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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135899, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864167

RESUMO

Precipitation is known to have legacy effects on plant diversity and production of many terrestrial ecosystems. Precipitation regimes are expected to become more variable with increasing extreme precipitation events. However, how previous-year precipitation regimes affect the current-year aboveground biomass (AGB) remains largely unknown. Here we measured long-term (2004-2017) AGB in a semi-arid grassland of the Chinese Loess Plateau to evaluate the impact of previous-year precipitation amount on current-year AGB. Furthermore, to assess the response of current-year AGB to previous-year precipitation regimes, we conducted a field manipulation experiment that included three precipitation regimes during 2014-2017: (i) ambient precipitation, (ii) monthly added four 5 mm rain events, and (iii) monthly added one 20 mm event. Both the long-term (2004-2017) observations under ambient precipitation and short-term (2014-2017) measurements under manipulative treatments showed significant positive effects of previous-year precipitation on current-year AGB. Our path analysis suggested that previous-year precipitation frequency had negative effects on the current-year density and mean height of grass (Leymus secalinus) while had positive effects on forb (Artemisia capillaris). The forb had much smaller height and AGB (65% and 53% less, respectively) than the grass. Consequently, the AGB reduced in the weekly small events treatment, causing the sensitivity of AGB to precipitation to decrease. Therefore, our findings indicated that the impacts of precipitation regimes on plant community dynamics should be taken into consideration while assessing the precipitation legacy effect on ecosystem production.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Pradaria , Poaceae , Chuva
2.
Gene ; 629: 43-51, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754636

RESUMO

2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein (OASL) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that exerts antiviral effects through the RNase L- or retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-dependent signalling pathway. In this study, we identified and cloned the OASL gene (named duOASL) from healthy adult Cherry Valley ducks. Full-length duOASL cDNA (1630bp) encoded a 504-amino acid polypeptide containing three conserved domains, namely, nucleotidyltransferase domain, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase domain, and two ubiquitin-like repeats. DuOASL mRNA expression was quantified by performing quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results of qRT-PCR showed that duOASL was broadly expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest mRNA expression in the large intestine. Antiviral activity of duOASL was measured by determining its effect on Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) replication in vitro. We found that duOASL overexpression slightly inhibited DTMUV replication, whereas duOASL knockdown by using a specific small interfering RNA increased DTMUV replication in DF-1 cells. Thus, we successfully cloned and characterized the antiviral protein duOASL from Cherry Valley ducks and found that it exerted antiviral effects against DTMUV. These results provide a solid foundation for performing further studies to determine the mechanism underlying the antiviral effect of duOASL at the cellular level.


Assuntos
2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Patos/genética , Flavivirus/imunologia , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/análise , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/química , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/análise , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/imunologia , Flavivirus/classificação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
Avian Dis ; 60(1 Suppl): 118-25, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309047

RESUMO

Since the first H7N9 human case in Shanghai, February 19, 2013, the emerging avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus has become an epizootic virus in China, posing a potential pandemic threat to public health. From April 2 to April 28, 2013, some 422 oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from birds and environmental surfaces at five live poultry markets (LPMs) and 13 backyard poultry farms (BPFs) across three cities, Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nanjing, in the Yangtze Delta region. In total 22 isolates were recovered, and six were subtyped as H7N9, nine as H9N2, four as H7N9/H9N2, and three unsubtyped influenza A viruses. Genomic sequences showed that the HA and NA genes of the H7N9 viruses were similar to those of the H7N9 human isolates, as well as other avian-origin H7N9 isolates in the region, but the PB1, PA, NP, and MP genes of the sequenced viruses were more diverse. Among the four H7N9/H9N2 mixed infections, three were from LPM, whereas the other one was from the ducks at one BPF, which were H7N9 negative in serologic analyses. A survey of the bird trading records of the LPMs and BPFs indicates that trading was a likely route for virus transmission across these regions. Our results suggested that better biosecurity and more effective vaccination should be implemented in backyard farms, in addition to biosecurity management in LPMs.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Patos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
4.
Virol Sin ; 25(2): 130-6, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20960310

RESUMO

An exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain SDAU09C1 was isolated in DF-1 cells from one of 240 imported 1-day-old white meat-type grand parent breeder chicks. Inoculation of SDAU09C1 in ALV-free chickens induced antibody reactions specific to subgroup A or B. But gp85 amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that SDAU09C1 fell into subgroup A; it had homology of 88.8%-90.3% to 6 reference strains of subgroup A, much higher compared to other subgroups including subgroup B. This is the first report for ALV of subgroup A isolated from imported breeders.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária/isolamento & purificação , Leucose Aviária/diagnóstico , Galinhas/virologia , Animais , Leucose Aviária/virologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/classificação , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/genética , Linhagem Celular , Genótipo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
5.
Bing Du Xue Bao ; 26(1): 53-7, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20329559

RESUMO

By inoculation of blood samples in DF-1 (C/E) cell culture, an exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain SDAU09C2 was isolated from a breeder farm of Chinese native breed "Luhua" in Shandong province. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence of env gene gp85 from the isolate with those from other ALV reference strains of different subgroups indicated that SDAU09C2 had the highest gp85 identity to two reference strains of subgroup B of 92.5%. Its gp85 identity to other chicken ALV subgroups A, C, D, E was in the range of 73.2%-87.9%. The identity to subgroup J was only 30.3%-32.4%. This is the first report on isolation and identification of ALV-B and its gp85 from Chinese native breed chickens.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária/isolamento & purificação , Leucose Aviária/virologia , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/química , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/classificação , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/genética , Cruzamento , Feminino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
6.
Protein Pept Lett ; 13(6): 565-70, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16842110

RESUMO

Chemical probing of histidine residues using specific modifiers, iodoacetic acid (IAA) and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEP) resulted in the inactivation of phytase (phy A). The kinetic theory of the substrate reaction during the modification of enzyme activity was applied to a study of the kinetics of the course of inactivation of phytase by IAA and DEP. The results suggested that histidine residues are involved in the active site of the enzyme. They also indicated that inactivation of the enzyme by IAA was via a complexing type inhibition, while the inhibition by DEP reaction involved a conformational change step before inactivation. The dissociation constant of the enzyme-inhibitor complex of IAA, the constant of the conformational change of DEP and the microscopic rate constants of two inhibitors were obtained.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/química , 6-Fitase/metabolismo , Dietil Pirocarbonato/química , Histidina/metabolismo , Ácido Iodoacético/química , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Dietil Pirocarbonato/farmacologia , Histidina/química , Ácido Iodoacético/farmacologia , Cinética , Desnaturação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos
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