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1.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(5-6): 129-134, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352405

RESUMO

Potentilla anserina L. is not only a medicinal plant, but also a traditional cuisine. Hence, an acute toxicity study was performed to confirm its safety profile. Forty Kunming mice were randomly divided into two groups: control group and P. anserina L. extract group. Using the maximum dosage method, the P. anserina L. extract group was given the maximum dose within 12 h, equivalent to 345.6 g/kg crude drug. The control group was given distilled water. After administration, toxicity symptoms of mice were observed, body weight and food intake were recorded. After 14 days, blood was collected to measure biochemical parameters, autopsy was carried out to observe the changes of organs, and the vital organs were separated, weighed, and preserved for histopathological examination. The results showed that P. anserina L. extract group had no toxic symptoms. The activity, weight, and diet of mice were normal, and no abnormality was found in organ index, renal function, liver function, anatomical observation, and histopathological examination. Therefore, the maximum oral dosage (345.6 g/kg) of P. anserina L. was good safety. This study indicated that P. anserina L. had a large safety range and the clinical application was safe.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(19): 5507-5520, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320606

RESUMO

Petroselinic acid (18:1Δ6), a monounsaturated cis Δ-6 fatty acid, has many prospective applications in functional foods and for the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Up to 80% of petroselinic acid has been found in the oil from fruits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), which make it an ideal source for investigating the biosynthesis of petroselinic acid. A coriander acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase was identified to be involved in its biosynthesis more than two decades ago, but since then little further progress in this area has been reported. In this study, the fatty acid profiles of coriander fruits at six developmental stages were analyzed. Fruit samples from three developmental stages with rapid accumulation of petroselinic acid were used for RNA sequencing using the Illumina Hiseq4000 platform. The transcriptome analysis presented 93 323 nonredundant unigenes and 8545 differentially expressed genes. Functional annotation and combined gene expression data revealed candidate genes potentially involved in petroselinic acid biosynthesis and its incorporation into triacylglycerols. Tissue-specific examination of q-PCR validation further suggested that ACPD1/3, KAS I-1, FATB-1/3, and DGAT2 may be highly involved. Bioinformatic analysis of CsFATB and CsDGAT2 identified their putative key amino acids or functional motifs. These results provide a molecular foundation for petroselinic acid biosynthesis in coriander fruit and facilitate its genetic engineering in other hosts.

3.
Plant Methods ; 15: 145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798671

RESUMO

Background: Potato, the third most important crop worldwide, plays a critical role in human food security. Brown rot, one of the most destructive potato diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, results in huge economic losses every year. A quick, stable, low cost and high throughout method is required to meet the demands of identification of germplasm resistance to bacterial wilt in potato breeding programs. Results: Here we present a novel R. solanacearum hydroponic infection assay on potato plants grown in vitro. Through testing wilt symptom appearance and bacterial colonization in aerial part of plants, we found that the optimum conditions for in vitro potato infection were using an OD600 0.01 bacterial solution suspended with tap water for infection, broken potato roots and an open container. Infection using R. solanacearum strains with differential degree of aggressivity demonstrated that this infection system is equally efficient as soil-drench inoculation for assessment of R. solanacearum virulence on potato. A small-scale assessment of 32 potato germplasms identified three varieties highly resistant to the pathogen, which indicates this infection system is a useful method for high-throughout screening of potato germplasm for resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of a strain carrying luminescence to easily quantify bacterial colonization and the detection of latent infections in hydroponic conditions, which can be efficiently used in potato breeding programs. Conclusions: We have established a quick and efficient in vitro potato infection system, which may facilitate breeding for new potato cultivars with high resistance to R. solanacearum.

4.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110193, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481195

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa) and castor (Ricinus communis) accumulate a large amount of lipids in their endosperms, however the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, differences in oil regulators between oat and wheat (Triticum aestivum) as well as common features between oat and castor were tested by analyzing their transcriptomes with further q-PCR analysis. Results indicated that WRINKLED1 (WRI1) homologs and their target genes highly expressed in the endosperms of oat and castor, but not in the starchy endosperms of wheat. Expression pattern of WRI1s was in agreement with that of oil accumulation. Three AsWRI1s (AsWRI1a, AsWRI1b and AsWRI1c) and one RcWRI1 were identified in the endosperms of oat and castor, respectively. AsWRI1c lacks VYL motif, which is different from the other three WRI1s. Expressions of these four WRI1s all complemented the phenotypes of Arabidopsis wri1-1 mutant. Overexpression of these WRI1s in Arabidopsis and tobacco BY2 cells increased oil contents of seeds and total fatty acids of the cells, respectively. Moreover, this overexpression also resulted in up-regulations of WRI1 target genes, such as PKp-ß1. Taken together, our results suggest that high and functional expression of WRI1 play a key role in the oil-rich endosperms and the VYL motif is dispensable for WRI1 function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Avena/genética , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ricinus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Avena/metabolismo , Endosperma/genética , Endosperma/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ricinus/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima
5.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(7): 813-827, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140930

RESUMO

Bacterial wilt caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most devastating crop diseases worldwide. The molecular mechanisms controlling the early stage of R. solanacearum colonization in the root remain unknown. Aiming to better understand the mechanism of the establishment of R. solanacearum infection in root, we established four stages in the early interaction of the pathogen with Arabidopsis roots and determined the transcriptional profiles of these stages of infection. A total 2,698 genes were identified as differentially expressed genes during the initial 96 h after infection, with the majority of changes in gene expression occurring after pathogen-triggered root-hair development observed. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated sequential activation of multiple hormone signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Simultaneous impairment of ABA receptor genes promoted plant wilting symptoms after R. solanacearum infection but did not affect primary root growth inhibition or root-hair and lateral root formation caused by R. solanacearum. This indicated that ABA signaling positively regulates root defense to R. solanacearum. Moreover, transcriptional changes of genes involved in primary root, lateral root, and root-hair formation exhibited high temporal dynamics upon infection. Taken together, our results suggest that successful infection of R. solanacearum on roots is a highly programmed process involving in hormone crosstalk.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ralstonia solanacearum , Transcriptoma , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia
6.
J Exp Bot ; 70(3): 985-994, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371807

RESUMO

Fatty acid desaturase2 (FAD2) catalyses the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid and is the main determinant of the levels of essential poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in seed oils. The very limited number of successful examples of overexpression of FAD2 over the last two decades and a shortage of reports on co-suppression make it uncertain whether FAD2 can increase PUFAs effectively across a broad range of oil crops. In this study, strong co-suppression was observed in about 80% of over 100 transgenic lines when FAD2 was overexpressed in three oilseed crops, namely flax (Linum usitatissimum), carinata (Brassica carinata), and camelina (Camelina sativa), as well as in the model plant Arabidopsis. Further analyses of Arabidopsis transgenic lines revealed both endogenous and transgenic FAD2 gene-silencing. Thus, the commonality and potency of FAD2 co-suppression seemingly imposes an obstacle to engineering oilseed PUFA enhancement by direct FAD2 overexpression. AtFAD2, driven by the 35S promoter, also caused co-suppression in Arabidopsis roots. The FAD2 co-suppression was unstable and PUFA phenotypes of T4 lines were similar to the wild-type, further indicating that high PUFA content cannot be achieved by screening advanced generations. However, we demonstrate that the obstacle of FAD2 co-suppression can be overcome in the Arabidopsis rdr6 mutant, which is impaired in post-transcriptional gene-silencing, and that lines with high PUFA content are stable through four generations.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Linho/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Linho/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética
7.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(2): 329-341, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446819

RESUMO

WRINKLED1 (WRI1), an AP2/ERE transcription factor, is one of the most important regulators of oil accumulation. It has been extensively studied in angiosperms, but its evolution and overview features in plants remain unknown. In this study, WRI1s, as well as WRI1-likes in non-WRI1 species, were investigated in 64 genome-sequenced plants. Their origin, distribution, duplication, evolution, functional domains, motifs, properties, and cis-elements were analyzed. Results suggest that WRI1 and WRI1-like may originate from Chlorophyta, and WRI1-likes in angiosperms resemble phylogenetically and structurally WRI1s from Chlorophyta and non-vascular plants. WRI1 or WRI1-like may be essential to vascular plants but not to non-vascular plants. Two YRG elements and two RAYD elements, as well as their phosphorylation sites and the 14-3-3 binding motif, are relatively conserved from Chlorophyta to angiosperm. The predicted DNA-binding domains are slightly shorter than the combination of one YRG element and one RAYD element. WRI1 gradually evolves from alkalinity to acidity. More motifs were developed in N-terminuses and C-terminuses in vascular plants. A short acidic amino-acid-enriched domain in the C-terminal region is predicted to be the putative transactivation domain. The VYL exon appears randomly in different WRI1 transcripts and it is not important for the function of WRI1. In addition, more cis-elements developed during WRI1 evolution may suggest its more complicated regulation and physiological functions. These results will assist future function studies of WRI1 and evolution studies of fatty acid biosynthesis regulation in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Clorófitas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tabaco/genética
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 224, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28275379

RESUMO

Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 2205, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312429

RESUMO

As an allotetraploid oilcrop, Brassica napus contains four duplicated Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) genes, which catalyze one of the rate-limiting steps in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in plants. While all four BnDGAT1s have been expressed functionally in yeast, their expression patterns in different germplasms and tissues and also consequent contribution to seed oil accumulation in planta remain to be elucidated. In this study, the coding regions of the four BnDGAT1s were expressed in an Arabidopsis dgat1 mutant. All four BnDGAT1s showed similar effects on oil content and fatty acid composition, a result which is different from that observed in previous studies of their expression in yeast. Expression patterns of BnDGAT1s were analyzed in developing seeds of 34 B. napus inbred lines and in different tissues of 14 lines. Different expression patterns were observed for the four BnDGAT1s, which suggests that they express independently or randomly in different germplasm sources. Higher expression of BnDGAT1s was correlated with higher seed oil content lines. Tissue-specific analyses showed that the BnDGAT1s were expressed in a uniform pattern in different tissues. Our results suggest that it is important to maintain expression of the four BnDGAT1s for maximum return on oil content.

10.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e103771, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25133575

RESUMO

The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Aminoaciltransferases/genética , Cloreto de Cádmio/metabolismo , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Aminoaciltransferases/biossíntese , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cloreto de Cádmio/farmacologia , Clonagem Molecular , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Festuca/genética , Festuca/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 11: 71, 2011 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21513581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The wild herb Swertia mussotii is a source of the anti-hepatitis compounds swertiamarin, mangiferin and gentiopicroside. Its over-exploitation has raised the priority of producing these compounds heterologously. Somatic hybridization represents a novel approach for introgressing Swertia mussotii genes into a less endangered species. RESULTS: Protoplasts derived from calli of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium and S. mussotii were fused to produce 194 putative hybrid cell lines, of which three (all derived from fusions where the S. mussotii protoplasts were pre-treated for 30 s with UV light) later differentiated into green plants. The hybridity of the calli was confirmed by a combination of isozyme, RAPD and chromosomal analysis. The hybrid calli genomes were predominantly B. scorzonerifolium. GISH analysis of mitotic chromosomes confirmed that the irradiation of donor protoplasts increased the frequency of chromosome elimination and fragmentation. RFLP analysis of organellar DNA revealed that mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA of both parents coexisted and recombined in some hybrid cell lines. Some of the hybrid calli contained SmG10H from donor, and produced swertiamarin, mangiferin and certain volatile compounds characteristic of S. mussotii. The expression of SmG10H (geraniol 10-hydroxylase) was associated with the heterologous accumulation of swertiamarin. CONCLUSIONS: Somatic hybrids between B. scorzonerifolium and S. mussotii were obtained, hybrids selected all contained introgressed nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA from S. mussotii; and some produced more mangiferin than the donor itself. The introgression of SmG10H was necessary for the accumulation of swertiamarin.


Assuntos
Bupleurum/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Swertia/genética , Sequência de Bases , Bupleurum/química , Bupleurum/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Células Híbridas/metabolismo , Células Híbridas/fisiologia , Hibridização Genética , Glucosídeos Iridoides/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Pironas/metabolismo , Swertia/química , Swertia/metabolismo , Tibet , Regulação para Cima , Xantonas/metabolismo
12.
Plant Cell Environ ; 33(6): 877-87, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20051038

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. To develop a more efficient plant to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils, a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) cDNA, named PaGCS, was isolated by PCR from Phragmites australis. The PaGCS sequence was transformed via agroinfection into the heavy metal intolerant grass Agrostis palustris. Five confirmed transgenic A. palustris plants expressing PaGCS were compared with the wild-type line for growth and Cd(2+) accumulation, as well as for the expression of a number of phytochelatin synthesis and stress-responsive enzymes when challenged with Cd(2+) stress. GCS and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. All the transgenic lines accumulated more Cd(2+) and phytochelatins (PCs) than the wild-type line, and three of the five lines grew more effectively than the wild-type after either five or 21 d of Cd(2+) stress. Variation among the transgenics was observed for the distribution of Cd(2+) in the root, shoot and leaf. The malondialdehyde content of all the transgenic lines was lower than that of the wild type under Cd(2+) treatment, while the activity of both superoxide dismutase and peroxidase present in the transgenic lines increased markedly 24 h after Cd(2+) stress, and then rapidly declined.


Assuntos
Agrostis/genética , Agrostis/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Agrostis/efeitos dos fármacos , Agrostis/enzimologia , Biomassa , Cádmio/toxicidade , Clonagem Molecular , Cruzamentos Genéticos , DNA Complementar/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/enzimologia , Poaceae/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rhizobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhizobium/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Transformação Genética , Transgenes/genética
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