progression of PCa will aid in the identification of candidate prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic drugs.

9.
Curr Genet ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422448

RESUMO

Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne fungus, can invade plant vascular tissue and cause Verticillium wilt. The enzyme α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH), catalyzing the oxidation of α-oxoglutarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), is vital for energy metabolism in the fungi. Here, we identified the OGDH gene in V. dahliae (VdOGDH, VDAG_10018) and investigated its function in virulence by generating gene deletion mutants (ΔVdOGDH) and complementary mutants (ΔVdOGDH-C). When the ΔVdOGDH mutants were supplemented with different carbon sources, vegetative growth on Czapek Dox medium was significantly impaired, suggesting that VdOGDH is crucial for vegetative growth and carbon utilization. Conidia of the ΔVdOGDH mutants were atypically rounded or spherical, and hyphae were irregularly branched and lacked typical whorled branches. Mutants ΔVdOGDH-1 and ΔVdOGDH-2 were highly sensitive to H2O2 in the medium plates and had higher intracellular ROS levels. ΔVdOGDH mutants also had elevated expression of oxidative response-related genes, indicating that VdOGDH is involved in response to oxidative stress. In addition, the disruption of VdOGDH caused a significant increase in the expression of energy metabolism-related genes VdICL, VdICDH, VdMDH, and VdPDH and melanin-related genes Vayg1, VdSCD, VdLAC, VT4HR, and VaflM in the ΔVdOGDH mutants; thus, VdOGDH is also important for energy metabolism and melanin accumulation. Cotton plants inoculated with ΔVdOGDH mutants exhibited mild leaf chlorosis and the disease index was lower compared with wild type and ΔVdOGDH-C strains. These results together show that VdOGDH involved in energy metabolism of V. dahliae, is also essential for full virulence by regulating multiple fungal developmental factors.

10.
J Histotechnol ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362594

RESUMO

Colon cancer, which is considered a common gastrointestinal cancer, has been the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. Colon cancer has various histological sub-types and 90% of them are adenocarcinoma. In recent years, autophagy, the process by which cells are self-cannibalized, has been implicated in pathophysiology of various diseases including colon adenocarcinoma and thus, has become a strong research focus. This has also been true for trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). TFF3 is a small secreted peptide that is present in almost all mucin-secreting tissues, it is most abundant in goblet cells of the gastrointestinal tract and expressed at high protein levels in colon cancer. The present study analyzed the expression of TFF3 and autophagy-related gene ATG12 in cancerous and normal tissue samples collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. The expression of both proteins was shown to be increased in cancerous as compared to adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, these proteins were shown to be positively correlated using the Pearson's Correlation test in cancerous tissues. Finally, TFF3 was shown to regulate ATG12 in human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Thus, the data presented here suggest that both TFF3 and ATG12 may be promising potential therapeutic targets to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(9): 6393-6402, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QSYQ) has been recognized as a potential protective agent for various cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of QSYQ in cardiac complications associated with diabetes is not clear currently. In this study, we investigate whether QSYQ could exert cardiac protective effects against high glucose-induced injuries in cardiac H9c2 cells. METHODS: H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of high glucose in presence or absence of QSYQ and LY294002. Cell cytotoxicity, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were determined. Levels of bax, bcl-2, p53, cleaved caspase-3, PI3K and Akt were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: Our data indicated that QSYQ significantly increased the cell viability and decreased cytotoxicity. By analysing the apoptotic rate as well as the expression levels of cytoapoptosis-related factors including cleaved caspase-3, bax, bcl-2, and p53, we found that QSYQ could remarkably suppress apoptosis of cardiomyoblasts caused by high glucose. In addition, it also showed that QSYQ reduced the generation of ROS. We further found that QSYQ treatment could inhibit the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and mPTP opening. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed enhanced phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt. The specific inhibitor of PI3K, LY294002 not only inhibited QSYQ induced PI3K/Akt signalling pathway activation, but alleviated its protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, these findings demonstrated that QSYQ effectively protected H9c2 cells against the series injuries due to high glucose at least partially by activating the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

12.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are widely used for early breast cancer, whereas the efficacy and safety of extended AI adjuvant therapy compared with shorter AI therapy, observation, or placebo remains controversial. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis to summarize available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy and safety of extended AI therapy for early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library to select studies published through March 2018. Studies designed as RCTs and that investigated overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) for extended AI and shorter AI therapy, observation, or placebo were included. Hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to pool analysis according to data type. RESULTS: We identified 7 RCTs that involved 16,926 patients with early breast cancer. The summary HRs indicated that extended treatment with AIs was not associated with OS (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.82-1.10; P = .488), whereas it could significantly improve DFS as compared with shorter AI therapy, observation, or placebo (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.86; P < .001). Treatment with extended AIs significantly reduced contralateral breast cancer recurrence (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.34-0.64; P < .001), whereas it has no significant effect on distant metastatic recurrence (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; P = .055), and locoregional recurrence (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.53-1.08; P = .127). There were no significant differences between treatment with extended AIs and control for grade 3 or more adverse events. CONCLUSION: Extended AI therapy could significantly improve DFS, especially for contralateral breast cancer recurrence. There were no significant differences between treatment with AIs and control for OS, distant metastatic and locoregional recurrence, and serious adverse events.

13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 583, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polymorphisms and hypersensitivity to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies that evaluated the associations of HLA polymorphisms with antiretroviral therapy-induced hypersensitivity published in April 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as estimates of the effect. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies that assessed a total of 4273 patients. First, carriers of HLA-A *24 were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity among patients with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy (OR: 12.12; P = 0.018). Second, five SNPs of HLA-B genotypes, including *18 (OR: 1.63; P = 0.028), *35 (OR: 2.31; P = 0.002), *39 (OR: 11.85; P = 0.040), *51 (OR: 1.66; P = 0.028), and *81 (OR: 8.11; P = 0.021), were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, carriers of HLA-B *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 0.43; P < 0.001). Third, HLA-C *04 was associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 3.09; P < 0.001), whereas a lower risk for hypersensitivity was observed in patients who were carriers of HLA-C *02 (OR: 0.22; P = 0.030), *03 (OR: 0.53; P = 0.049), and *07 (OR: 0.61; P = 0.044). Finally, carriers of HLA-DRB1 *05 (OR: 0.18; P = 0.006) and *15 (OR: 0.23; P = 0.013) were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated patients carrying HLA-A *24, HLA-B *18, *35, *39, *51, *81, HLA-C *04 were associated with a higher risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, subjects carrying HLA-B *15, HLA-C *02, *03, *07, HLA-DRB1 *05, *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity.

14.
Soft Robot ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329029

RESUMO

Soft robotic grippers (SRGs) have been extensively employed in robotic grasping and manipulation applications due to the fact that they are beneficial for pick-and-place of difficult-to-handle and delicate objects with various geometries and stiffness in a comfortable and safer way. This article presents a bio-inspired and shape-adaptive SRG augmented with electroadhesion (EA) functionality, FinEA, by a cost-effective combination of a Fin Ray structured two-fingered SRG with two soft-stretchable EA pads. The EA pads were manufactured by screen printing a layer of electrically conductive and elastomeric carbon black powder mixed with polydimethylsiloxane onto a dielectric substrate. The compliant Fin Ray fingers, composed of soft longitudinal beams and rigid cross beams, were structurally optimized by the finite element method using ABAQUS/CAE based on three key parameters: the open angle of the longitudinal beams, the spacing between the cross beams, and the incline angle of the cross beams. The soft beams were produced by a traditional soft lithography method, whereas the rigid cross beams were three-dimensionally printed. The resultant FinEA grippers were capable of lifting not only flat/thin materials without distorting them due to the employment of EA, but also concave and convex objects due to the passively shape-adaptive Fin Ray structure and the EA functionality. In addition, the proposed FinEA grippers were able to grasp delicate materials and objects whose diameters are larger than the overall gripper length. Furthermore, 65% more weight in shear were picked up by the FinEA gripper when 4 kV was applied compared with 0 V. The FinEA concept provides useful and alternative solution for controllable adhesion-based SRGs and may facilitate the inspiration and development of future SRGs with added functionality and enhanced versatility.

15.
J Biomed Opt ; 24(6): 1-11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222991

RESUMO

Noninvasive and real-time visualization of the thoracoepigastric veins (TVs) of living mice was demonstrated by using two-photon excitation (TPE) optical imaging with a Eu-luminescent polymeric nanoagent as the angiographic contrast. The spatiotemporal evolution of the polymeric nanoagent in TVs was monitored for up to 2 h by TPE time-resolved (TPE-TR) bioimaging, which is free from the interference of tissue autofluorescence. A wide field-of-view covering the thoracoabdominal region allowed the visualization of the entire TV network with an imaging depth of 1 to 2 mm and a lateral resolution of 80 µm at submillimeter. Detailed analysis of the uptake, transport, and clearance processes of the polymeric nanoagent revealed a clearance time constant of ∼30 min and an apparent clearance efficiency of 80% to 90% for the nanoagent in both axial and lateral TVs. TPE-TR imaging of the dissected internal organs proved that the liver is mainly responsible for the sequestration of the nanoagent, which is consistent with the apparent retention efficiency of liver, ∼32 % , as determined by the real-time in vivo TV imaging. We demonstrate the potency of TPE-TR modality in the pharmacokinetics imaging of the peripheral vascular systems of animal models, which can be beneficial for related nanotheranostics study.

16.
Resuscitation ; 141: 151-157, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between thoracic cage dimension, chest subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depth and outcomes of adults with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remain unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated IHCA patients between January 2016 and October 2017. The thoracic cage transverse diameter, internal AP diameter, cross-sectional area, anterior and posterior SAT depths were measured in computed-tomography (CT) images. Using logistic regression models, we determined the adjusted associations between thoracic cage dimension, SAT depths and the prognosis for IHCA. The primary outcome was sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the secondary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 423 IHCA patients, 258 patients achieved ROSC and 70 survived to discharge. Smaller cross-sectional area and posterior SAT depth were significantly related to ROSC. Smaller posterior SAT depth was associated with ROSC. After multivariate adjustment, the smaller cross-sectional area was independently associated with ROSC (Odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.99-1.00; p = 0.008) and survival to discharge (OR 0.99, 95%CI 0.98-1.00; p = 0.024), and the smaller posterior SAT depth was independently related to ROSC (OR 0.65, 95%CI 0.44-0.96; p = 0.030), whereas no relation to survival to discharge was found. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with IHCA, the smaller thoracic cage dimension and posterior SAT depth are associated with better survival. An adjustable compression depth based on the thoracic cage dimension might be better than the "one-size-fits-all" compression depth for resuscitating CA patients. In addition, physicians should pay extra attention to compression efficacy when resuscitating obese patients.

17.
Ann Plast Surg ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous reports have described the incidence of secondary lip correction for patients with cleft lip (CL), and this incidence broadly varies among centers. The purpose of this study was to determine this revision rate for a reasonably large number of patients in our center and identify the clinical factors that contribute to the revision rate. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all infants with unilateral CL with or without cleft palate who underwent primary cheiloplasty at our cleft center from 2006 to 2012. Four surgeons were in charge of almost all operations. We investigated how many children underwent lip revisions by the end of 2017. RESULTS: In total, 490 infants underwent primary lip repair, and 47 underwent revision surgery by the age of 8 years. Half of them (24 children) underwent revisions at the age of 5 or 6 years. There was no significant difference in the revision rate by sex or cleft side. The revision rate in children with CL only tended to be lower than that in children with alveolar cleft or cleft palate, but it was not significantly associated with the cleft type. The revision rate ranged from 2.8% to 15.2% among surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: The overall revision rate was 9.6%, which is relatively lower than that in other cleft centers. However, the repair technique and cleft care program should not be evaluated using the revision rate only. Various factors, including surgeons' preference, contribute to the indications for revision, and these factors can change with age. We plan to follow up the patients until our completion of the cleft care program and report the final revision rate.

18.
Arch Microbiol ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147747

RESUMO

Euonymus japonicus Thunb. is a woody and ornamental plant popular in China, Europe and North America. Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that affect E. japonicus growth. In this study, the diseased and apparently healthy leaves were collected from E. japonicus planted in a greenbelt in Beijing, and the effect of powdery mildew on the epiphytic microbial community was investigated by using Illumina sequencing. The results showed that the healthy leaves (HL) harbored greater bacterial and fungal diversity than diseased leaves (DL). Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal communities in DL exhibited significantly different structures from those in HL. The relative abundance of several bacterial phyla (Proteobacteria and Firmicutes) and fungal phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were altered by powdery mildew. At the genus level, most genera decreased as powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe increased, while the genera Kocuria and Exiguobacterium markedly increased. Leaf properties, especially protein content was found to significantly affect beta-diversity of the bacterial and fungal community. Network analysis revealed that positive bacterial interactions in DL were stronger than those in HL samples. Insights into the underlying the indigenous microbial phyllosphere populations of E. japonicus response to powdery mildew will help in the development of methods for controlling plant diseases.

19.
J Neural Eng ; 16(5): 056013, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes an iterative negative-unlabeled (NU) learning algorithm for cross-subject detection of passive fatigue from labelled alert (negative) and unlabeled driving EEG data. APPROACH: Unlike other studies which used manual labeling of the fatigue state, the proposed algorithm (PA) first iteratively uses 29 subjects' alert data and unlabeled driving data to identify the most fatigued block of EEG data in each subject in a cross-subject manner. Subsequently, the PA computes subjects' driving fatigue score. Repeated measures correlations of the score to EEG band powers are then performed. MAIN RESULTS: The PA yields an averaged accuracy of 93.77% ± 8.15% across subjects in detecting fatigue, which is significantly better than the various baselines. The fatigue scores obtained are also significantly positively correlated with theta band power and negatively correlated with beta band power that are known to respectively increase and decrease in presence of passive fatigue. There is a strong negative correlation with alpha band power as well. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed iterative NU learning algorithm is capable of labelling and quantifying the most fatigued block in a cross-subject manner despite the lack of ground truth in the fatigue levels of unlabeled driving EEG data. Together with the significant correlations with theta, alpha and beta band power, the results show promise in the application of the proposed algorithm to detect fatigue from EEG.

20.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(2): e12775, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069827

RESUMO

Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells express markers of both T and NK cells and may produce various cytokines to regulate liver immunity. However, the role of iNKT cells in the progression of HBV-relative liver cirrhosis (HBV-LC) is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the impact of peripheral iNKT cells on a cohort of patients with HBV-LC. The frequency, number, activation status, apoptosis and proliferation ability of peripheral iNKT cells were detected with flow cytometry. The impact of peripheral iNKT cells on the proliferation of hepatocyte cell line (MIHA) and activation of hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) was detected with flow cytometry and PCR. In HBV-LC patients, the frequency and absolute number of peripheral iNKT cells significantly reduced, but the expression levels of CD25, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13 and interferon (IFN)-γ increased. No difference was observed in the proliferation and apoptosis of circulating iNKT cells between patients and healthy controls (HCs). CXCR6 (CD186), known to be closely associated with iNKT cells migration from the periphery to the liver, was highly expressed on peripheral iNKT cells in HBV-LC patients. Furthermore, peripheral iNKT cells had a profound impact on MIHA cell proliferation and LX-2 cell activation through IL-4 or IL-13. Our data suggest that in HBV-LC patients, highly activated peripheral iNKT cells may migrate to the liver and affect hepatocyte cell line (MIHA) proliferation and hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) activation through the expression of type 2 cytokines, which may result in excessive healing and contributing to the progression of fibrosis toward cirrhosis in liver.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Interleucina-4/biossíntese , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores CXCR6/metabolismo
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