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Mol Med Rep ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483752


Whether aging or Parkinson's disease (PD) affects the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to immunosuppression by bone marrow­derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM­MSCs) and which cytokines are more effective in inducing BM­MSCs to be immunosuppressive remains to be elucidated. PBMCs were isolated from healthy young (age 26­35), healthy middle­aged (age 56­60) and middle­aged PD­affected individuals. All the recruits were male. The mitogen­stimulated PBMCs and proinflammatory cytokine­pretreated BM­MSCs were co­cultured. The PBMC proliferation was measured using Cell Counting Kit­8, while the cytokine secretion was assayed by cytometric bead array technology. The immunosuppressive ability of BM­MSCs was confirmed in young healthy, middle­aged healthy and middle­aged PD­affected individuals. Among the three groups, the PBMC proliferation and cytokine secretion of the young healthy group were suppressed more significantly compared with those of the middle­aged healthy and middle­aged PD­affected group. No significant differences were identified in the PBMC proliferation and cytokine secretion between the patients with PD and the middle­aged healthy subjects. Interferon (IFN)­Î³ synergized with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)­α, interleukin (IL)­1α or IL­1ß was more effective than either one alone, and the combinations of IFN­Î³ + IL­1α and IFN­Î³ + IL­1ß were more effective than IFN­Î³ + TNF­α in inducing BM­MSCs to inhibit PBMC proliferation. The results of the present study suggested that aging, rather than PD, affects the response of PBMCs toward the suppression of BM­MSC, at least in middle­aged males. Patients with PD aged 56­60 remain eligible for anti­inflammatory BM­MSC­based therapy. Treatment of BM­MSCs with IFN­Î³ + IL­1α or IFN­Î³ + IL­1ß prior to transplantation may result in improved immunosuppressive effects.

Cell Physiol Biochem ; 46(5): 1951-1970, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719282


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neurotrophic effects and immunosuppression are the main therapeutic mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in stroke treatment. Neurotrophins are produced by graft cells, host neurons, astrocytes, and even microglia/macrophages. Meanwhile, MSCs can increase inflammation if they are not sufficiently induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined whether intravenously transplanted bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) increase inflammation in distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) rats, how long the increased inflammation effect persists for, and what the final therapeutic outcomes will be. We also tested the neurotrophic role of BM-MSCs and attempted to identify the neurotrophin-producing cells. METHODS: At 1 h after dMCAO was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, allogeneic BM-MSCs were transplanted intravenously. The infarct volume was examined by Tetrazolium Red staining at 2 days (day 2), and the behavioral tests (cylinder test and grid walking test) were performed at 2, 4 (day 4) and 7 days (day 7) after transplantation. The concentrations of inflammation related cytokines and neurotrophins in the ischemic cortex, ipsilateral striatum, and serum, were measured using ELISA at days 2-7. The cell source of neurotrophins was observed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The transplanted cells were mainly found in the infarct border zone (IBZ) of the brain. Infarct volume was reduced and behavioral outcomes were improved at 2 days after ischemia. In the striatum and circulation, BM-MSC transplantation increased inflammation at day 2 and decreased it at day 7. At days 2-7, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in the ischemic core of the cortex were significantly higher in the BM-MSC group than in the ischemia vehicle group. IGF-1 and BDNF were derived mainly from host microglia/macrophages in the ischemic core, and transplanted cells in the IBZ. At day 2, BM-MSC transplantation significantly increased the number of IGF-1+CD68+ and BDNF+Iba-1+ double positive cells in the ischemic core cortex. CONCLUSIONS: Although increased inflammation, BM-MSCs were still beneficial to dMCAO recovery at day 2. The immunopromoting effect of MSCs was transient and shifted to an immunosuppressive action at day 7. The neurotrophic factors IGF-1 and BDNF, which were mainly derived from transplanted BM-MSCs and host microglia/macrophages, contributed to the therapeutic effects from day 2 to day 7.

Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/terapia , Inflamação/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley