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1.
Nanoscale ; 11(18): 9133-9140, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033984

RESUMO

The research interest in wearable electronics has continuously stimulated the development of flexible energy storage systems with high performance and robustness. However, open problems with respect to energy storage efficiency and device integration are still challenging. Here, we demonstrate the laser fabrication of flexible planar supercapacitors based on graphene oxide (GO) and black phosphorus quantum dot (BPQD) nanocomposites. By combining graphene and BPQDs, the resultant supercapacitors feature high conductivity and activity, demonstrating enhanced specific capacity and superior rate performance, compared to those based on reduced GO (RGO) alone. Furthermore, the as-obtained devices present outstanding flexibility. Their performance shows unobvious degradation after repeated cycles of bending and straightening. Additionally, with the help of direct laser writing (DLW) technology, integration of the supercapacitors has been achieved without the need for any metal interconnection. The integrated devices delivered reasonable performance uniformity with a voltage extension of 3 V, which could easily power a LED. The supercapacitor-based RGO and BPQD nanocomposites demonstrate great potential for practical applications in flexible and wearable electronics.

2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 39-48.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629917

RESUMO

Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a promising therapeutic approach for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, all mAbs and mAb cocktails that have entered clinical development are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against outbreak-causing Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) and Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we advance MBP134, a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing human mAbs, ADI-15878 from an EVD survivor and ADI-23774 from the same survivor but specificity-matured for SUDV GP binding affinity, as a candidate pan-ebolavirus therapeutic. MBP134 potently neutralized all ebolaviruses and demonstrated greater protective efficacy than ADI-15878 alone in EBOV-challenged guinea pigs. A second-generation cocktail, MBP134AF, engineered to effectively harness natural killer (NK) cells afforded additional improvement relative to its precursor in protective efficacy against EBOV and SUDV in guinea pigs. MBP134AF is an optimized mAb cocktail suitable for evaluation as a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Cobaias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 3, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) is important in guiding tooth root formation by differentiating into cementoblasts through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inducing odontoblastic differentiation of dental papilla through epithelial-mesenchymal interaction (EMI) during the tooth root development. Thus, HERS cells are critical for cementum and dentin formation and might be a potential cell source to achieve tooth root regeneration. However, limited availability and lifespan of primary HERS cells may represent an obstacle for biological investigation and therapeutic use of tooth tissue engineering. Therefore, we constructed, characterized, and tested the functionality of immortalized cell lines in order to produce a more readily available alternative to HERS cells. METHODS: Primary HERS cells were immortalized via infection with lentivirus vector containing the gene encoding simian virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40LT). Immortalized HERS cell subclones were isolated using a limiting dilution method, and subclones named HERS-H1 and HERS-C2 cells were isolated. The characteristics of HERS-H1 and HERS-C2 cells, including cell proliferation, ability of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation and epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, were determined by CCK-8 assay, immunofluorescence staining, and real-time PCR. The cell differentiation into cementoblast-like cells or periodontal fibroblast-like cells was confirmed in vivo. And the inductive influence of the cell lines on dental papilla cells (DPCs) was also confirmed in vivo. RESULTS: HERS-H1 and HERS-C2 cells share some common features with primary HERS cells such as epithelial-like morphology, positive expression of CK14, E-Cadherin, and Vimentin, and undergoing EMT in response to TGF-beta. HERS-C2 cells showed the EMT characteristics and could differentiate into cementum-forming cells in vitro and generate cementum-like tissue in vivo. HERS-H1 could induce the differentiation of DPCs into odontoblasts in vitro and generation of dentin-like tissue in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully isolated and characterized novel cell lines representing two key features of HERS cells during the tooth root development and which were useful substitutes for primary HERS cells, thereby providing a biologically relevant, unlimited cell source for studies on cell biology, developmental biology, and tooth root regeneration.

4.
J Virol ; 93(5)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541860

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) infections result in aggressive hemorrhagic fever in humans, with fatality rates reaching 90% and with no licensed specific therapeutics to treat ill patients. Advances over the past 5 years have firmly established monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based products as the most promising therapeutics for treating EBOV infections, but production is costly and quantities are limited; therefore, MAbs are not the best candidates for mass use in the case of an epidemic. To address this need, we generated EBOV-specific polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments from horses hyperimmunized with an EBOV vaccine. The F(ab')2 was found to potently neutralize West African and Central African EBOV in vitro Treatment of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with seven doses of 100 mg/kg F(ab')2 beginning 3 or 5 days postinfection (dpi) resulted in a 100% survival rate. Notably, NHPs for which treatment was initiated at 5 dpi were already highly viremic, with observable signs of EBOV disease, which demonstrated that F(ab')2 was still effective as a therapeutic agent even in symptomatic subjects. These results show that F(ab')2 should be advanced for clinical testing in preparation for future EBOV outbreaks and epidemics.IMPORTANCE EBOV is one of the deadliest viruses to humans. It has been over 40 years since EBOV was first reported, but no cure is available. Research breakthroughs over the past 5 years have shown that MAbs constitute an effective therapy for EBOV infections. However, MAbs are expensive and difficult to produce in large amounts and therefore may only play a limited role during an epidemic. A cheaper alternative is required, especially since EBOV is endemic in several third world countries with limited medical resources. Here, we used a standard protocol to produce large amounts of antiserum F(ab')2 fragments from horses vaccinated with an EBOV vaccine, and we tested the protectiveness in monkeys. We showed that F(ab')2 was effective in 100% of monkeys even after the animals were visibly ill with EBOV disease. Thus, F(ab')2 could be a very good option for large-scale treatments of patients and should be advanced to clinical testing.

5.
J Virol ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333174

RESUMO

Sequencing of Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes during the 2014-16 epidemic identified several naturally-occurring, dominant mutations potentially impacting virulence or tropism. Here, we characterized EBOV variants carrying one of the following substitutions: A82V in the glycoprotein (GP), R111C in the nucleoprotein (NP), or D759G in the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (L). Compared with wild-type EBOV/C07 (WT), NP and L mutants conferred a replication advantage in monkey VeroE6, human A549 and insectivorous bat Tb1.Lu cells, while L displayed a disadvantage in human Huh7 cells. GP mutant replication was significantly delayed in Tb1.Lu and similar to WT in other cells. The L mutant was less virulent, as evidenced by increased survival in mice and a significantly delayed time to death in ferrets, but increased lengths of EBOV shedding may have contributed to the prolonged epidemic. Our results show that single substitutions can have observable impacts on EBOV pathogenicity and provide a framework to study other mutations.IMPORTANCEDuring the Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-16, it was discovered that several mutations in the virus emerged and became prevalent in the human population. This suggests that these mutations may play a role impacting viral fitness. We investigated three of these previously identified mutations (in the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP) or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L)) in cell culture as well as in mice and ferrets by generating recombinant viruses (based on an early West African EBOV strain) carrying one of these mutations. The NP and L mutations appear to decrease virulence, whereas GP slightly increases virulence but mainly impacts viral tropism. Our results show that these single mutations can impact EBOV virulence in animals and have implications for the rational design of efficacious antiviral therapies against these infections.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S649-S657, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982696

RESUMO

Filoviruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Sudan virus (SUDV) cause deadly viral hemorrhagic fever in humans, with high case-fatality rates; however, no licensed therapeutic agent or vaccine has been clinically approved to treat or prevent infection. T-705 (favipiravir) is a novel antiviral drug that has been approved for the treatment of influenza in Japan. T-705 exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against different viruses, including MARV and EBOV, and here, we are the first to report the in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of T-705 against SUDV. T-705 treatment reduced SUDV replication in Vero E6 cells. Subcutaneous administration of T-705, beginning 1-4 days after infection and continuing for 7 days, significantly protected SUDV-infected guinea pigs, with a survival rate of 83%-100%. Viral RNA replication and infectious virus production were also significantly reduced in the blood, spleen, liver, lungs, and kidney. Moreover, early administration of low-dose T-705 and late administration (at 5 days after infection) of higher-dose T-705 also showed partial protection. Overall, our study is the first to demonstrate the antiviral activity of T-705 against SUDV, suggesting that T-705 may be a potential drug candidate for use during outbreaks.

7.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S471-S474, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889278

RESUMO

Ferrets are used for studying infections with wild-type Ebola virus isolates. Here, we investigated whether these animals are also susceptible to wild-type isolates of Marburg virus (MARV). Ferrets were challenged intramuscularly or intranasally with MARV strain Angola and monitored for 3 weeks. Unexpectedly, the animals neither showed observable signs of disease nor died of infection, and viremia was not detected after challenge. All animals were seropositive for MARV-specific immunoglobulin antibodies. Confirmatory studies with MARV strain Musoke and Ravn virus yielded the same outcomes. Therefore, ferrets may be of limited usefulness for studying the pathogenesis of MARV and Ravn virus infections.

8.
Cell Discov ; 4: 31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872540

RESUMO

The re-emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) poses serious and continued threats to the global public health. Effective therapeutics for these maladies is an unmet need. Here, we show that emetine, an anti-protozoal agent, potently inhibits ZIKV and EBOV infection with a low nanomolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro and potent activity in vivo. Two mechanisms of action for emetine are identified: the inhibition of ZIKV NS5 polymerase activity and disruption of lysosomal function. Emetine also inhibits EBOV entry. Cephaeline, a desmethyl analog of emetine, which may be better tolerated in patients than emetine, exhibits a similar efficacy against both ZIKV and EBOV infections. Hence, emetine and cephaeline offer pharmaceutical therapies against both ZIKV and EBOV infection.

9.
Zool Res ; 39(1): 32-41, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511143

RESUMO

The Angolan strain of Marburg virus (MARV/Ang) can cause lethal disease in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%, but infection of immunocompetent rodents do not result in any observable symptoms. Our previous work includes the development and characterization of a MARV/Ang variant that can cause lethal disease in mice (MARV/Ang-MA), with the aim of using this tool to screen for promising prophylactic and therapeutic candidates. An intermediate animal model is needed to confirm any findings from mice studies before testing in the gold-standard non-human primate (NHP) model. In this study, we serially passaged the clinical isolate of MARV/Ang in the livers and spleens of guinea pigs until a variant emerged that causes 100% lethality in guinea pigs (MARV/Ang-GA). Animals infected with MARV/Ang-GA showed signs of filovirus infection including lymphocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and high viremia leading to spread to major organs, including the liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. The MARV/Ang-GA guinea pigs died between 7-9 days after infection, and the LD50 was calculated to be 1.1×10-1 TCID50 (median tissue culture infective dose). Mutations in MARV/Ang-GA were identified and compared to sequences of known rodent-adapted MARV/Ang variants, which may benefit future studies characterizing important host adaptation sites in the MARV/Ang viral genome.


Assuntos
Doença do Vírus de Marburg/etiologia , Marburgvirus , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Cobaias/virologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/patologia , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Carga Viral , Viremia/patologia , Viremia/virologia
10.
Antiviral Res ; 151: 39-49, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369776

RESUMO

Filoviruses, such as Marburg and Ebola viruses, cause severe disease in humans with high case fatality rates and are therefore considered biological threat agents. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists for their treatment. T-705 (favipiravir) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that has shown broad antiviral activity against a number of viruses and is clinically licenced in Japan to treat influenza. Here we report the efficacy of T-705 against Marburg virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Notably, oral administration of T-705 beginning one or two days post-infection and continuing for eight days resulted in complete survival of mice that had been intraperitoneally infected with mouse-adapted Marburg virus (variant Angola). Moreover, lower doses of T-705 and higher doses administered later during infection (day 3 or 4 post-infection) showed partial efficacy, with at least half the infected mice surviving. Accordingly, we observed reductions in infectious virus particles and virus RNA levels following drug treatment that appeared to correlate with survival. Our findings suggest that T-705 may be an effective therapeutic against Marburg virus and might be especially promising for use in the event of an outbreak, where it could be orally administered quickly and safely even after exposure.

11.
Talanta ; 165: 152-160, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153235

RESUMO

A multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) utilizing polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared. The adsorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-trimethyl-(4-vinylbenzyl) aminium chloride and dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene and ethylenedimethacrylate). The effect of preparation conditions including the content of ionic liquid and porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied in detail. Infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to inspect the physicochemical properties of the new adsorbent. The applicability of the new MMF-SPME was demonstrated by the extraction of trace endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Results indicated that the prepared MMF-SPME could extract EDCs effectively through multi-interactions such as ion-exchange, π-π and hydrophobic interactions. After optimization of extraction parameters, a method of MMF-SPME coupled to high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection was conducted to detect trace EDCs in complicated samples including environmental water and human urine. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) for targeted compounds were 0.011-0.065µg/L and 0.036-0.21µg/L, respectively. Satisfactory precision was also achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 9% and 10%, respectively. At the same time, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of EDCs in water and human urine with spiking recoveries ranged from 70.6% to 119%.

12.
J Sep Sci ; 40(3): 733-743, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888568

RESUMO

A new multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction using a polydopamine-based monolith as the extraction medium is proposed. The monolith was synthesized by facile in situ copolymerization of N-methacryldopamine and dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene/ethylenedimethacrylate) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The effect of the contents of N-methacryldopamine and porogen in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. A series of characterization studies was performed to validate the structure and properties of the monolith. The prepared multiple monolithic fibers were used for the extraction of triazine herbicides in environmental water samples. After the optimization of the extraction parameters, a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method for the determination of trace triazine herbicides in water samples was developed by coupling multiple monolithic fibers solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The results indicated that the limits of detection and quantification for the target compounds were 0.031-0.14 and 0.10-0.45 µg/L, respectively. Good precision and reproducibility were obtained with the relative standard deviations below 10%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the triazine herbicides in different water samples (lake, river, and farmland waters). The recoveries of the method were in the range between 79.6 and 117%.

13.
IET Syst Biol ; 9(4): 147-54, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26243831

RESUMO

This study proposes a gene link-based method for survival time-related pathway hunting. In this method, the authors incorporate gene link information to estimate how a pathway is associated with cancer patient's survival time. Specifically, a gene link-based Cox proportional hazard model (Link-Cox) is established, in which two linked genes are considered together to represent a link variable and the association of the link with survival time is assessed using Cox proportional hazard model. On the basis of the Link-Cox model, the authors formulate a new statistic for measuring the association of a pathway with survival time of cancer patients, referred to as pathway survival score (PSS), by summarising survival significance over all the gene links in the pathway, and devise a permutation test to test the significance of an observed PSS. To evaluate the proposed method, the authors applied it to simulation data and two publicly available real-world gene expression data sets. Extensive comparisons with previous methods show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for survival pathway hunting.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Beilstein J Org Chem ; 10: 969-74, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24991246

RESUMO

We show a convenient decarboxylative aldol process using a scandium catalyst and a PYBOX ligand to generate a series of highly functionalized chiral α-hydroxy esters. The protocol tolerates a broad range of ß-keto acids with inactivated aromatic and aliphatic α-keto esters. The possible mechanism is rationalized.

15.
Org Biomol Chem ; 11(38): 6456-9, 2013 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23979548

RESUMO

A ytterbium(III)-indapybox catalysed enantioselective decarboxylative addition reaction of ß-ketoacids to isatins is described. The biologically important 3-hydroxy oxindoles were obtained in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities.


Assuntos
Indóis/síntese química , Isatina/química , Cetoácidos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Itérbio/química , Catálise , Descarboxilação , Indóis/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Estereoisomerismo
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