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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1058, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441805

RESUMO

Molecular and genetic immune-related pathways connected to breast cancer and lifestyles in postmenopausal women are not fully characterized. In this study, we explored the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in those pathways at the genome-wide level. With single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the biomarkers and lifestyles together, we further constructed risk profiles to improve predictability for breast cancer. Our earlier genome-wide association gene-environment interaction study used large cohort data from the Women's Health Initiative Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes Study and identified 88 SNPs associated with CRP and IL-6. For this study, we added an additional 68 SNPs from previous GWA studies, and together with 48 selected lifestyles, evaluated for the association with breast cancer risk via a 2-stage multimodal random survival forest and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction methods. Overall and in obesity strata (by body mass index, waist, waist-to-hip ratio, exercise, and dietary fat intake), we identified the most predictive genetic and lifestyle variables. Two SNPs (SALL1 rs10521222 and HLA-DQA1 rs9271608) and lifestyles, including alcohol intake, lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogen, and overall and visceral obesity, are the most common and strongest predictive markers for breast cancer across the analyses. The risk profile that combined those variables presented their synergistic effect on the increased breast cancer risk in a gene-lifestyle dose-dependent manner. Our study may contribute to improved predictability for breast cancer and suggest potential interventions for the women with the risk genotypes and lifestyles to reduce their breast cancer risk.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

4.
Front Genet ; 11: 540724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193614

RESUMO

Background: Circulating glycemic traits (GTs) have been considered a risk factor for breast cancer, but studies using GT-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable are limited and inconclusive. Methods: Our Mendelian Randomization analysis used the most recent genome-wide datasets focusing on European women. Results: Of 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with GTs, 38 fasting-glucose and 6 fasting-insulin SNPs showed heterogeneous associations with breast cancer, without significant directional pleiotropy observed. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a null association between genetically determined GTs and breast cancer risk among European women. Our findings may contribute to more complete characterizing of metabolic pathways in GTs and breast cancer.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210298

RESUMO

2,456 lung cancer cases and 5,342 controls were evaluated in this International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) pooled analysis on estrogen-related hormonal factors and lung cancer in Asian women. Random effect of study site and fixed effect of age, smoking status, comprehensive smoking index, and family history of lung cancer were adjusted for in the multivariable logistic regression models. We found that late onset of menarche conferred elevated odds of lung cancer with adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.05 , 1.45) for 17 years or older, compared with 14 years or younger. Late onset of menopause at 55 years old or older was associated with lung cancer with OR=1.24 (95% CI=1.02 , 1.51). Non-natural menopause was associated with an OR of 1.39 (95%CI=1.13 , 1.71). More live births showed reversed association with lung cancer (ORs of 5 or more live births: 0.71 (95%CI=0.60 , 0.84), compared with 0-2 live births (Ptrend <0.001). A later first child delivery seemed associated with an increased susceptibility: OR of 21-25 years old: 1.23 (95% CI=1.06 , 1.40), 26 or older: 1.27 (95%CI=1.06, 1.52), Ptrend =0.010). Oral contraceptives use appeared to be protective with an OR of 0.69 (95% CI=0.57, 0.83). Stronger for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma, these relationships were not clearly modified by smoking status, probably because of lower prevalence of smoking. This is a first and largest pooling study of lung cancer among Asian women and the results suggested potential roles of hormone-related pathways in the etiology of this disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(9): 2955-2976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042629

RESUMO

Immune-related molecular and genetic pathways that are connected to colorectal cancer (CRC) and lifestyles in postmenopausal women are incompletely characterized. In this study, we examined the role of pro-inflammatory biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in those pathways. Through selection of the best predictive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and lifestyles, our goal was to improve the prediction accuracy and ability for CRC risk. Using large cohort data of postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes Study, we previously conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) for a CRP and IL-6 gene-behavioral interaction study. For the present study, we added GWA-SNPs from outside GWA studies, resulting in a total of 152 SNPs. Together with 41 selected lifestyles, we performed a 2-stage multimodal random survival forest analysis with generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction approach to construct CRC risk profiles. Overall and in obesity strata (by body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, exercise, and dietary fat intake), we identified the best predictive genetic markers in inflammatory cytokines and lifestyles. Across the strata, 2 SNPs (ONECUT2 rs4092465 and HNF4A rs1800961) and 1 lifestyle factor (relatively short-term past use of oral contraceptives) were the most common and strongest predictive markers for CRC risk. The risk profile that combined those variables exhibited synergistically increased risk for CRC; this pattern appeared more strongly in obese and inactive subgroups. Our results may contribute to improved predictability for CRC and suggest genetically targeted lifestyle interventions for women carrying the inflammatory-risk genotypes, reducing CRC risk.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(12): 3449-3457, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strict medication guidance and lifestyle interventions to manage blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients are typically difficult to follow. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 1-year effectiveness of lifestyle and drug intervention in the management of rural hypertensive patients. DESIGN: Randomized community intervention trial. PARTICIPANTS: The control group comprised 967 patients who received standard antihypertensive drug intervention therapy from two communities, whereas the intervention group comprised 1945 patients who received antihypertensive drug and lifestyle intervention therapies from four communities in rural China. MAIN MEASURES: Data on lifestyle behaviors and BP measurements at baseline and 1-year follow-up were collected. A difference-in-difference logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the intervention. KEY RESULTS: BP control after the 1-year intervention was better than that at baseline in both groups. The within-group change in BP control of 59.3% in the intervention group was much higher than the 25.2% change in the control group (P < 0.001). Along with the duration of the follow-up period, systolic and diastolic BP decreased rapidly in the early stages and then gradually after 6 months in the intervention group (P < 0.001). In the intervention group, drug therapy adherence was increased by 39.5% (from 48.1% at 1 month to 87.6% at 1 year) (P < 0.001), more in women (45.6%) than in men (31.2%; P < 0.001). The net effect of the lifestyle intervention improved the rate of BP control by 56.1% (70.8% for men and 44.7% for women). For all physiological and biochemical factors, such as body mass index, waist circumference, lipid metabolism, and glucose control, improvements were more significant in the behavioral intervention group than those in the control group (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The addition of lifestyle intervention by physicians or nurses helps control BP effectively and lowers BP better than usual care with antihypertensive drug therapy alone.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092262

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 69: 101824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is some evidence of positive associations between both the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with cancer risk, the relationships with lung cancer risk remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the associations between GI and GL with lung cancer. METHODS: The analyses were performed using data from a population-based case-control study recruited between 1999 and 2004 in Los Angeles County. Dietary factors were collected from 593 incident lung cancer cases and 1026 controls using a modified food frequency questionnaire. GI and GL were estimated using a food composition table. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Dietary GI was positively associated with lung cancer (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.62; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.25). For histologic subtypes, positive associations were observed between GI and adenocarcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.82; 95 % CI: 1.22, 2.70) and small cell carcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.25, 5.74). No clear association between GL and lung cancer was observed. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that high dietary GI was associated with increased lung cancer risk, and the positive associations were observed for both lung adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Replication in an independent dataset is merited for a broader interpretation of our results.

10.
Epigenomics ; 12(15): 1273-1285, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867538

RESUMO

Aim: Given the immunosuppressive nature of pancreatic cancer, we investigated the relationship between epigenetic modification of immune-regulatory cytokine genes and pancreatic cancer outcomes. Materials & methods: We evaluated DNA methylation of 184 pancreatic tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 111 CpG loci in seven cytokine genes: IL10, IL6, IL8, TGFß1, TGFß2, TGFß3 and TNF. We used Cox regression to evaluate the associations between methylation and overall survival, disease-specific survival and disease progression (α = 0.05). Results: Poorer survival was associated with increased methylation in fifteen CpG probes in TGFß1, TGFß2, TGFß3 and TNF. We also detected improved outcomes for three loci in IL10, IL8 and IL6. Conclusion: Epigenetic regulation of cytokine-related gene expression may be associated with pancreatic cancer outcomes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928877

RESUMO

Immune-related etiologic pathways to influence invasive breast cancer risk may interact with lifestyle factors, but the interrelated molecular genetic pathways are incompletely characterized. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes Study including 16,088 postmenopausal women, a population highly susceptible to inflammation, obesity, and increased risk for breast cancer. With 21,784,812 common autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), we conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) gene-environment interaction (G × E) analysis in six independent GWA Studies for proinflammatory cytokines [IL6 and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and their gene-lifestyle interactions. Subsequently, we tested for the association of the GWA SNPs with breast cancer risk. In women overall and stratified by obesity status (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio) and obesity-related lifestyle factors (exercise and high-fat diet), 88 GWA SNPs in 10 loci were associated with proinflammatory cytokines: 3 associated with IL6 (1 index SNP in MAPK1 and 1 independent SNP in DEC1); 85 with CRP (3 index SNPs in CRPP1, CRP, RP11-419N10.5, HNF1A-AS1, HNF1A, and C1q2orf43; and two independent SNPs in APOE and APOC1). Of those, 27 in HNF1A-AS1, HNF1A, and C1q2orf43 displayed significantly increased risk for breast cancer. We found a number of novel top markers for CRP and IL6, which interacted with obesity factors. A substantial proportion of those SNPs' susceptibility influenced breast cancer risk. Our findings may contribute to better understanding of genetic associations between pro-inflammation and cancer and suggest intervention strategies for women who carry the risk genotypes, reducing breast cancer risk. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: The top GWA-SNPs associated with pro-inflammatory biomarkers have implications for breast carcinogenesis by interacting with obesity factors. Our findings may suggest interventions for women who carry the inflammatory-risk genotypes to reduce breast cancer risk.

12.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. METHODS: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables. RESULTS: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20). CONCLUSION: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer.

13.
Environ Res ; 191: 110015, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818497

RESUMO

Few prospective cohort studies have investigated associations between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other cancer sites, in addition to lung cancer. We assessed these associations in a population-based prospective cohort study started from 2008 to 2011 with average of 9.1 years of follow-up, in Minhang district, Shanghai, China. The study included a total of 23,415 participants (8388 men, 15,027 women) and 205,515 person-years. Epidemiological data were collected by a standardized questionnaire including ETS exposure. Newly diagnosed patients with primary cancers and deaths were identified by record linkage system with the Shanghai Cancer Registry and Shanghai Vital Statistics. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. During the study period, a total of 1462 patients with diagnoses of primary cancers were identified. Among all participants and non-smokers, ETS was associated with an increased risk of all smoking-related cancers (all: adjusted HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05-1.43 and non-smokers: 1.24, 1.02-1.49), lung cancer (1.29, 0.98-1.71 and 1.27, 0.91-1.77), and stomach cancer (1.86, 1.21-2.85 and 1.75, 1.05-2.91), respectively. Furthermore, associations for lung and stomach cancers were the strongest among non-smoking females. The joint effects of both ETS and active smoking were strongest for all cancers, all smoking-related cancers, lung cancer, and stomach cancer. No clear interactions were observed. These results suggest that ETS exposure may increase the risk of smoking-related cancers in a Chinese population. Further studies on the relationship between ETS exposure and specific cancer sites are warranted to replicate our findings.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

15.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32850306

RESUMO

Background: The roles of obesity-related biomarkers and their molecular pathways in the development of postmenopausal colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconclusive. We examined insulin resistance (IR) as a major hormonal pathway mediating the association between obesity and CRC risk in a Mendelian randomization (MR) framework. Methods: We performed MR analysis using individual-level data of 11,078 non-Hispanic white postmenopausal women from our earlier genome-wide association study. We identified four independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with fasting glucose (FG), three with fasting insulin (FI), and six with homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR), which were not associated with obesity. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC by adjusting for potential confounding factors plus genetic principal components. Results: Overall, we observed no direct association between combined 13 IR genetic instruments and CRC risk (HR = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-1.17). In phenotypic analysis, genetically raised HOMA-IR exhibited its effects on the increased risk and FG and FI on the reduced risk for CRC, but with a lack of statistical power. Subgroup analyses by physical activity level and dietary fat intake with combined phenotypes showed that genetically determined IR was associated with reduced CRC risk in both physical activity-stratified (single contributor: MTRR rs722025; HR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.02-0.62) and high-fat diet subgroups (main contributor: G6PC2 rs560887; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94). Conclusions: Complex evidence was observed for a potential causal association between IR and CRC risk. Our findings may provide an additional value of intervention trials to lower IR and reduce CRC risk.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3090-3101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525569

RESUMO

A low intake of fruits and vegetables is a risk factor for gastric cancer, although there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the associations. In our study, the relationship between fruits and vegetables intake and gastric cancer was assessed, complementing a previous work on the association betweenconsumption of citrus fruits and gastric cancer. Data from 25 studies (8456 cases and 21 133 controls) with information on fruits and/or vegetables intake were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age and the main known risk factors for gastric cancer) odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exposure-response relations, including linear and nonlinear associations, were modeled using one- and two-order fractional polynomials. Gastric cancer risk was lower for a higher intake of fruits (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.02), vegetables (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84), and fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.49-0.75); results were consistent across sociodemographic and lifestyles categories, as well as study characteristics. Exposure-response analyses showed an increasingly protective effect of portions/day of fruits (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.73 for six portions), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83 for six portions) and vegetables (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60 for 10 portions). A protective effect of all fruits, noncitrus fruits and vegetables was confirmed, supporting further dietary recommendations to decrease the burden of gastric cancer.

17.
Br J Nutr ; 124(6): 611-619, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321598

RESUMO

At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case-control and one nested case-cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Alimentos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 422-434, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer pathogenesis represents a complex interaction of host genetic determinants, microbial virulence factors and environmental exposures. Our primary aim was to determine the association between occupations/occupational exposures and odds of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pooled-analysis of individual-level data harmonized from 11 studies in the Stomach cancer Pooling Project. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of gastric cancer adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 5279 gastric cancer cases and 12 297 controls were analysed. There were higher odds of gastric cancer among labour-related occupations, including: agricultural and animal husbandry workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.68]; miners, quarrymen, well-drillers and related workers (OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.88); blacksmiths, toolmakers and machine-tool operators (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.89); bricklayers, carpenters and construction workers (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60); and stationary engine and related equipment operators (OR 6.53, 95% CI: 1.41-30.19). The ORs for wood-dust exposure were 1.51 (95% CI: 1.01-2.26) for intestinal-type and 2.52 (95% CI: 1.46-4.33) for diffuse-type gastric cancer. Corresponding values for aromatic amine exposure were 1.83 (95% CI: 1.09-3.06) and 2.92 (95% CI: 1.36-6.26). Exposure to coal derivatives, pesticides/herbicides, chromium, radiation and magnetic fields were associated with higher odds of diffuse-type, but not intestinal-type gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a large pooled analysis, we identified several occupations and related exposures that are associated with elevated odds of gastric cancer. These findings have potential implications for risk attenuation and could be used to direct investigations evaluating the impact of targeted gastric cancer prevention/early detection programmes based on occupation.

19.
Br J Cancer ; 122(6): 745-748, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929514

RESUMO

High dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) may increase cancer risk. However, limited information was available on GI and/or GL and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis on 8 case-control studies (4081 HNC cases; 7407 controls) from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HNC, and its subsites, from fixed- or mixed-effects logistic models including centre-specific quartiles of GI or GL. GI, but not GL, had a weak positive association with HNC (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). In subsites, we found a positive association between GI and laryngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.30-1.96) and an inverse association between GL and oropharyngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). This pooled analysis indicates a modest positive association between GI and HNC, mainly driven by laryngeal cancer.

20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(4): 330-342, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781743

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk prediction models based on risk factor profiles have not yet been developed. We took advantage of the large database of the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium, including 14 US studies from 1981-2010, to develop HNC risk prediction models. Seventy percent of the data were used to develop the risk prediction models; the remaining 30% were used to validate the models. We used competing-risk models to calculate absolute risks. The predictors included age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, alcohol drinking intensity, cigarette smoking duration and intensity, and/or family history of HNC. The 20-year absolute risk of HNC was 7.61% for a 60-year-old woman who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day for over 20 years, consumed 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day, was a high school graduate, had a family history of HNC, and was non-Hispanic white. The 20-year risk for men with a similar profile was 6.85%. The absolute risks of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers were generally lower than those of oral cavity and laryngeal cancers. Statistics for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.70 or higher, except for oropharyngeal cancer in men. This HNC risk prediction model may be useful in promoting healthier behaviors such as smoking cessation or in aiding persons with a family history of HNC to evaluate their risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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