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1.
Biotechnol Lett ; 42(1): 125-133, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the expression of a novel small cysteine-rich (SCR) effector protein SCR96 from the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum in mammalian cells, its bioactivity and to exploit its polyclonal antibody. RESULTS: The gene encoding the SCR effector protein SCR96 was codon-optimized, custom-synthesized, cloned into pcDNA3.1(-) and overexpressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293-6E cells. The recombinant protein SCR96 was prone to aggregation and purified with its monomer to homogeneity with a predicted molecular weight of 8.9 kDa. SCR96 exhibited strong phytotoxic activity on tomato seedlings at 24 h post treatment with 4.2 µg of the purified protein. An anti-SCR96 polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunization of New Zealand white rabbits. The good-titer antibody had a detection sensitivity at 6.25-ng level and could specifically detect the SCR96 protein expressed either in yeast, or in tomato leaves. CONCLUSIONS: Transient production of the SCR effector protein SCR96 in mammalian cells is reliable, providing sufficient recombinant protein that can be utilized for analysis of its phytotoxic activity and preparation of its polyclonal antibody.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(6): 065603, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645023

RESUMO

White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on all-inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention and rely on mixing several colors of perovskites. However, this inevitably leads to a non-uniform light distribution and serious light loss. Here, a novel strategy was demonstrated to obtain white emission by combining the orange and blue emission from CsPb/Mn(Cl/Br)3 QDs. Notably, highly efficient white emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 94% was achieved by an anion exchange surface engineering (AESE) strategy. After AESE treatment the surface traps can be eliminated, resulting in improved exciton and Mn2+ emission. A prototype WLED device was fabricated and exhibited excellent optical stability, demonstrating great potential for perovskite QDs in the field of optoelectronics.

3.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 268, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388778

RESUMO

In this report, we locally modulate the doping type in the n-AlGaN layer by proposing n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN (NPN-AlGaN)-structured current spreading layer for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). After inserting a thin p-AlGaN layer into the n-AlGaN electron supplier layer, a conduction band barrier can be generated in the n-type electron supplier layer, which enables the modulation of the lateral current distribution in the p-type hole supplier layer for DUV LEDs. Additionally, according to our studies, the Mg doping concentration, the thickness, the AlN composition for the p-AlGaN insertion layer and the NPN-AlGaN junction number are found to have a great influence on the current spreading effect. A properly designed NPN-AlGaN current spreading layer can improve the optical output power, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) for DUV LEDs.

4.
Opt Express ; 27(12): A620-A628, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252842

RESUMO

For the [0001] oriented AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), the holes in the p-type electron blocking layer (p-EBL) are depleted due to the polarization induced positive sheet charges at the last quantum barrier (LQB)/p-EBL interface. The hole depletion effect significantly reduces the hole injection capability across the p-EBL. In this work, we propose inserting a thin AlN layer between the LQB and the p-EBL, which can generate the hole accumulation at the AlN/p-EBL interface. Meanwhile, the holes can obtain the energy when traveling from the p-EBL into the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by intraband tunneling through the thin AlN layer. As a result, the hole injection and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) have been remarkably enhanced. Moreover, we point out that the thick AlN insertion layer can further generate the hole accumulation in the p-EBL and increase the hole energy which helps to increase the hole injection. We also prove that the intraband tunneling for holes across the thick AlN insertion layer is facilitated by using the optimized structure.

5.
Opt Express ; 27(12): A643-A653, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252844

RESUMO

In this work, the size-dependent effect for InGaN/GaN-based blue micro-light emitting diodes (µLEDs) is numerically investigated. Our results show that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the optical power density drop drastically as the device size decreases when sidewall defects are induced. The observations are owing to the higher surface-to-volume ratio for small µLEDs, which makes the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) non-radiative recombination at the sidewall defects not negligible. The sidewall defects also severely affect the injection capability for electrons and holes, such that the electrons and holes are captured by sidewall defects for the SRH recombination. Thus, the poor carrier injection shall be deemed as a challenge for achieving high-brightness µLEDs. Our studies also indicate that the sidewall defects form current leakage channels, and this is reflected by the current density-voltage characteristics. However, the improved current spreading effect can be obtained when the chip size decreases. The better current spreading effect takes account for the reduced forward voltage.

6.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 14(1): 149, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049737

RESUMO

In this work, flip-chip AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with various meshed contact structures are systematically investigated via three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) method. It is observed that both transverse electric (TE)- and transverse magnetic (TM)-polarized light extraction efficiencies (LEEs) are sensitive to the spacing and inclined angle for the meshed structure. We also find that the LEE will not be increased when a large filling factor is adopted for the meshed structures, which is because of the competition among the p-GaN layer absorption, the Al metal plasmon resonant absorption, and the scattering effect by meshed structures. The very strong scattering effect occurring in the hybrid p-GaN nanorod/p-AlGaN truncated nanocone contacts can enormously enhance the LEE for both TE- and TM-polarized light, e.g., when the inclined angle is 30°, the LEE for the TE- and TM-polarized light can be increased by ~ 5 times and ~ 24 times at the emission wavelength of 280 nm, respectively.

7.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(8): 986-1000, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811314

RESUMO

Plant pathogens employ diverse secreted effector proteins to manipulate host physiology and defense in order to foster diseases. The destructive Phytophthora pathogens encode hundreds of cytoplasmic effectors, which are believed to function inside the plant cells. Many of these cytoplasmic effectors contain the conserved N-terminal RXLR motif. Understanding the virulence function of RXLR effectors will provide important knowledge of Phytophthora pathogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of RXLR effector PcAvh1 from the broad-host range pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Only expressed during infection, PcAvh1 is quickly induced at the early infection stages. CRISPR/Cas9-knockout of PcAvh1 in P. capsici severely impairs virulence while overexpression enhances disease development in Nicotiana benthamiana and bell pepper, demonstrating that PcAvh1 is an essential virulence factor. Ectopic expression of PcAvh1 induces cell death in N. benthamiana, tomato, and bell pepper. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that PcAvh1 interacts with the scaffolding subunit of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Aa) in plant cells. Virus-induced gene silencing of PP2Aa in N. benthamiana attenuates resistance to P. capsici and results in dwarfism, suggesting that PP2Aa regulates plant immunity and growth. Collectively, these results suggest that PcAvh1 contributes to P. capsici infection, probably through its interaction with host PP2Aa.


Assuntos
Phytophthora , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Protozoários , Virulência , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Capsicum/parasitologia , Phytophthora/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia , Virulência/genética
8.
Nanotechnology ; 30(24): 245201, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30812014

RESUMO

CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are becoming a promising material for optoelectronic devices that possess an optically tunable bandgap, and bright photoluminescence. However, the toxic Pb is not environmentally friendly and the quantum yield (QY) of blue emitting NCs is relatively low. In addition, the red emitting perovskite containing iodine is not stable under light illumination. In this paper, high QY, blue emitting, non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterial carbon dots and orange-emitting CsPb0.81Mn0.19Cl3 NCs with partial Pb replacement are combined to fabricate white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). A WLED with color coordinates of (0.337, 0.324) and a correlated color temperature of 4804 K is fabricated. Compared to red emitting perovskite containing iodine, the CsPb0.81Mn0.19Cl3 NCs are stable no matter whether they are stored in the air or exposed under ultraviolet light. Therefore, the as-fabricated WLED shows good color stability against increasing currents and long-term working stability.

9.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 355, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411256

RESUMO

In this report, AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with different p-AlGaN/n-AlGaN/p-AlGaN (PNP-AlGaN) structured current spreading layers have been described and investigated. According to our results, the adopted PNP-AlGaN structure can induce an energy barrier in the hole injection layer that can modulate the lateral current distribution. We also find that the current spreading effect can be strongly affected by the thickness, the doping concentration, the PNP loop, and the AlN composition for the inserted n-AlGaN layer. Therefore, if the PNP-AlGaN structure is properly designed, the forward voltage, the external quantum efficiency, the optical power, and the wall-plug efficiency for the proposed DUV LEDs can be significantly improved as compared with the conventional DUV LED without the PNP-AlGaN structure.

10.
Opt Express ; 26(14): 17977-17987, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114079

RESUMO

This work establishes the relationship between the electron energy and the electron concentration within the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). The electron energy of different values can be obtained by modulating the Si doping concentration in the n-AlGaN layer and/or engineering the polarization induced interface charges. The modulated Si doping concentration in the n-AlGaN layer will cause the interface depletion region within which the electric field can be generated and then tunes the electron energy. The polarization induced charges and the polarization induced electric field can be obtained by stepwisely reducing the AlN composition for the n-AlGaN layer along the [0001] orientation. We find that the electron concentration in the MQWs can be increased once the electron energy is reduced to a proper level, which correspondingly improves the external quantum efficiency (EQE) for DUV LEDs. According to our investigations, it is more advisable to adopt the n-AlGaN layer with the stepwise AlN composition, which can make both the EQE and the wall plug efficiency high.

11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 13(1): 122, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693213

RESUMO

This work reports a nearly efficiency-droop-free AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode (DUV LED) emitting in the peak wavelength of 270 nm. The DUV LED utilizes a specifically designed superlattice p-type electron blocking layer (p-EBL). The superlattice p-EBL enables a high hole concentration in the p-EBL which correspondingly increases the hole injection efficiency into the multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The enhanced hole concentration within the MQW region can more efficiently recombine with electrons in the way of favoring the radiative recombination, leading to a reduced electron leakage current level. As a result, the external quantum efficiency for the proposed DUV LED structure is increased by 100% and the nearly efficiency-droop-free DUV LED structure is obtained experimentally.

12.
Opt Lett ; 42(21): 4533-4536, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088206

RESUMO

In this work, III-nitride based ∼370 nm UVA light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on Si substrates are demonstrated. We also reveal the impact of the AlN composition in the AlGaN quantum barrier on the carrier injection for the studied LEDs. We find that, by properly increasing the AlN composition, both the electron and hole concentrations in the multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are enhanced. We attribute the increased electron concentration to the better electron confinement within the MQW region when increasing the AlN composition for the AlGaN barrier. The improved hole concentration in the MQW region is ascribed to the reduced hole blocking effect by the p-type electron blocking layer (p-EBL). This is enabled by the reduced density of the polarization-induced positive charges at the AlGaN last quantum barrier (LB)/p-EBL interface, which correspondingly suppresses the hole depletion at the AlGaN LB/p-EBL interface and decreases the valence band barrier height for the p-EBL. As a result, the optical power is improved.

13.
Ann Dermatol ; 29(5): 614-617, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966519

RESUMO

Indeterminate dendritic cell tumor (IDCT) is a proliferation of CD1a+, S100+ and langerin- histiocytes with a generally benign course. Here, we describe a case of a 90-year-old male who developed skin lesions on his scalp mimicking angiosarcoma and lymphadenopathy. He died six months after the onset of skin lesions despite of months' radiotherapy. Pathological examination ruled out scalp angiosarcoma and showed a high Ki-67 index. The appearance of skin lesions and lymphadenopathy led to challenges in diagnosis and the development of a treatment plan.

14.
Nanoscale ; 9(43): 16836-16842, 2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072745

RESUMO

Quantum dot (QD) silicone nanocomposites are promising luminescent materials for developing high performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, their practical application still faces a critical issue of strong fluorescence quenching in commercial silicone, which is normally induced by the agglomeration of QDs and the impurities such as a Pt-catalyst and oxygen in the silicone matrices. This article reports the development of zinc-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (Zn-PDMS) to passivate CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs via an in situ approach. The Zn-PDMS passivation protects the QDs from reacting with impurities and provides the mono-dispersion of QDs in silicone resin, leading to over 80% quantum efficiency as well as effective anti-quenching properties for the QD-silicone nanocomposite under an ambient atmosphere. A high performance warm-white LED prototype with direct on-chip packaging using the as-prepared QDs is developed.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(10)2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073738

RESUMO

The hole injection is one of the bottlenecks that strongly hinder the quantum efficiency and the optical power for deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs) with the emission wavelength smaller than 360 nm. The hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs is co-affected by the p-type ohmic contact, the p-type hole injection layer, the p-type electron blocking layer and the multiple quantum wells. In this report, we review a large diversity of advances that are currently adopted to increase the hole injection efficiency for DUV LEDs. Moreover, by disclosing the underlying device physics, the design strategies that we can follow have also been suggested to improve the hole injection for DUV LEDs.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(11)2017 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29076993

RESUMO

In this report, to tackle the thermal fluorescent quenching issue of II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), which hinders their on-chip packaging application to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a QD-ZnS nanosheet inorganic assembly monolith (QD-ZnS NIAM) is developed through chemisorption of QDs on the surface of two-dimensional (2D) ZnS nanosheets and subsequent assembly of the nanosheets into a compact inorganic monolith. The QD-ZnS NIAM could reduce the thermal fluorescent quenching of QDs effectively, possibly due to fewer thermally induced permanent trap states and decreased Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) among QDs when compared with those in a reference QD composite thin film. We have demonstrated that the QD-ZnS NIAM enables QDs to be directly packaged on-chip in LEDs with over 90% of their initial luminance being retained at above 85 °C, showing advantage in LED application in comparison with conventional QD composite film.

17.
Oncotarget ; 8(41): 69863-69873, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050247

RESUMO

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is an important technique for life science research, but its efficiency is still extremely low, and most genes that are important during early development, such as X chromosome-linked genes, are not appropriately expressed during this process. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an enzyme that transfers ADP ribose clusters to target proteins. PARP family members such as PARP1 participate in cellular signalling pathways through poly (ADP-ribosylation) (PARylation), which ultimately promotes changes in chromatin structure, gene expression, and the localization and activity of proteins that mediate signalling responses. PARP1 is associated with X chromosome inactivation (Xi). Here, we showed that abnormal Xi occurs in somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) blastocysts, whereas in female blastocysts derived from cumulus cell nuclear transfer, both X chromosomes were inactive. Parp1 expression was higher in female NT blastocysts than that in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) embryos but not in male NT blastocysts. After knocking down Parp1 expression, both the pre-rRNA 47S and X-inactivation-specific transcript (Xist) levels increased. Moreover, the expression of genes on the inactivated X chromosome, such as Magea6 and Msn, were also increased in the NT embryos. However, the development of Parp1si NT embryos was impaired, although total RNA sequencing showed that overall gene expression between the Parp1si NT blastocysts and the control was similar. Our findings demonstrate that increases in the expression of several genes on the X chromosome and of rRNA primary products in NT blastocysts with disrupted Parp1 expression are insufficient to rescue the impaired development of female cloned mouse embryos and could even exacerbate the associated developmental deficiencies.

18.
Opt Express ; 25(14): 16550-16559, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789158

RESUMO

The drift velocity for holes is strongly influenced by the electric field in the p-type hole injection layer for III-nitride based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs). In this work, we propose an electric-field reservoir (EFR) consisting of a p-AlxGa1-xN/p-GaN architecture to facilitate the hole injection and improve the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The p-AlxGa1-xN layer in the EFR can well reserve the electric field that can moderately adjust the drift velocity and the kinetic energy for holes. As a result, we are able to enhance the thermionic emission for holes to cross over the p-EBL with a high Al composition provided that the composition in the p-AlxGa1-xN layer is properly optimized to avoid a complete hole depletion therein.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(15): 3576-3580, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708409

RESUMO

We report on the formation of a "steady size" state for the growth of CdSe and CdS quantum dots (QDs), in which the size of the QDs remains constant and independent of reaction time. Kinetic study reveals that this state exists only when certain coordinating ligands are within a range between NS and NV + NS. NS and NV represent the number of atoms on the surface of the QDs and the total amount of atoms in the QDs, respectively. Under this condition, the size R of the QDs can be controlled solely by the reaction temperature T with a relationship of 1/R2 ∼ T. More importantly, a highly reproducible and accurate linear control of the emission wavelength of QDs on a subnanometer scale by the reaction temperature is achieved. The discovery enables large-scale synthesis of QDs with minimum size variation that meets critical demands on wavelength accuracy for QD-based optoelectronic applications.

20.
Cell Reprogram ; 18(2): 78-86, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982160

RESUMO

Methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBPs) connect DNA methylation and histone modification, which are the key changes of somatic cell reprogramming. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was the first discovered MBP that has been extensively studied in the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. However, a role for MeCP2 during cellular reprogramming associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has not been examined. In this study, we discovered that MeCP2 expression was significantly lower in embryos generated by SCNT compared with those generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We genetically modified mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to overexpress MeCP2 and serve as donor cells for nuclear transfer (NT) to investigate the effects of MeCP2 on preimplantation development of SCNT embryos. The blastocyst rate (35.71%) of MeCP2 overexpressed embryos (NT(+)) was significantly greater than in nontransgenic embryos (NT(-), 24.29%). Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments revealed that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) was transferred to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to a greater extent in NT(+) embryos than in NT(-) embryos. Real-time PCR evaluation of gene expression also showed that embryonic development-associated genes, such as Oct4 and Nanog, were significantly higher in the NT(+) group compared to the NT(-) group. Collectively, these results suggested that MeCP2 facilitated Tet3 activity, enhanced expression of pluripotency-related genes, and eventually improved the development of NT embryos. Finally, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify direct targets of MeCP2 and constructed a protein interaction network to elucidate several putative MeCP2 targets.


Assuntos
Clonagem de Organismos , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Masculino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/biossíntese , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Camundongos , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/genética , Proteína Homeobox Nanog/metabolismo , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/metabolismo
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