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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624158

RESUMO

The digestion of pathogens inside phagosomes by immune cells occurs through a sequence of reactions including acidification and proteolysis, but how the reactions are orchestrated in the right order is unclear due to a lack of methods to simultaneously measure more than one reaction in phagosomes. Here we report a bifunctional Janus particle probe to simultaneously monitor acidification and proteolysis in single phagosomes in live cells. Each probe consists of a pH reporter and a proteolysis reporter that are spatially separated but function concurrently. Using the Janus probes, we found the acidic pH needed to initiate and maintain proteolysis, revealing the mechanism for the sequential occurrence of both reactions during pathogen digestion. We showed how bacterium-derived lipopolysaccharide alters the acidification and proteolysis in phagosomes. This study showcases the Janus particle probes as a generally applicable tool for monitoring multiple reactions in intracellular vesicles.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(39): 22779-22784, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608909

RESUMO

The discovery of the high-temperature superconducting state in the compounds of hydrogen, carbon and sulfur with a critical temperature (Tc) of 288 K at high pressure is an important milestone towards room-temperature superconductors. Here, we have extensively investigated the high-pressure phases of CS2H10, and found four phases Cmc21, P3m1, P3̄m1 and Pm. Among them, P3m1 can be dynamically stable at a pressure as low as 50 GPa, and Cmc21 has a high Tc of 155 K at 150 GPa. Both Cmc21 and P3m1 are host-guest hydrides, in which CH4 molecules are inserted into Im3̄m-H3S and R3m-H3S sublattices, respectively. Their Tc is dominated by the H3S lattice inside. The insertion of CH4 molecules greatly reduces the pressure required for the stability of the original H3S lattice, but it has a negative impact on superconductivity which cannot be ignored. By studying the effect of CH4 insertion in the H3S lattice, we can design hydrides with a Tc close to that of H3S and a greatly reduced pressure required for stability.

3.
J Cancer ; 12(21): 6507-6518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659542

RESUMO

Purpose: Considerable variations in methylation profile have been found in various cancers to modulate tumorigenesis and affect prognosis. To provide a theoretical basis for early detection, prognosis evaluation and targeted treatment for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: PDAC, this study identified methylation-driven genes in PDAC and explored their prognostic performance. Methods: The methylation, expression and clinical data of PDAC patients were extracted from TCGA database. Based on the ß-mixture model of the MethylMix R package, the differential methylation status and connection between methylation and expression degree were examined to screen out methylation-driven genes in PDAC. COX analyses and lasso regressions were applied to construct a linear risk model based on methylation-driven genes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to ensure the risk model was an independent prognostic factor. Joint survival analyses of methylation and gene expression were conducted to explore the prognostic value of component genes. The methylation sites in the key genes were also investigated. Results: A total of 118 methylation-driven genes in PDAC were identified, and two genes (FOXI2, MYEOV) constituted the risk model whose AUC was 0.722 at one year of overall survival rate, displaying a better performance on survival prediction than other clinical features. Further survival analyses demonstrated that the expression of MYEOV and combined methylation and expression levels of the genes MYEOV and FOXI2 can be potential biomarkers for survival prediction and targets of drug manipulation of PDAC patients. Close relationships were discovered between two sites in MYEOV and one site in FOXI2 and the prognosis of PDAC patients. Conclusion: Concentrating on DNA methylation, our study identified potential biomarkers and developed a reliable short-term predictive model for prognosis of PDAC patients.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665597

RESUMO

N-doped carbon nanohorns filled with Fe nanoparticles (Fe-N-CNHs) were produced by one-step positive pressure-assisted arc discharge in the Ar and N2 mixture. After oxidation treatments in air, Fe was converted into Fe2O3, and nanopores were opened on CNHs from 1 to 5 nm controlled by oxidation temperature. Fe-N-CNHs oxidized in O2 at 550 °C (Fe2O3-N-CNH550ox) show 245 mV at 20 mA cm-1, which is much smaller than that of the ones oxidized at 500 °C (Fe2O3-N-CNH500ox), contributing to the larger pore size on CNHs (3-5 nm vs 2-3 nm) and a larger number of nanopores caused by the enhanced sidewall nanopores. However, the stability of Fe2O3-N-CNH550ox becomes much poorer than that of Fe2O3-N-CNH500ox after 2000 cycles. The unique relationship between the overpotential and long-term stability can be explained by the consideration of the size of Fe2O3 nanoparticles and nanopores on CNHs. Furthermore, the stability for Fe2O3-N-CNH550ox can be rapidly increased after heat treatment in Ar for 1 h caused by shrinking the size of tip nanopores. Herein, we first reveal that the performance of OER is related to the nanopore size of carbon carriers and the catalyst of nanometal particles. The optimization of pore-opening conditions in carbon carriers can be achieved a superior electrocatalytic OER performance, including a low overpotential at high current density and long-term stability.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150622, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597553

RESUMO

The danger posed by cadmium (Cd) pollution to rice production is continuously increasing. Co-utilizing milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) and rice straw is a good practice for rice yield and soil fertility in south China. However, its effects on Cd availability in soil-rice systems remain unclear. A micro-plot trial of two typical paddy soils (alluvial sandy soil and reddish clayey soil) in south China was conducted to investigate the effects of milk vetch, rice straw, lime, and their combined application on Cd availability and the related mechanisms. Soil chemical properties, CaCl2-extractable Cd (CaCl2-Cd), total content of Cd (Total-Cd), Cd fractionation (BCR sequential-extraction method), and Cd accumulation in rice were measured. Results showed that the co-utilization of milk vetch, rice straw, and lime (GRFL) decreased the Cd content in rice grain by 91.43% and 15.63% in early rice of two soils, respectively. Cd was not detected in late rice grains. CaCl2-Cd decreased by 0.025 mg kg-1 in late rice of alluvial sandy soil, 0.057 and 0.044 mg kg-1 decreased in early and late rice of reddish clayey soil, and Total-Cd decreased by 19.4% and 9.1% for early rice of two soils, respectively. Co-utilizing milk vetch, rice straw, and lime changed the distribution of different chemical forms of Cd, decreased the content of bioavailable Cd in soil by reducing the Aci-Cd and RedCd, and benefited the formation of more stable residual fraction (ResCd). Redundancy analysis showed that the improvement in soil pH, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and other soil properties was the main cause of the transformation of Cd form. Among the soil properties, pH and DOM had the greatest impacts on Cd availability. In conclusion, co-utilizing milk vetch and rice straw can alleviate the danger of soil Cd in rice production, and this effect could be strengthened by applying lime.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(15): 157002, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678001

RESUMO

The combination of electride state and superconductivity within the same compound, e.g., [Ca_{24}Al_{28}O_{6}]^{4+}(4e^{-}), opens up a new category of conventional superconductors. However, neither the underlying causations to explain superconducting behaviors nor effects of interstitial quasiatoms (ISQs) on superconductivity remain unclear. Here we have designed an efficient and resource-saving method to identify superconducting electrides only by chemical compositions and bonding characteristics. A representative superconducting electride Li_{6}C with a noteworthy T_{c} of 10 K below 1 Mbar among the known binary electrides has been revealed. Our first-principles studies unveil that the anomalous sp-hybridized cage-state ISQs, as a guest in Li_{6}C, exhibit unexpected ionic and covalent bonds, which act as a chemical precompression to lower dynamically stable pressure. More importantly, we uncover that, contrary to common expectations, the high T_{c} is attributed to the strong electron-phonon coupling derived from the synergy of interatomic coupling effect, phonon softening caused by Fermi surface nesting, and phonon-coupled bands, which are mainly dominated by host sp-hybridized electrons, rather than the ISQs. Our present results elucidate a new superconducting mechanism of electrides and shed light on the way for seeking a high-T_{c} superconductor at lower pressures in cage-state electrides.

7.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578344

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV)-a member of the family Arenaviridae-causes Lassa fever in humans and is endemic in West Africa. Currently, no approved drugs are available. We screened 2480 small compounds for their potential antiviral activity using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus harboring the LASV glycoprotein (VSV-LASVGP) and a related prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Follow-up studies confirmed that CP100356 hydrochloride (CP100356), a specific P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, suppressed VSV-LASVGP, LCMV, and LASV infection with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 0.52, 0.54, and 0.062 µM, respectively, without significant cytotoxicity. Although CP100356 did not block receptor binding at the cell surface, it inhibited low-pH-dependent membrane fusion mediated by arenavirus glycoproteins. P-gp downregulation did not cause a significant reduction in either VSV-LASVGP or LCMV infection, suggesting that P-gp itself is unlikely to be involved in arenavirus entry. Finally, our data also indicate that CP100356 inhibits the infection by other mammarenaviruses. Thus, our findings suggest that CP100356 can be considered as an effective virus entry inhibitor for LASV and other highly pathogenic mammarenaviruses.

8.
EMBO J ; 40(19): e107974, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459501

RESUMO

Identification of the driving force behind malignant transformation holds the promise to combat the relapse and therapeutic resistance of cancer. We report here that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4971059, one of 65 new breast cancer risk loci identified in a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS), functions as an active enhancer of TRIM46 expression. Recreating the G-to-A polymorphic switch caused by the SNP via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination leads to an overt upregulation of TRIM46. We find that TRIM46 is a ubiquitin ligase that targets histone deacetylase HDAC1 for ubiquitination and degradation and that the TRIM46-HDAC1 axis regulates a panel of genes, including ones critically involved in DNA replication and repair. Consequently, TRIM46 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance in vitro and accelerates tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, TRIM46 is frequently overexpressed in breast carcinomas, and its expression is correlated with lower HDAC1 expression, higher histological grades, and worse prognosis of the patients. Together, our study links SNP rs4971059 to replication and to breast carcinogenesis and chemoresistance and support the pursuit of TRIM46 as a potential target for breast cancer intervention.

9.
Front Chem ; 9: 728066, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395388

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy is a very promising treatment method in the field of cancer therapy. The photothermal nanomaterials in near-infrared region (NIR-I, 750-900 nm) attracts extensive attention in recent years because of the good biological penetration of NIR light. However, the penetration depth is still not enough for solid tumors due to high tissue scattering. The light in the second near-infrared region (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) allows deeper tissue penetration, higher upper limit of radiation and greater tissue tolerance than that in the NIR-I, and it shows greater application potential in photothermal conversion. This review summarizes the photothermal properties of Au nanomaterials, two-dimensional materials, metal oxide sulfides and polymers in the NIR-II and their application prospects in photothermal therapy. It will arouse the interest of scientists in the field of cancer treatment as well as nanomedicine.

10.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442821

RESUMO

Increasing application of antibiotics changes the gut microbiota composition, leading to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Although growing evidence suggests the potential role of gut dysbiosis as the cause of neurodevelopmental disorders and behavioral defects, a broad gap of knowledge remains to be narrowed to better understand the exact mechanisms by which maternal gut dysbiosis alters microbiota development and social interactions of offspring. Here, we showed that maternal gut dysbiosis during gestation is a critical determinant of gut microbiota and social interactions off mouse offspring. Gut microbiota of 2-week-old offspring showed significant changes in response to maternal antibiotic treatment. We even detected distinct effects of maternal oral antibiotics on gut microbiota of 14-week-old offspring. Compared to controls, offspring born to antibiotics-treated mothers displayed reduction in sociability and preference for social novelty, suggesting that the altered offspring social behavior was closely linked to dysbiosis of maternal gut microbiota. Our study opens the possibility to better understand the mechanism of how maternal gut microbiota vertically impairs social interactions of offspring in animal models, providing support to the maternal gut microbiota as a potential mediator between offspring microbiota and behaviors.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social communication deficits and restricted or repetitive behaviors. Parental perceptions of the etiology of their child's ASD can affect provider-client relationships, bonding between parents and their children, and the prognosis, treatment, and management of children with ASD. Thus, this study sought to examine the perceptions of ASD etiology of parents of children with ASD. METHODS: Forty-two parents of children diagnosed with ASD were recruited across Texas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually. All interviews were recorded and later transcribed verbatim for content analysis utilizing NVivo 12.0 (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia). RESULTS: The content analysis identified the following themes regarding parental perceptions of ASD etiology: Genetic factors (40.5%), environmental factors (31.0%), problems that occurred during pregnancy or delivery (23.8%), vaccinations (16.7%), other health problems (7.1%), parental age at the time of pregnancy (4.8%), and spiritual or religious factors (2.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The parental perceptions of ASD etiology were diverse, but several views, such as vaccinations and spiritual or religious factors, were not based on scientific evidence. Health professionals and researchers can use these findings to develop and provide targeted education to parents who have children with ASD. Our findings also support policymakers in developing campaigns designed to increase parental ASD awareness and knowledge.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Austrália , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção , Gravidez , Texas
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(30): 7166-7172, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297555

RESUMO

Superionic states simultaneously exhibit properties of a fluid and a solid. Proton (H+) superionicity in ice, H3O, He-H2O, and He-NH3 compounds is well-studied. However, hydride (H-) superionicity in H-rich compounds is rare, being associated with instability and strongly reducing conditions. Silicon, sodium, and hydrogen are abundant elements in many astrophysical bodies. Here, we use first-principles calculations to show that, at high pressure, Na, Si, and H can form several hypervalent compounds. A previously unreported superionic state of Na2SiH6 results from unconstrained H- in the hypervalent [SiH6]2- unit. Na2SiH6 is dynamically stable at low pressure (3 GPa), becoming superionic at 5 GPa, and re-entering solid/fluid states at about 25 GPa. Our observation of H- transport opens up a new field of H- conductors. It also has implications for the formation of conducting layers at depth in exotic carbon exoplanets, potentially enhancing the habitability of such planets.

13.
J Biol Chem ; 297(2): 100945, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246632

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in various cellular functions and contain abundant disordered protein regions. The disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins are rich in repetitive sequences, such as poly-K/R, poly-N/Q, poly-A, and poly-G residues. Our bioinformatic analysis identified a largely neglected repetitive sequence family we define as electronegative clusters (ENCs) that contain acidic residues and/or phosphorylation sites. The abundance and length of ENCs exceed other known repetitive sequences. Despite their abundance, the functions of ENCs in RNA-binding proteins are still elusive. To investigate the impacts of ENCs on protein stability, RNA-binding affinity, and specificity, we selected one RNA-binding protein, the ribosomal biogenesis factor 15 (Nop15), as a model. We found that the Nop15 ENC increases protein stability and inhibits nonspecific RNA binding, but minimally interferes with specific RNA binding. To investigate the effect of ENCs on sequence specificity of RNA binding, we grafted an ENC to another RNA-binding protein, Ser/Arg-rich splicing factor 3. Using RNA Bind-n-Seq, we found that the engineered ENC inhibits disparate RNA motifs differently, instead of weakening all RNA motifs to the same extent. The motif site directly involved in electrostatic interaction is more susceptible to the ENC inhibition. These results suggest that one of functions of ENCs is to regulate RNA binding via electrostatic interaction. This is consistent with our finding that ENCs are also overrepresented in DNA-binding proteins, whereas underrepresented in halophiles, in which nonspecific nucleic acid binding is inhibited by high concentrations of salts.

14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4321-4332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211273

RESUMO

Background: As commonly bone defect is a disease of jaw that can seriously affect implant restoration, the bioactive scaffold can be used as potential systems to provide effective repair for bone defect. Purpose: A osteoinductive bone tissue engineering scaffold has been prepared in order to explore the effect of bioactive materials on bone tissue engineering. Methods: In this study, NELL-1 nanoparticles (Chi/NNP) and nano hydroxyapatite were incorporated in composite scaffolds by electrospinning and characterized using TEM, SEM, contact angle, tensile tests and in vitro drug release. In vitro biological activities such as MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic activity were studied. Results: With the addition of nHA and nanoparticles, the fiber diameter of PCL/BNPs group, PCL/NNPs group and PCL/nHA/NNPs group was significantly increased. Moreover, the hydrophilic hydroxyl group and amino group presented in nHA and nanoparticles had improved the hydrophilicity of the composite fibers. The composite electrospun containing Chi/NNPs can form a double protective barrier which can effectively prolong the release time of NELL-1 growth factor. In addition, the hydroxyapatite/NELL-1 nanoparticles electrospun fibers can promote attachment, proliferation, differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and good cytocompatibility, indicating better ability of inducing osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion: A multi-functional PCL/nHA/NNPs composite fiber with long-term bioactivity and osteoinductivity was successfully prepared by electrospinning. This potential composite could be used as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering application after in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/farmacologia , Durapatita/química , Nanofibras/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Osso e Ossos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/farmacocinética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Tecidos Suporte
15.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(7): 20, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137807

RESUMO

Purpose: Synaptosomal actin dynamics are essential for synaptic structural stability. Whether actin dynamics are involved in structural and functional synaptic plasticity within the primary visual cortex (V1) or behavioral visual acuity in rats has still not been thoroughly investigated. Methods: Synaptosome preparation and western blot analysis were used to analyze synaptosomal actin dynamics. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect synaptic density and mitochondrial area alterations. A visual water maze task was applied to assess behavioral visual acuity. Microinjection of the actin polymerization inhibitor or stabilizer detected the effect of actin dynamics on visual function. Results: Actin dynamics, the mitochondrial area, and synaptic density within the area of V1 are increased during the critical period for the development of binocularity. Microinjection of the actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D into the V1 decreased the mitochondrial area, synaptic density, and behavioral visual acuity. Long-term monocular deprivation reduced actin dynamics, the mitochondrial area, and synaptic density within the V1 contralateral to the deprived eye compared with those ipsilateral to the deprived eye and impaired visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. In addition, the mitochondrial area, synaptic density, and behavioral visual acuity were improved by stabilization of actin polymerization by jasplakinolide microinjection. Conclusions: During the critical period of visual development of binocularity, synaptosomal actin dynamics regulate synaptic structure and function and play roles in behavioral visual acuity in rats.


Assuntos
Actinas , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Actinas/química , Actinas/metabolismo , Ambliopia/metabolismo , Ambliopia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 30-39, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147605

RESUMO

Bisphenol F (BPF) is a member of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As a substitute of bisphenol A (BPA), BPF is widely used in various consumer products, leading to an increased risk of people's exposure. However, there are few studies on the immunotoxicity and mechanism of BPF. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BPF on the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages and explore its mechanism. In our study, RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with different concentrations of BPF (0, 5, 10 and 20 µM) for 24 h. The results showed that the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß) and the production of lactate were increased in a dose-dependent manner. BPFalso led to the activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. After pretreatment with glycolysis inhibitor (2-DG) and exposure to BPF (20 µM), the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by BPF was inhibited. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182,780) could also inhibit the above effects induced by BPF (20 µM). In conclusion, our results suggested that BPF can enhance glycolysis through ER mediated PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and the enhanced glycolysis further promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our research provides basic data for future studies on bisphenol exposure and immunotoxicity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of transhepatic puncture tract embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) versus coils after percutaneous transhepatic portal vein interventions in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It was also the aim of the study to evaluate the extent of artifacts in CT exams during FU. METHODS: Single-center retrospective study from 2017-2019 in 190 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal vein interventions. The transhepatic puncture tracts were embolized with n-BCA in 88 patients (Group A) and with coils in 102 patients (Group B). Procedure-related complications and image noise around coils and n-BCA were compared between the groups. No significant differences were noted at baseline between both groups (platelets, coagulation, liver disease, types of procedures, liver function, liver tumors). RESULTS: All patients underwent transhepatic puncture tract embolization. Procedure-related complications were only observed in patients from Group B: subcapsular hemorrhage (n = 2; 1.96%), hepatic artery hemorrhage (n = 1; 0.98%), and pseudoaneurysms combined with hemobilia occurred (n = 1; 0.98%). In Group A, the distal part of the punctured portal vein branch was embolized with n-BCA in 1 patient (1.14%). Four major complications in Group B Vs 0 in Group A were observed, respectively (p < 0.0001). The image noise around n-BCA was significantly lower than that around coils (10.7 ± 1.7 HU vs. 54.3 ± 15.0 HU, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: n-BCA tract embolization is more effective than using coils, with fewer bleeding events, at the cost of a higher potential for unintended embolization of portal vein branches.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 640347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122067

RESUMO

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an increasingly common and globally emergent immune-mediated disorder. The etiology of IBD is complex, involving multiple factors such as immune dysregulation, environmental factors, genetic mutations, and microbiota dysbiosis, exacerbated by a lack of effective clinical therapies. Recently, studies hypothesized that dysbiosis of intestinal flora might participate in the onset of IBD. Metformin is widely used to treat type 2 diabetes and has shown beneficial effects in mouse models of IBD, although its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Accumulating studies found that metformin shows beneficial effects for diabetes by affecting microbiota composition. This study explores possible regulatory effects of metformin on intestinal microecology during treatment for IBD. Methods: Inflammation was induced using 3% Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) solution to generate mice models of IBD. Metformin treatments were assayed by measuring body weights and colon lengths of mice and H&E staining to observe histological effects on colon tissue structures. Changes in bacterial community composition and diversity-related to IBD and metformin treatment were assessed by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing analysis. Results: Metformin administration significantly ameliorated body weight loss, inhibited colon shrinking, and contributed to preserving the integrity of colon histological structures. The gut microbiota profiles revealed that the biodiversity of intestinal flora lost during inflammation was restored under metformin treatment. Metformin administration was also associated with decreased pathogenic Escherichia shigella and increased abundance of Lactobacillus and Akkermansia. Conclusion: Metformin appears to induce anti-inflammatory effects, thus ameliorating colitis symptoms, concurrent with enrichment for beneficial taxa and restored microbial diversity, suggesting a viable strategy against IBD.

19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1069, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ground-level ozone (O3) pollution is currently the one of the severe environmental problems in China. Although existing studies have quantified the O3-related health impact and economic loss, few have focused on the acute health effects of short-term exposure to O3 and have been limited to a single temporal and spatial dimension. METHODS: Based on the O3 concentration obtained from ground monitoring networks in 334 Chinese cities in 2015-2018, this study used a two-stage exposure parameter weighted Log-linear exposure-response function to estimate the cause-specific mortality for short-term exposure to O3. RESULTS: The value of statistical life (VSL) method that were used to calculate the economic loss at the city-level. Our results show that in China, the national all-cause mortality attributed to O3 was 0.27(95% CI: 0.14-0.55) to 0.39 (95% CI: 0.20-0.67) million across 2015-2018. The estimated economic loss caused by O3 was 387.76 (95% CI: 195.99-904.50) to 594.08 (95% CI: 303.34-1140.65) billion CNY, accounting for 0.52 to 0.69% of total reported GDP. Overall, the O3 attributed health and economic burden has begun to decline in China since 2017. However, highly polluted areas still face severe burden, and undeveloped areas suffer from high GDP losses. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial health impacts and economic losses related to short-term O3 exposure in China. The government should pay attention to the emerging ozone pollution, and continue to strengthen the intervention in traditional priority areas while solving the pollution problem in non-priority areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 639596, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109171

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to develop and validate a comprehensive nomogram containing pre-treatment plasma HSP90AA1 to predict the risk of breast cancer onset and metastasis. Methods: We assessed the expression of HSP90s in breast cancer patients using an online database. To verify the results, 677 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 146 patients with benign breast disease between 2014 and 2019 were selected from our hospital and were divided into cancer risk and metastasis risk cohorts. We focused on HSP90AA1 to elucidate the risks of onset and metastasis in the cohorts. Results: Expression levels of HSP90AA1, HSP90AA2, HSP90AB1, HSP90B1, and TRAP1 were linked to disease progression. Survival analysis using the GEPIA and OncoLnc databases indicated that the upregulation of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 was related to poor overall survival. In the cancer risk cohort, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153), HSP90AA1, T cells%, natural killer cells%, B cells%, neutrophil count, monocyte count, and d-dimer were incorporated into the nomogram. A high Harrell's concordance index (C-index) value of 0.771 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.725-0.817] could still be reached in the interval validation. In the metastasis risk cohort, predictors contained in the prediction nomogram included the use of CEA, CA153, HSP90AA1, carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), natural killer cells%, B cells%, platelet count, monocyte count, and d-dimer. The C-index was 0.844 (95% CI, 0.801-0.887) and it was well-calibrated. HSP90AA1 raised net clinical benefit of breast cancer onset and metastasis risk prediction nomogram in a range of risk thresholds (5-92%) and (1-90%). Conclusion: Our study revealed that pretreatment plasma HSP90AA1 combined with other markers could conveniently predict the risk of breast cancer onset and metastasis.

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