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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13282, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918429

RESUMO

To better understand the molecular mechanisms of intracranial aneurysm (IA) pathogenesis, we used gene coexpression networks to identify hub genes and functional pathways associated with IA onset. Two Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets encompassing intracranial aneurysm tissue samples and cerebral artery control samples were included. To discover functional pathways and potential biomarkers, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was employed. Next, single-gene gene set enrichment analysis was employed to investigate the putative biological roles of the chosen genes. We also used receiver operating characteristic analysis to confirm the diagnostic results. Finally, we used a rat model to confirm the hub genes in the module of interest. The module of interest, which was designated the green module and included 115 hub genes, was the key module that was most strongly and negatively associated with IA formation. According to gene set variation analysis results, 15 immune-related pathways were significantly activated in the IA group, whereas 7 metabolic pathways were suppressed. In two GEO datasets, SLC2A12 could distinguish IAs from control samples. Twenty-nine hub genes in the green module might be biomarkers for the occurrence of cerebral aneurysms. SLC2A12 expression was significantly downregulated in both human and rat IA tissue. In the present study, we identified 115 hub genes related to the pathogenesis of IA onset and deduced their potential roles in various molecular pathways; this new information may contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of IAs. By external validation, the SLC2A12 gene may play an important role. The molecular function of SLC2A12 in the process of IA occurrence can be further studied in a rat model.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/metabolismo , Ratos
2.
Phytomedicine ; 105: 154352, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic, currently incurable, diseases of the elderly, which are characterized by protein misfolding and neuronal damage. Fucoxanthin, derived from marine brown algae, presents a promising candidate for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. HYPOTHESIS AND PURPOSE: The relationship between neurodegenerative disease management and fucoxanthin has not yet been clarified. This study focuses on the fundamental mechanisms and targets of fucoxanthin in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease management, showing that communication between the brain and the gut contributes to neurodegenerative diseases and early diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. This paper also presents, new insights for future therapeutic directions based on the integrated application of artificial intelligence. CONCLUSION: Fucoxanthin primarily binds to amyloid fibrils with spreading properties such as Aß, tau, and α-synuclein to reduce their accumulation levels, alleviate inflammatory factors, and restore mitochondrial membranes to prevent oxidative stress via Nrf2 and Akt signaling pathways, involving reduction of specific secretases. In addition, fucoxanthin may serve as a preventive diagnosis for neurodegenerative diseases through ophthalmic disorders. It can modulate gut microbes and has potential for the alleviation and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272563, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930571

RESUMO

Carpesium (Asteraceae) is a genus that contains many plant species with important medicinal values. However, the lack of chloroplast genome research of this genus has greatly hindered the study of its molecular evolution and phylogenetic relationship. This study used the Illumina sequencing platform to sequence three medicinal plants of the Carpesium genus: Carpesium abrotanoides, Carpesium cernuum, and Carpesium faberi, obtaining three complete chloroplast genome sequences after assembly and annotation. It was revealed that the three chloroplast genomes were typical quadripartite structures with lengths of 151,389 bp (C. abrotanoides), 151,278 bp (C. cernuum), and 151,250 bp (C. faberi), respectively. A total of 114 different genes were annotated, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Abundant SSR loci were detected in all three chloroplast genomes, with most composed of A/T. The expansion and contraction of the IR region indicate that the boundary regions of IR/SC are relatively conserved for the three species. Using C. abrotanoides as a reference, most of the non-coding regions of the chloroplast genomes were significantly different among the three species. Five different mutation hot spots (trnC-GCA-petN, psaI, petA-psbJ, ndhF, ycf1) with high nucleotide variability (Pi) can serve as potential DNA barcodes of Carpesium species. Additionally, phylogenetic evolution analysis of the three species suggests that C. cernuum has a closer genetic relationship to C. faberi than C. abrotanoides. Simultaneously, Carpesium is a monophyletic group closely related to the genus Inula. Complete chloroplast genomes of Carpesium species can help study the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships and are expected to provide genetic marker assistance to identify Carpesium species.

4.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; : 1-9, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CRISPR-Cas technology for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: RT-qPCR is defined as the reference standard. Data was collected and assessed by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 tool. A bivariate model for pooling was employed and subgroups analysis was used to explore heterogeneity. RESULTS: 2264 samples from 28 articles were extracted for evaluating the accuracy of CRISPR technology for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of CRISPR technology were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00), respectively. High risks in patient selection bias and unclear risk of index test bias may affect accuracy. Subgroup analysis showed that CRISPR-Cas12 is applicable for molecular diagnostics for its active editing characteristics. RT-LAMP and RT-RPA are usually used for pre-amplification and fluorescence detection to output results quantitatively. Nasopharyngeal swabs and dual-genes perform greatly in our study. CONCLUSION: The results concluded from all studies showed that CRISPR technology is a promising molecular method for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Standard methods including comparable sample material, patient selection, operating procedure and operators should be established.

5.
Environ Int ; 167: 107423, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908391

RESUMO

Health risks caused by crucial environmental carcinogens N-nitrosamines triggered ubiquitous attention. As the liver exerted vital function through metabolic process, lipid metabolism disorders have been confirmed as potential drivers for toxicological effects, and the mechanisms of lipid regulation related to hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosamines remained largely unclear. In this study, we comprehensively explored the disturbance of hepatic lipid homeostasis in mice induced by nitrosamines. The results implied that nitrosamines exposure induced hepatotoxicity accompanied by liver injury, inflammatory infiltration, and hepatic edema. Lipidomics profiling analysis indicated the decreased levels of phosphatidic acids (PA), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), lyso-phosphatidylcholines (LPC), lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines (LPE), diacylglycerols (DAG) and triacylglycerols (TAG), the elevation of ceramides (Cer) and decomposition of free fatty acids (FFA) in high-dose nitrosamines exposure group. Importantly, nitrosamines exposure promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) by facilitating fatty acid uptake and decomposition, together with the upregulation of genes associated with FAO accompanied by the activation of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß and NLRP3. Furthermore, fatty acid translocase CD36-mediated fatty acid oxidation was correlated with the enhancement of oxidative stress in the liver caused by nitrosamines exposure. Overall, our results contributed to the new strategies to interpret the early toxic effects of nitrosamines exposure.

6.
J Control Release ; 349: 354-366, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817278

RESUMO

First-line treatments for mild to moderate psoriasis are typically topical formulations containing corticosteroids, however, the therapeutic efficacy of these formulations is compromised by limited penetration and skin retention. Even more challenging, off-target corticosteroids are known to adversely affect healthy skin, including induction of epidermal and dermal atrophy. Here, we report a nanoparticle-based topical formulation that cures psoriasis in a single dose, but leaves healthy skin intact. Specifically, we developed tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-modified bioadhesive nanoparticles (Tris-BNPs) that exploit the high permeability characteristic of psoriasis to penetrate only psoriatic skin but not the healthy skin. Furthermore, as Tris-BNPs diffuse and penetrate into the epidermis, the Tris molecules slowly diffuse away, exposing the aldehyde groups of BNPs, which can bind to amine groups present within lesional skin, leading to long local retention of BNPs in lesions of psoriatic skin. The accumulated BNPs within lesions release corticosteroids over a ~ 3 day period to maintain local drug concentration above the therapeutic level. In addition to deeper penetration and longer retention compared with commercial psoriasis treatments, the topical applied Tris-BNPs were not affected by sweating, humidity, or active wiping due to their preferential accumulation between the stratum corneum and the basal cells of the epidermis. Overall, Tris-BNP as a topical formulation hold promise to overcome the limitations of current psoriasis treatment.

7.
Biofabrication ; 14(4)2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793612

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from immune cells have shown great anti-cancer therapeutic potential. However, inefficiency in EV generation has considerably impeded the development of EV-based basic research and clinical translation. Here, we developed a seesaw-motion bioreactor (SMB) system by leveraging mechanical stimuli such as shear stress and turbulence for generating EVs with high quality and quantity from natural killer (NK) cells. Compared to EV production in traditional static culture (229 ± 74 particles per cell per day), SMB produced NK-92MI-derived EVs at a higher rate of 438 ± 50 particles per cell per day and yielded a total number of 2 × 1011EVs over two weeks via continuous dynamic fluidic culture. In addition, the EVs generated from NK-92MI cells in SMB shared a similar morphology, size distribution, and protein profile to EVs generated from traditional static culture. Most importantly, the NK-92MI-derived EVs in SMB were functionally active in killing melanoma and liver cancer cells in both 2D and 3D culture conditionsin vitro, as well as in suppressing melanoma growthin vivo. We believe that SMB is an attractive approach to producing EVs with high quality and quantity; it can additionally enhance EV production from NK92-MI cells and promote both the basic and translational research of EVs.

8.
Food Chem X ; 14: 100316, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774637

RESUMO

Globally, aging and diabetes are considered prevalent threats to human health. Chlorella pyrenoidosa polysaccharide (CPP) is a natural active ingredient with multiple health benefits including antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, the aging-related diabetic (AD) mice model was established to investigate the underlying hypoglycemic and antioxidant mechanisms of CPP. It improved superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and malondialdehyde activities in liver and insulin secretion. CAT and GSH-px activity in the brain increased after CPP administration. In addition, through histopathological examinations, it was evident that injuries in the liver, brain, jejunum, and pancreas were restored by CPP. This restoration was likely mediated via the activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor/FOXO-1 (forkhead box O1) pathway concurrent with the inhibition of interleukin-6 receptor/FOXO-1 pathway. Furthermore, metabolomics and correlation analysis revealed that CPP possibly relived AD through changes in insulin levels and declined oxidative stress as regulated by phenylpyruvic acid. These findings suggested that CPP exerted antioxidant and hypoglycemic roles in an AD mice model, thereby providing a sound scientific foundation for further development and utilization of CPP.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 936815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846774

RESUMO

Cirrhosis is the end stage of chronic liver diseases like chronic hepatitis B. In China, hepatitis B accounts for around 60% of cases of cirrhosis. So far, clinical and laboratory indexes for the early diagnosis of cirrhosis are far from satisfactory. Nevertheless, there haven't been specific drugs for cirrhosis. Thus, it is quite necessary to uncover more specific factors which play their roles in cirrhosis and figure out the possible therapeutic targets. Among emerging factors taking part in the initiation and progression of cirrhosis, gut microbiota might be a pivot of systemic factors like metabolism and immune and different organs like gut and liver. Discovery of detailed molecular mechanism in gut microbiota and gut liver axis leads to a more promising prospect of developing new drugs intervening in these pathways. Time-based medication regimen has been proofed to be helpful in hormonotherapy, especially in the use of glucocorticoid. Thus, circadian rhythms, though haven't been strongly linked to hepatitis B and its complications, are still pivotal to various pathophysiological progresses. Gut microbiota as a potential effective factor of circadian rhythms has also received increasing attentions. Here, our work, restricting cirrhosis to the post-hepatitis B one, is aimed to summarize how circadian rhythms and hepatitis B-related cirrhosis can intersect via gut microbiota, and to throw new insights on the development of new and time-based therapies for hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and other cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatite B Crônica , Ritmo Circadiano , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Individualidade , Cirrose Hepática/complicações
10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) is an increasingly utilized technique to treat patients with nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis, but variables impacting outcomes are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine variables most predictive of outcomes following SMC, primarily changes in cephalic index (CI). METHODS: Patients with nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis undergoing SMC at our institution between 2014 and 2021 were included. Cephalic index was measured from patient computed tomography scans, x-rays, or by caliper-based methods. Parietal bone thickness was determined from patient preoperative computed tomography. Stepwise multiple regression analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and random forest machine learning methods were used to determine variables most predictive of changes in CI. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four patients were included. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified duration of spring placement (P=0.007), anterior spring force (P=0.034), and anterior spring length (P=0.043) as statistically significant predictors for changes in CI. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis identified maximum spring force (ß=0.035), anterior spring length (ß=0.005), posterior spring length (ß=0.004), and duration of spring placement (ß=0.0008) as the most predictive variables for changes in CI. Random forest machine learning identified variables with greatest increase in mean squared error as maximum spring force (0.0101), anterior spring length (0.0090), and posterior spring length (0.0056). CONCLUSIONS: Maximum and total spring forces, anterior and posterior spring lengths, and duration of spring placement were the most predictive variables for changes in CI following SMC. Age at surgery and other demographic variables were inferior predictors in these models.

11.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(7)2022 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35888942

RESUMO

The catalysts employed in catalytic reactors greatly affect the reaction efficiency of the reaction system and the reactor's performance. This work presents a rapid comparative study on three kinds of Fe-based materials integrated into an optofluidic Fenton reactor for water treatment. The Fe-based sheets (FeSiB, FeNbCuSiB, and FeNi) were respectively implanted into the reaction chamber to degrade the organic dyes with the assistance of H2O2. In the experiment, by adjusting the hydrogen peroxide concentration, flow rate, and light irradiation, the applicable conditions of the Fe-based materials for the dye degradation could be evaluated quickly to explore the optimal design of the Fenton reaction system. The results indicated that FeNi (1j85) exhibits excellent degradability in the microreactor, the reaction rate can reach 23.4%/s at the flow rate of 330 µL/min, but its weak corrosion resistance was definitely demonstrated. Although the initial degradability of the microreactor by using FeNbCuSiB (1k107) was not as good as that of 1j85, it increased after being reused several times instead, and the degradation efficiency reached >98% after being reused five times. However, the FeSiB (1k101) material shows the worst degradability and recycling. Therefore, in contrast, 1k107 has the greatest potential to be used in Fenton reactors for practical water treatment.

12.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889365

RESUMO

Coupled with an azo coupling reaction, a simple, rapid, sensitive, and effective surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) detection method for benzocaine was developed. In our study, benzocaine which is used clinically as a local anesthetic was derived with p-aminothiophenol into a corresponding azo product within 5 min, resulting in a strong SERRS response with the simple addition of Ag NPs excited with a 532 nm laser. The linear correlation between SERRS intensity of dominant bands and logarithm of benzocaine concentration was investigated for quantitative determination. The method reached a limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.139 and 0.0788 µg/mL calculated with two peak intensity ratios (I1568/I2260 and I1331/I2260), which is comparable to most studies reported previously, and meanwhile had superiority in simplicity and rapidness. The quantitative measurements for pharmaceutical preparations with benzocaine were conducted without complex extraction and enrichment processes. It was indicated that the SERRS assay combined with azo derivatization reaction has implications for practical applications in more complicated systems involving biological samples, in which appropriate and simplified pretreatments were conducted to remove interfering components.


Assuntos
Benzocaína , Análise Espectral Raman , Composição de Medicamentos , Lasers , Limite de Detecção , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos
13.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 17(1): 366, 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902873

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determining a new imaging method on full-leg standing lower limb radiographs to predict excessive femoral anteversion in patients with patellar dislocation. METHODS: This study included 119 patients with patellar dislocation from January 2014 to January 2021. The femoral anteversion and tibial torsion were measured by CT scanning. The medial condylar angle was measured by the full-leg standing lower limb radiographs. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between rotation parameters and medial condylar angle. RESULTS: Included patients were divided into DFO group and control group according to whether they received derotational femoral osteotomy (DFO) operation or not. DFO group had significantly higher femoral anteversion (29.8° ± 7.2° vs 23.1° ± 6.5°, P < 0.05), higher tibial torsion (28.6° ± 6.9° vs 24.7° ± 7.9°, P < 0.05), lower medial condylar angle (154.8° ± 4.7° vs 157.5° ± 6.7°, P < 0.05) than control group. Correlation analysis showed that the values of femoral anteversion were significantly correlated with medial condylar angle (r = -0.719, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that medial condylar angle had a negative correlation with excessive femoral anteversion on the full-leg standing lower limb radiographs. The medial condylar angle can be a good predictor of femoral anteversion and can be used to guide the performance of DFO to treat patellar dislocation in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Luxações Articulares , Luxação Patelar , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Osteotomia/métodos , Luxação Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Patelar/cirurgia , Radiografia
14.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 5: 1127-1139, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865803

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has emerged as one of the most acute public health diseases of the present time, which increases with the population ageing. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of Ulva lactuca oligosaccharide (ULO) under ageing-related diabetes conditions in an animal model. The results demonstrated that ULO can promote hypoglycaemia and delay senescence as mediated via GLP-1/GLP-1R pathway to mobilize the intercommunication between the brain and gut. In addition, twenty-six different metabolites and eight different bacteria were screened in the brain and the gut, respectively. A network relationship displayed that all-trans-retinoic acid has positive relationships with Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus, suggesting that plays a potential key role in maintaining the hypoglycaemic and anti-ageing activities of ULO. Based on these findings, ULO might be an efficient therapy for restoring blood glucose metabolism and delaying brain senescence in elderly T2D patients.

15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3910116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873798

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is the major factor involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Although the oral drug metformin (MH) is widely used to reduce hyperglycemia, it is associated with adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for safe and natural foods that do not cause adverse effects as alternatives to commercial drugs. In this study, the active substances from Spirulina platensis, Grifola frondosa, Panax ginseng, and chromium-rich yeast were used to obtain Spirulina functional formulations (SFFs), and its therapeutic effects on mice with glycolipid metabolism disorder (GLD) were investigated. Results showed that SFFs not only improved glycolipid metabolism and reduced inflammation in mice with GLD but also showed good regenerative effects on the liver, jejunum, and cecum tissues. Moreover, SFFs could inhibit the growth of harmful microbes in the intestine and promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria, thereby promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids and further regulating GLD. Additionally, SFFs significantly increased the expression of INS, INSR, IRS-1, PI3K, AKT-1, and GLUT-4 genes and significantly decreased that of GSK-3ß in the INS/PI3K/GLUT-4 signaling pathway. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that SFFs can be further developed as a new class of therapeutic agents against GLD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Spirulina , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 377: 109825, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834921

RESUMO

Transmission and outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus among retail food highlights the need to comprehensive analysis the molecular characteristic of Staphylococcus aureus in foods. However, the information about Staphylococcus aureus in north China is limited. In this study, 97 and 28 S. aureus strains were isolated for analysis from 4262 samples of retail food and 61 samples food outbreaks with prevalence rate 2.28 % and 45.9 %, respectively in Jilin, China from 2014 to 2018. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus isolates and characterize by antimicrobial resistance testing, virulence profiles, spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. 60 % (75/125) of the isolates contained at least enterotoxin genes including classic and new SEs genes as following: sea (40/125,32 %), see (36/125,28.8 %), sec (29/125,23.2 %), sell (29/125,23.2 %), seb (25/125,20 %), seh (22/125,17.6 %), sed (6/125,4.8 %), selq (6/125,4.8 %), and selk (6/125,4.8 %). In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 59.2 % of the isolates (74/125) were considered as multi-drug-resistant isolates and four MRSA strains were all found with high multi-drug-resistance. Phenotype resistance to penicillin (94.4 %), erythromycin (84.2 %), clindamycin (63.9 %), and tetracycline (47.2 %) was observed which was corresponding with genotype resistance. The strains were classified to twenty-two sequence types (STs), fourteen clonal complexes (CCs), and forty-seven spa types. The predominant ST and spa types were ST1(22/125,17.6 %), ST25(20/125,16.00 %), ST398 (14/125,11.2 %) and t127 (20/125,16 %), t078 (14/125,11.2 %), t803 (7/125,5.6 %). The wgSNP analysis of these isolates in food represents showed close relatedness with food outbreaks which pose a potential health risk for consumers and warrants further attention.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Virulência/genética
18.
Adv Mater ; 34(31): e2202659, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698785

RESUMO

Organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising candidates for next-generation photovoltaic technologies, with their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) reaching 19%. However, the typically used spin-coating method, toxic halogenated processing solvents, and the conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ), which causes excessive charge recombination, hamper the commercialization and further efficiency promotion of OSCs. Here, a simple but effective dual-slot-die sequential processing (DSDS) strategy is proposed to address the above issues by achieving a continuous solution supply, avoiding the solubility limit of the nonhalogen solvents, and creating a graded-BHJ morphology. As a result, an excellent PCE of 17.07% is obtained with the device processed with o-xylene in an open-air environment with no post-treatment required, while a PCE of over 14% is preserved in a wide range of active-layer thickness. The unique film-formation mechanism is further identified during the DSDS processing, which suggests the formation of the graded-BHJ morphology by the mutual diffusion between the donor and acceptor and the subsequent progressive aggregation. The graded-BHJ structure leads to improved charge transport, inhibited charge recombination, and thus an excellent PCE. Therefore, the newly developed DSDS approach can effectively contribute to the realm of high-efficiency and eco-friendly OSCs, which can also possibly be generalized to other organic photoelectric devices.

19.
J Adv Res ; 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Luteolin is a plant-derived flavonoid that exhibits a broad range of pharmacological activities. Studies on luteolin have mainly focused on its use for hyperlipidaemia prevention, whereas the capacity of the flavonoid to hinder hyperglycaemia development remains underexplored. OBJECTIVES: To probe the anti-hyperglycemic mechanism of 6,8-guanidyl luteolin quinone-chromium coordination (GLQ.Cr), and to assess its regulatory effect on intestinal microbiota in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice. METHODS: High-sucrose/high-fat diet-induced and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to develop a T2DM model. Glycometabolism related indicators, histopathology, and gut microbiota composition in caecum samples were evaluated, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of liver samples was conducted. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was further used to verify the anti-hyperglycemic activity of intestinal microbiota. RESULTS: The administration of GLQ.Cr alleviated hyperglycaemia symptoms by improving liver and pancreatic functions and modulating gut microbe communities (Lactobacillus, Alistipes, Parabacteroides, Lachnoclostridium, and Desulfovibrio). RNA-seq analysis showed that GLQ.Cr mainly affected the peroxisome proliferative activated receptor (PPAR) signalling pathway in order to regulate abnormal glucose metabolism. FMT significantly modulated the abundance of Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Alistipes, Bacteroides, Ruminiclostridium, Brevundimonas and Pseudomonas in the caecum to balance blood glucose levels and counteract T2DM mice inflammation. CONCLUSION: GLQ.Cr improved the abnormal glucose metabolism in T2DM mice by regulating the PPAR signalling pathway and modulating intestinal microbial composition. FMT can improve the intestinal microecology of the recipient and in turn ameliorate the symptoms of T2DM-induced hyperglycaemia.

20.
Phys Rev E ; 105(5-2): 055107, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35706158

RESUMO

We numerically study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) convection under spatial temperature modulation, where the bottom temperature varies sinusoidally around a mean value in space. Both two- and three-dimensional simulations are performed over the Rayleigh number range 10^{7}≤Ra≤10^{10} and the wave number range 1≤k≤120 at fixed Prandtl number Pr=0.7. It is demonstrated that spatial temperature modulation with small wave numbers can enhance the global heat transfer (characterized by the Nusselt number Nu) in the turbulent regime, while Nu is close to that in standard RB convection in the case of large wave numbers. Further, we propose two characteristic modulation length scales: one is the penetration depth δ_{k} above which spatial modulation is negligible, the other is the inversion depth δ_{k2} below which there exists a stable inverse temperature gradient. Based on the relative thickness of the thermal boundary layer (BL) δ_{th} compared with these two length scales, the underlying modulation mechanism is physically explained and three regimes are identified: (1) an unperturbed BL regime (δ_{k}<δ_{th}), in which the modulation effect does not penetrate through the thermal BL and Nu is nearly unchanged; (2) a partially modulated BL regime (δ_{k2}<δ_{th}<δ_{k}), in which hot spots trigger more plume emissions from the thermal BL, resulting in Nu enhancement; and (3) a fully modulated BL regime (δ_{th}<δ_{k2}), in which the stable temperature inversion over the cold phases begins to affect convective flows, which alters the trend of Nu enhancement.

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