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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 170: 98-109, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863059

RESUMO

MYB proteins play a crucial role in plant growth and development and stress responses. In this study, 160 members of the MYB gene family from the pepper genome database were used to analyze gene structures, chromosome localization, collinearity, genetic affinity and expression in response to heavy metals. The results identified R2R3-MYB members and further phylogenetically classified them into 35 subgroups based on highly conserved gene structures and motifs. Collinearity analysis showed that segmental duplication events played a crucial role in the functional expansion of the CaMYB gene family by intraspecific collinearity, and at least 12 pairs of CaMYB genes existed between species prior to the differentiation between monocots and dicots. Moreover, the upstream CaMYB genes were mainly localized to the phytohormone elements ABRE and transcription factor elements MYB and MYC. Further analysis revealed that MYB transcription factors were closely associated with a variety of abiotic stress-related proteins (e.g., MAC-complex and SKIP). Under the stress of five metal ions, Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, the expression levels of some CaMYB family genes were upregulated. Of these genes, pairing homologous 1 (PH-1), PH-13, and PH-15 in the roots of Capsicum annuum were upregulated to the greatest extent, indicating that these three MYB family members are particularly sensitive to these five metals. This study provides a theoretical reference for the analysis of the molecular regulatory mechanism of MYB family genes in mediating the response to heavy metals in plants. This study reveals the mode of interaction between MYB and a variety of abiotic stress proteins and clarifies the biological functions of CaMYB family members in the regulation of heavy metal stress.

2.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 16(1): 161, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727236

RESUMO

In this work, three GaN-based multiple quantum well (MQW) samples are grown to investigate the growth techniques of high-quality MQWs at low temperature (750 °C). Instead of conventional temperature ramp-up process, H2/NH3 gas mixture was introduced during the interruption after the growth of InGaN well layers. The influence of hydrogen flux was investigated. The cross-sectional images of MQW via transmission electron microscope show that a significant atomic rearrangement process happens during the hydrogen treatment. Both sharp interfaces of MQW and homogeneous indium distribution are achieved when a proper proportion of hydrogen was used. Moreover, the luminescence efficiency is improved strongly due to suppressed non-radiative recombination process and a better homogeneity of MQWs. Such kind of atomic rearrangement process is mainly caused by the larger diffusion rate of gallium and indium adatoms in H2/NH3 mixed gas, which leads to a lower potential barrier energy to achieve thermodynamic steady state. However, when excessive hydrogen flux is introduced, the MQW will be partly damaged, and the luminescence performance will deteriorate.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827741

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective value of Eucommia ulmoides extract (EUE) on chicks under cold stress. A total of 21 compounds were identified in EUE using mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Ninety chicks were divided into a control group (CS) fed a basal diet and an experimental group supplemented with EUE, exposed to 10 ± 1 °C for 8 h per day. Results showed, compared with the CS group, the body weights (BW) (p < 0.01) and average daily gains ADG (p < 0.05) of the EUE group were increased throughout the study period. Chicks fed EUE had higher AFI (0-7 d, p < 0.001) and lower feed-to-gain ratios (F/G) (0-15 d, p < 0.001). EUE increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15 d, p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (7 d, p < 0.05), whereas it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) (15 d, p < 0.01). The contents of IgA (7 d, p < 0.05), IgG (7 d; 15 d, p < 0.01), and IgM (15 d, p < 0. 001) were higher in the EUE group. Dietary EUE could also reduce chick organ damage. Overall, EUE as a natural feed additive can improve the growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and immune level, and reduce the organ damage of cold-stressed chicks.

4.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 33992-34001, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809198

RESUMO

We propose a stepped upper waveguide layer (UWG) to improve the hole injection efficiency of GaN-based laser diodes (LDs), and investigate its effect on the performance of LDs from experiments and theoretical calculations. The experimental characterization of the LD with stepped UWG presents a decrease of 16.6% for the threshold current as well as an increase of 41.2% for the slope efficiency compared to the LD with conventional GaN UWG. Meanwhile, strong localized effects are found in the quantum wells of LD with stepped UWG and a large blue-shift in the electroluminescence (EL) spectra below the threshold by analyzing the differential efficiency and the EL spectra. The large blue shift implies a stronger polarization field in the LDs, which may affect the injection of holes. Additionally, the simulation results demonstrate that the LD with stepped UWG achieves higher hole injection efficiency by modulating the valence band, and the hole current density injected into the quantum wells reaches 6067 A/cm2.

5.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 190, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376642

RESUMO

The ancient tea plant, as a precious natural resource and source of tea plant genetic diversity, is of great value for studying the evolutionary mechanism, diversification, and domestication of plants. The overall genetic diversity among ancient tea plants and the genetic changes that occurred during natural selection remain poorly understood. Here, we report the genome resequencing of eight different groups consisting of 120 ancient tea plants: six groups from Guizhou Province and two groups from Yunnan Province. Based on the 8,082,370 identified high-quality SNPs, we constructed phylogenetic relationships, assessed population structure, and performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our phylogenetic analysis showed that the 120 ancient tea plants were mainly clustered into three groups and five single branches, which is consistent with the results of principal component analysis (PCA). Ancient tea plants were further divided into seven subpopulations based on genetic structure analysis. Moreover, it was found that the variation in ancient tea plants was not reduced by pressure from the external natural environment or artificial breeding (nonsynonymous/synonymous = 1.05). By integrating GWAS, selection signals, and gene function prediction, four candidate genes were significantly associated with three leaf traits, and two candidate genes were significantly associated with plant type. These candidate genes can be used for further functional characterization and genetic improvement of tea plants.

6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(6): 3242-3248, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121861

RESUMO

Tomato aphid (Myzus persicae) is a destructive insect pest of tomato responsible for huge losses in the production as well in the vegetable industry. In the present in vitro study two protein elicitors, PeaT1 and PeBL1 were considered to study their efficacies to exhibit defense response against tomato aphid. Three different concentrations of both protein elicitors were applied on the tomato seedlings. After the application of PeaT1 and PeBL1, population growth rates of tomato aphid were decreased as compared to the control treatment. In host preference assay, the tomato aphid showed a preference to build a colony on the control as compared to the treated tomato plant, because tomato leaves provided hazardous surface for aphid after the formation of wax and trichome. The concentrations of protein showed significant (p < 0.05) results in life-history traits of the aphid. Jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) showed significant accumulation in tomato seedlings treated with PeaT1 and PeBL1. Elicitors treated plants produced resistance against M. persicae. Our finding suggests that PeaT1 and PeBL1 have shown high potentials against the damage of M. persicae, and both elicitors could be used as novel biological tools against tomato aphid.

7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 272, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late blight seriously threatens potato cultivation worldwide. The severe and widespread damage caused by the fungal pathogen can lead to drastic decreases in potato yield. Although grafting technology has been widely used to improve crop resistance, the effects of grafting on potato late blight resistance as well as the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we performed RNA transcriptome sequencing analysis and the late blight resistance testing of the scion when the potato late blight-resistant variety Qingshu 9 and the susceptible variety Favorita were used as the rootstock and scion, respectively, and vice versa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rootstock on scion disease resistance and to clarify the related molecular mechanisms. RESULTS: A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the expression levels of genes related to plant-pathogen interactions, plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways were significantly up-regulated in the scion when Qingshu 9 was used as the rootstock. Some of these genes encoded calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), chitin elicitor receptor kinases (CERKs), LRR receptor serine/threonine protein kinases (LRR-LRKs), NPR family proteins in the salicylic acid synthesis pathway, and MAPKs which were potato late blight response proteins. When Favorita was used as the rootstock, only a few genes of late blight response genes were upregulated in the scion of Qingshu 9. Grafted plants using resistant variety as rootstocks inoculated with P. infestans spores showed significant reductions in lesion size while no significant difference in lesion size was observed when susceptible variety was used as the rootstock. We also showed that this induction of disease resistance in scions, especially scions derived from susceptible potato varieties was mediated by the up-regulation of expression of genes involved in plant disease resistance in scions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that potato grafting using late blight resistant varieties as rootstocks could render or enhance resistance to late blight in scions derived from susceptible varieties via up-regulating the expression of disease resistant genes in scions. The results provide the basis for exploring the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of rootstocks on scion disease resistance.


Assuntos
Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Horticultura/métodos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
8.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(7): 906-920, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129383

RESUMO

Low temperature is an important factor that affects the growth and reproduction of tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze]. In this study, Yunwu Tribute Tea cutting seedlings [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze var. niaowangensis Q.H. Chen] were subjected to different low-temperature treatments in Guizhou Province, China, and the changes in physiological indicators of the leaves were measured to investigate the physiological response and cold tolerance of this variety. Under cold stress, the peak of antioxidant enzyme activity appeared on the third day of treatment at 1°C, indicating that Yunwu Tribute Tea could improve the resistance to cold stress through an increase in enzyme activity within a low-temperature range. However, after 3 days treatment at 1°C, the tolerance of plant had been exceeded; the ability to resist cold stress disappeared, and enzyme activity decreased. When the temperature or duration of stress exceeded the maximum tolerance of the plant, the synthesis of soluble substances decreased in concert with their protective effects. Under cold conditions, Yunwu Tribute Tea could increase the production of abscisic acid growth inhibitors and reduce those of indoleacetic acid, gibberellin, and other growth promoting substances to manage cold stress by regulating the balance of growth regulators in the plant. Five differential genes were screened as candidate genes from the Yunwu Tribute Tea cold stress transcriptome (DW, 1°C) for fluorescence quantitative analysis. The results showed that the changes in levels of expression of these genes under continuous cold stress significantly positively correlated with the corresponding physiological indicators. Nevertheless, the levels of expression of the Yunwu Tribute Tea polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene and the gibberellin 3ß-dioxygenase gene (G3O2) were reversely inhibited under cold stress. The result was consistent with the corresponding physiological indicators, and it provides a basis for the study of cold resistance mechanisms in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , China , Temperatura Baixa , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Chá/metabolismo , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(4): 1324-1333, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973445

RESUMO

Photoperiod plays an important role in transformation from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in plants. CONSTANS (CO), as a unique gene in the photoperiod pathway, responds to changes of day length to initiate flowering in the plant. In this study, the expression level of FaCONSTANS (FaCO) gene under long-day, short-day, continuous light and continuous darkness conditions was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. We constructed the over-expression vector p1300-FaCO and infected into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. We constructed the silencing vector p1300-FaCO-RNAi and infected into Festuca arundinacea by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The expression of FaCO gene was regulated by photoperiod. The over-expression of FaCO promoted flowering in wild type of Arabidopsis thaliana under long day condition and rescued the late flowering phenotype in co-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Silencing FaCO gene in Festuca arundinacea by RNAi showed late-flowering phenotype or always kept in the vegetative growth stage. Our understanding the function of FaCO in flowering regulation will help further understand biological function of this gene in Festuca arundinacea.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Festuca , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Festuca/genética , Festuca/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fotoperíodo
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(4): 2312, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940859

RESUMO

Acoustic holographic techniques are crucial in diverse applications, such as three-dimensional holographic display and particle manipulation. However, conventional methods for computer-generated acoustics holography rely heavily on iterative optimization algorithms, which are time-consuming and particularly hinder their capacity of generating a dynamic hologram in real time. Here, a deep learning approach based on U-Net is proposed to rapidly generate an acoustic hologram with optimal amplitude and phase maps. It is demonstrated that, after being trained with adequate data that are numerically synthesized by the pseudo-inverse method, the proposed deep learning approach can generate both amplitude and phase maps for new target images with an improved overall reconstruction quality. Remarkably, after the offline cost is compensated by a lower online cost for the proposed DL approach, the hologram generation speed is significantly accelerated by the proposed deep learning approach as compared with the pseudo-inverse method, especially for complicated or dynamic images. With the hierarchical feature learning capability and the fast online computational speed, the proposed deep learning approach can serve as a smart platform for rapidly generating complete maps of holograms for the sophisticated or dynamical target images, leading to the new possibility of real-time acoustic-hologram-based applications.

11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923643

RESUMO

An increase of integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity has been observed in a GaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs) sample. The integrated intensity of TDPL spectra forms an anomalous variation: it decreases from 30 to 100 K, then increases abnormally from 100 to 140 K and decreases again when temperature is beyond 140 K. The increased intensity is attributed to the electrons and holes whose distribution are spatial non-equilibrium distributed participated in the radiative recombination process and the quantum barrier layers are demonstrated to be the source of non-equilibrium distributed carriers. The temperature dependence of this kind of spatial non-equilibrium carriers' dynamics is very different from that of equilibrium carriers, resulting in the increased emission efficiency which only occurs from 100 to 140 K. Moreover, the luminescence efficiency of MQWs with non-equilibrium carriers is much higher than that without non-equilibrium carriers, indicating the high luminescence efficiency of GaN-based LEDs may be caused by the non-equilibrium distributed carriers. Furthermore, a comparison analysis of MQWs sample with and without hydrogen treatment further demonstrates that the better quantum well is one of the key factors of this anomalous phenomenon.

12.
Opt Express ; 29(3): 3685-3693, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770963

RESUMO

Yellow Luminescence (YL) band and blue luminescence (BL) band in a studied unintentionally doped GaN sample show a transient behaviour where the observed luminescence intensities change with the exposure time of the sample under 325 nm laser beam excitation at 10-300 K. Such an intensity variation is accompanied with a red-shift for YL peak at 10-140 K and one for BL peak at 140 K. We propose that such behaviours are related to the chemical transformations of YL-related CN and CNON defects, and BL-related CN-Hi and CNON-Hi defects during the exposure.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146197, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744586

RESUMO

With increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, research has focused on identifying functional genes within plants that can help ensure food security and soil governance. In particular, plants seem to have been able to evolve specific functional genes to respond to environmental changes by losing partial gene functions, thereby representing a novel adaptation mechanism. Herein, a new category of functional genes was identified and investigated, providing new directions for understanding heavy metal detoxification mechanisms. Interestingly, this category of proteins appears to exhibit specific complexing functions for heavy metals. Further, a new approach was established to evaluate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions using microRNA targeted inhibition. Moreover, mutant and functional genes were identified for future research targets. Expression profiling under five heavy metal stress treatments provided an important framework to further study defense responses of plants to metal exposure. In conclusion, the new insights identified here provide a theoretical basis and reference to better understand the mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in potato plants. Further, these new data provide additional directions and foundations for mining gene resources for heavy metal tolerance genes to improve safe, green crop production and plant treatment of heavy metal soil pollution.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Solanum tuberosum , Segurança Alimentar , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111034, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388597

RESUMO

Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is associated with autophagy, which plays an important role in its pathogenicity. However, its exact pathophysiological role in the process of lung tissue cell autophagy remains unclear. In this study, animal and cell infection models were established by wild A. baumannii strain and An OmpA knockout mutant (OmpA-/- A. baumannii) strain. The expression levels of markers autophagy, histological change, cell viability and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines were examined. OmpA-/-A. baumannii was successfully constructed. The capacities of bacterial adhesion and invasion to host cells increased more obviously in the AB group and the AB + Rapa group than in the OmpA-/- AB group and AB + CQ group. The AB group and AB + Rapa group could produce double membrane vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum dilation, mitochondrial ridge rupture, and mitochondrial vacuoles. OmpA could lead to increased LC3, AMPK, and PAMPK protein release, and decreased levels of P62, mTOR and pmTOR proteins in vivo and in vitro. OmpA caused lung pathology and the release of inflammatory cytokines. A. baumannii OmpA promotes autophagy in lung cells through the mTOR signalling pathway, which increases the bacterial colonization ability in the double-layer membrane autophagosome formed by the autophagy reaction to escape the clearance of bacteria by the host, promote the release of inflammatory mediators and aggravate the damage to the host.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolismo , Autofagia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Infecções por Acinetobacter/enzimologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/patologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Pneumonia Bacteriana/enzimologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 71: 105356, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049423

RESUMO

Cavitation in thin layer of liquid metal has potential applications in chemical reaction, soldering, extraction, and therapeutic equipment. In this work, the cavitation characteristics and acoustic pressure of a thin liquid Ga-In alloy were studied by high speed photography, numerical simulation, and bubble dynamics calculation. A self-made ultrasonic system with a TC4 sonotrode, was operated at a frequency of 20 kHz and a max output power of 1000 W during the cavitation recording experiment. The pressure field characteristic inside the thin liquid layer and its influence on the intensity, types, dimensions, and life cycles of cavitation bubbles and on the cavitation evolution process against experimental parameters were systematically studied. The results showed that acoustic pressure inside the thin liquid layer presented alternating positive and negative characteristics within 1 acoustic period (T). Cavitation bubbles nucleated and grew during the negative-pressure stage and shrank and collapsed during the positive-pressure stage. A high bubble growth speed of 16.8 m/s was obtained and evidenced by bubble dynamics calculation. The maximum absolute pressure was obtained at the bottom of the thin liquid layer and resulted in the strongest cavitation. Cavitation was divided into violent and weak stages. The violent cavitation stage lasted several hundreds of acoustic periods and had higher bubble intensity than the weak cavitation stage. Cavitation cloud preferentially appeared during the violent cavitation stage and had a life of several acoustic periods. Tiny cavitation bubbles with life cycles shorter than 1 T dominated the cavitation field. High cavitation intensities were observed at high ultrasonication power and when Q235B alloy was used because such conditions lead to high amplitudes on the substrate and further high acoustic pressure inside the liquid.

16.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 68(2): 381-389, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353164

RESUMO

Tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC, EC 4.1.1.28) catalyzes tryptophan decarboxylation to form tryptamine through the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), a crucial stage in the production of the terpenoid indole alkaloids like camptothecin (CPT). A new gene encoding TDC was identified from the CPT-producing plant Ophiorrhiza pumila by transcriptome analysis, termed OpTDC2. It contained a 1,536 bp open reading frame that encodes a 511 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 57.01 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.39. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed the closest similarity (85%) with the TDC from Mitragyna speciosa. Moreover, the highest expression of OpTDC2 was observed in the O. pumila root. To achieve high-efficiency expression of OpTDC2 in Escherichia coli, we fused the TF tag onto the N-terminal of the OpTDC2. Optimum enzymatic activity was observed at 45 °C, pH 8 and cofactor concentration of 0.1 mM. The catalytic reaction was strongly inhibited by metal ions of Cu2+ , Zn2+ , and Fe2+ . The l-tryptophan was particularly catalyzed compared with d-tryptophan. Besides, the Km and kcat of the OpTDC2 were 1.08 mM and 0.78 Sec-1 , respectively. The results provided information on new functional OpTDC2 that might be used in synthetic biology for the enhanced biosynthesis of CPT in O. pumila.


Assuntos
Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático , Clonagem Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Rubiaceae , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/química , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rubiaceae/enzimologia , Rubiaceae/genética
17.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 15(1): 191, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001341

RESUMO

Three InGaN/GaN MQWs samples with varying GaN cap layer thickness were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to investigate the optical properties. We found that a thicker cap layer is more effective in preventing the evaporation of the In composition in the InGaN quantum well layer. Furthermore, the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) is enhanced with increasing the thickness of GaN cap layer. In addition, compared with the electroluminescence measurement results, we focus on the difference of localization states and defects in three samples induced by various cap thickness to explain the anomalies in room temperature photoluminescence measurements. We found that too thin GaN cap layer will exacerbates the inhomogeneity of localization states in InGaN QW layer, and too thick GaN cap layer will generate more defects in GaN cap layer.

18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(11)2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126505

RESUMO

Plants have evolved a number of defense and adaptation responses to protect themselves against challenging environmental stresses. Genes containing a heavy metal associated (HMA) domain are required for the spatiotemporal transportation of metal ions that bind with various enzymes and co-factors within the cell. To uncover the underlying mechanisms mediated by StHMA genes, we identified 36 gene members in the StHMA family and divided them into six subfamilies by phylogenetic analysis. The StHMAs had high collinearity and were segmentally duplicated. Structurally, most StHMAs had one HMA domain, StHIPPc and StRNA1 subfamilies had two, and 13 StHMAs may be genetically variable. The StHMA gene structures and motifs varied considerably among the various classifications, this suggests the StHMA family is diverse in genetic functions. The promoter analysis showed that the StHMAs had six main cis-acting elements with abiotic stress. An expression pattern analysis revealed that the StHMAs were expressed tissue specifically, and a variety of abiotic stresses may induce the expression of StHMA family genes. The HMA transporter family may be regulated and expressed by a series of complex signal networks under abiotic stress. The results of this study may help to establish a theoretical foundation for further research investigating the functions of HMA genes in S. tuberosum to elucidate their regulatory role in the mechanism governing the response of plants to abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
19.
Front Chem ; 8: 413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582626

RESUMO

Supercapacitors (SCs) have attracted widespread attention due to their short charging/discharging time, long cycle life, and good temperature characteristics. Electrolytes have been considered as a key factor affecting the performance of SCs. They largely determine the energy density based on their decomposition voltage and the power density from their ionic conductivity. In recent years, redox electrolytes obtained a growing interest due to an additional redox activity from electrolytes, which offers an increased charge storage capacity in SCs. This article summarizes the latest progress in the research of redox electrolytes, and focuses on their properties, mechanisms, and applications based on different solvent types available. It also proposes potential solutions for how to effectively increase the energy density of the SCs while maintaining their high power and long life.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(14): 5728-5733, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598149

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as promising thermoelectric materials due to their attractive figure of merits. To further reduce their thermal conductances (G) and improve the thermoelectric efficiencies, fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) could be an effective approach. In this work, CH3NH3PbI3-based PnCs were developed and their thermal transports were engineered by optimizing the configurations of both basal bodies and scatterers. Our cross-scale simulations demonstrate that low relative G can be achieved in CH3NH3PbI3 PnCs with large scatterers but low-symmetric PnC lattices, basal bodies, and scatterers. Moreover, we discovered the increased disorder of CH3NH3+ cations from tetragonal to cubic transition significantly increases the phonon velocities and reverses the phonon transport from diffusive to quasi-ballistic, leading to an abnormal reduction of relative G. This work provides a new pathway for engineering thermal conductivity of hybrid perovskites and improving the performance of corresponding devices.

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