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1.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619329

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are under threat of toxic metal/metalloid contamination from anthropogenic activities, leading to excessive accumulation of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in food crops that poses significant risks to human health. Understanding how these toxic metals and their methylated species are taken up, translocated and detoxified is prerequisite to developing strategies to limit their accumulation for safer food. Toxic metals are taken up and transported across different cellular compartments and plant tissues via transporters for essential or beneficial nutrients, e.g. As by phosphate and silicon transporters, and Cd by manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) transporters. These transport processes are subjected to interactions with nutrients and regulations at the transcription and post-translation levels. Complexation with thiol-rich compounds such as phytochelatins and sequestration in the vacuoles are the common mechanisms for detoxification and for limiting their translocation. A number of genes involved in toxic metal uptake, transport and detoxification have been identified, offering targets for manipulations via gene editing or transgenic technologies. Natural variations in toxic metal accumulation exist within crop germplasm, and some of the quantitative trait loci underlying these variations have been cloned, paving the way for marker-assisted breeding of low metal accumulation crops. Using plants to extract and remove toxic metals from soil is also possible, but this phytoremediation approach requires metal hyperaccumulation for efficiency. Knowledge gaps and future research needs are also discussed.

2.
Front Oncol ; 11: 643503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595103

RESUMO

Purpose: With the development and application of targeted therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have achieved remarkable survival benefits in recent years. However, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type and low expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) NSCLCs remain unmanageable. Few treatments for these patients exist, and more side effects with combination therapies have been observed. We intended to generate a metabolic gene signature that could successfully identify high-risk patients and reveal its underlying molecular immunology characteristics. Methods: By identifying the bottom 50% PD-L1 expression level as PD-L1 low expression and removing EGFR mutant samples, a total of 640 lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) tumor samples and 93 adjacent non-tumor samples were finally extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We identified differentially expressed metabolic genes (DEMGs) by R package limma and the prognostic genes by Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. The intersect genes between DEMGs and prognostic genes were put into the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) penalty Cox regression analysis. The metabolic gene signature contained 18 metabolic genes generated and successfully stratified LUAD and LUSC patients into the high-risk and low-risk groups, which was also validated by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Its accuracy was proved by the time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and nomogram. Furthermore, the Single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) and diverse acknowledged methods include XCELL, TIMER, QUANTISEQ, MCPcounter, EPIC, CIBERSORT-ABS, and CIBERSORT revealed its underlying antitumor immunosuppressive status. Besides, its relationship with somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) was also discussed. Results: It is noteworthy that metabolism reprogramming is associated with the survival of the double-negative LUAD and LUSC patients. The SCNAs and TMB of critical metabolic genes can inhibit the antitumor immune process, which might be a promising therapeutic target.

4.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(5): 364-371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623961

RESUMO

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Do Not Crush List is a common resource for healthcare providers to determine whether an oral solid drug product can be manipulated. However, evidence is weak or missing for a number of immediate-release products. The purpose of this study was to perform an in-depth analysis of these products on the ISMP Do Not Crush List with the goal of removing unnecessary restrictions and providing conditional recommendations if needed. The ISMP Do Not Crush List was reviewed, and the products in question were identified if they were listed with "no reason" provided or "film-coated" as the only reason. A checklist of evaluation criteria was then developed and used for analysis, including special dosage form design, hazardous drug status, and stability and pharmacokinetics concerns. Appropriate references and search strategies were streamlined to perform the evaluation, and manufacturers were also contacted with a standard drug-information inquiry. A total of 20 "film-coated" tablets and 17 "no reason" drug products were identified and evaluated using the above process. The analysis revealed that 9 products are special formulations or high-risk products which indeed should not be crushed. Most of the remaining 28 products presented no risk or a low risk for crushing. Some products may require safety precautions during handling or timely administration of crushed powder to patients with increased monitoring for efficacy and safety. Two summary tables along with the conditional recommendations are provided for pharmacists and other healthcare providers to aid in clinical decision making. A checklist of evaluation criteria was developed and used to perform an in-depth analysis of 37 immediate-release products on the ISMP Do Not Crush List. A significant number of these products were found to be suitable for crushing based on conditional recommendations. Furthermore, the checklist and evaluation strategy present a framework for healthcare providers to assess crushability of any future immediate release oral solid drug products when there are no suitable alternatives.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Humanos , Comprimidos
5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(5): 1582-1588, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627444

RESUMO

AbstractObjective: To analyze the liver injury and coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19 severe/critical type patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 53 COVID-19 patients were collected from a single center in Wuhan from February 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. The patients were divided into severe type group (38 patients) and critical type group (15 patients). The clinical characteristics, indexes of liver function, coagulation function and inflammatory markers were analyzed retrospectively. According to the degree of abnormal liver function in the process of diagnosis and treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: combined liver injury, mild abnormal liver function and normal liver function group. Statistical analysis was performed by using Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square test. RESULTS: Among the 53 patients, 29 were male (54.7%) and 24 were female (45.3%), the median age was 57(27-80) years old. The time from onset to admission was (11.5±7.7) days. The levels of AST, TBIL, DBIL, ALP, GGT, LDH, D-dimer, PCT and hsCRP in critical patients were higher than those in severe patients (P<0.05). The levels of Alb in critical patients was lower than those in severe patients (P<0.05). Among the 53 patients, 34 (64%) patients showed abnormal elevation of ALT, AST or TBIL, while 4 (7.5%) patients showed the criteria of COVID-19 with liver injury. After the patients were grouping according to the degree of liver dysfunction, the levels of ALP, GGT and D-dimer of the patients in the liver injury group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, D-dimer levels of the patients in the liver injury group was significantly higher than those in the mild abnormal liver function group, while the levels of ALP and GGT in the mild abnormal liver function group were significantly higher than those in the normal liver function group, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this group, the patients with COVID-19 severe/critical type have a certain proportion of liver injury accompanied by significantly increased D-dimer levels, critical type patients have more severe liver function and coagulation dysfunction, which may promote the progression of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 517, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying important factors contributing to depression is necessary for interrupting risk pathways to minimize adolescent depression. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression in high school students and develop a model for identifying risk of depression among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 1190 adolescents from two high schools in eastern China participated in the study. Artificial neurol network (ANN) was used to establish the identification model. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 29.9% among the students. The model showed the top five protective and risk factors including perceived stress, life events, optimism, self-compassion and resilience. ANN model accuracy was 81.06%, with sensitivity 65.3%, specificity 88.4%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves 0.846 in testing dataset. CONCLUSION: The ANN showed the good performance in identifying risk of depression. Promoting the protective factors and reducing the level of risk factors facilitate preventing and relieving depression.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6957900, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603600

RESUMO

Macrophage polarization in response to environmental cues has emerged as an important event in the development of atherosclerosis. Compelling evidences suggest that P21-activated kinases 1 (PAK1) is involved in a wide variety of diseases. However, the potential role and mechanism of PAK1 in regulation of macrophage polarization remains to be elucidated. Here, we observed that PAK1 showed a dramatically increased expression in M1 macrophages but decreased expression in M2 macrophages by using a well-established in vitro model to study heterogeneity of macrophage polarization. Adenovirus-mediated loss-of-function approach demonstrated that PAK1 silencing induced an M2 macrophage phenotype-associated gene profiles but repressed the phenotypic markers related to M1 macrophage polarization. Additionally, dramatically decreased foam cell formation was found in PAK1 silencing-induced M2 macrophage activation which was accompanied with alternation of marker account for cholesterol efflux or influx from macrophage foam cells. Moderate results in lipid metabolism and foam cell formation were found in M1 macrophage activation mediated by AdshPAK1. Importantly, we presented mechanistic evidence that PAK1 knockdown promoted the expression of PPARγ, and the effect of macrophage activation regulated by PAK1 silencing was largely reversed when a PPARγ antagonist was utilized. Collectively, these findings reveal that PAK1 is an independent effector of macrophage polarization at least partially attributed to regulation of PPARγ expression, which suggested PAK1-PPARγ axis as a novel therapeutic strategy in atherosclerosis management.

8.
Environ Pollut ; : 118391, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678394

RESUMO

To investigate tissue distribution, spatial difference, temperature variation, and potential health risks of PAEs in vegetables, celery was used as a model plant. Celery samples were collected from open fields and greenhouses from two provinces in China over four seasons. Celery tissues were analyzed for 16 PAE compounds by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total content of PAEs was 89.0-1130.3 µg kg-1 dry weight (dw) in stems and 155.0-2730.8 µg kg-1 dw in leaves. Concentrations of PAEs in celeries showed notable spatial differences (P < 0.05), and the levels in samples from open fields were lower than those in samples from plastic greenhouses. In celeries from greenhouses, higher PAE concentrations were observed for plants grown at high temperatures than in plants grown at low temperatures. Discrepancies in tissue distribution indicated different uptake pathways of PAE contaminants. Risk assessments to humans found that both carcinogenic risks and non-carcinogenic risks of PAEs via celery consumption were at an acceptable level. Further research should consider other exposure pathways of PAEs and pay special attention to reducing PAE contents in vegetables.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(38): 15616-15623, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469132

RESUMO

Synthesis and implementation of highly active, stable, and affordable electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major challenge in developing energy efficient and economically viable energy conversion devices such as electrolyzers, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and regenerative fuel cells. The current benchmark electrocatalyst for OER is based on iridium oxide (IrOx) due to its superior performance and excellent stability. However, large scale applications using IrOx are impractical due to its low abundance and high cost. Herein, we report a highly active hafnium-modified iridium oxide (IrHfxOy) electrocatalyst for OER. The IrHfxOy electrocatalyst demonstrated ten times higher activity in alkaline conditions (pH = 11) and four times higher activity in acid conditions (pH = 1) than a IrOx electrocatalyst. The highest intrinsic mass activity of the IrHfxOy catalyst in acid conditions was calculated as 6950 A gIrOx-1 at an overpotential (η) of 0.3 V. Combined studies utilizing operando surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and DFT calculations revealed that the active sites for OER are the Ir-O species for both IrOx and IrHfxOy catalysts. The presence of Hf sites leads to more negative charge states on nearby O sites, shortening of the bond lengths of Ir-O, and lowers free energies for OER intermediates that accelerate the OER process.

12.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 78: 105745, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520961

RESUMO

The removal of the adsorbed oil droplet is critical to deoiling treatment of oil-bearing solid waste. Ultrasonic cavitation is regarded as an extremely useful method to assist the oil droplets desorption in the deoiling treatment. In this paper, the effects of cavitation micro-jets on the oil droplets desorption were studied. The adsorbed states of oil droplets in the oil-contaminated sand were investigated using a microscope. Three representative absorbed states of the oil droplets can be summarized as: (1) the individual oil droplet adsorbed on the particle surface (2) the clustered oil droplets adsorbed on the particle surface; (3) the oil droplet adsorbed in a gap between particles. The micro-jet generation during the bubble collapse near a rigid wall under different acoustic pressure amplitudes at an ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz was investigated numerically. The desorption processes of the oil droplets at the three representative absorbed states under micro-jets were also simulated subsequently. The results showed that the acoustic pressure has a great influence on the velocity of micro-jet, and the initial diameter of cavitation bubbles is significant for the cross-sectional area of micro-jets. The wall jet caused by a micro-jet impacting on the solid wall is the most important factor for the removal of the absorbed oil droplets. The oil droplet is broken by the jet impinging, and then it breaks away from the solid wall due to the shear force generated by the wall jet. In addition to a higher sound pressure, the cavitation bubble at a larger initial diameter is more important for the desorption of the clustered oil droplets. Conversely, the micro-jet generated by the cavitation bubble at a smaller initial diameter (0.1 mm) is more appropriate for the desorption of the oil droplet in a narrow or sharp-angled gap.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700603, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566959

RESUMO

Increasing studies show that gut microbiota play a central role in immunity, although the impact of the microbiota on mediation of thymic T cells throughout life is not well understood. Chickens have been shown to be a valuable model for studying basic immunology. Here, we show that changes in the gut microbiota are associated with the development of thymic T cells in young chickens. Our results showed that T-cell numbers in newborn chicks sharply increased from day 0 and peaked at day 49. Interestingly, the α-diversity score pattern of change in gut microbiota also increased after day 0 and continued to increase until day 49. We found that early antibiotic treatment resulted in a dramatic reduction in gut alpha diversity: principal component analysis (PCA) showed that antibiotic treatment resulted in a different cluster from the controls on days 9 and 49. In the antibiotic-treated chickens, we identified eight significantly different (p < 0.05) microbes at the phylum level and 14 significantly different (p < 0.05) microbes at the genus level, compared with the controls. Importantly, we found that antibiotic treatment led to a decreased percentage and number of T cells in the thymus when measured at days 9 and 49, as evaluated by flow cytometry. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal microbiota may be involved in the regulation of T cells in birds, presenting the possibility that interventions that actively modify the gut microbiota in early life may accelerate the maturation of humoral immunity, with resulting anti-inflammatory effects against different pathogens.

15.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 684-9, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of transcutaneous electric acupoints stimulation (TEAS) on vascular endothelial function and inflammatory factors after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients. METHODS: A total of 94 patients with coronary heart disease and undergoing PCI were randomized into a TEAS group and a sham-TEAS group, 47 cases in each one. In the TEAS group, TEAS started at unilateral Neiguan (PC6) and Ximen (PC4) 30 min before PCI till the end of PCI. In the sham-TEAS group, the procedure and persistent time were same as the TEAS group, but no electric stimulation was performed. Before treatment and at 8 h and 24 h after PCI, the levels of serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), nitric oxide (NO), blood flow dependent diastolic function (FMD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inteleukin-10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were detected in the patients successively. RESULTS: Compared with the levels before PCI, the levels of ET-1 and vWF were all increased at 8 h and 24 h after PCI in the two groups (P<0.05) and the levels in the TEAS group were remarkably lower than those in the sham-TEAS group (P<0.05). Compared with the levels before PCI, the levels of NO and FMD at 8 h and 24 h after PCI were all reduced in the two groups (P<0.05) and the levels in the TEAS group were higher obviously than those in the sham-TEAS group (P<0.05). Compared with the levels before PCI, the levels of hs-CRP, MMP-9, IL-6 and IL-10 were all increased at 8 h and 24 h after PCI in the two groups (P<0.05); Compared with the sham-TEAS group, the levels of hs-CRP, MMP-9 and IL-6 were reduced and the level of IL-10 was increased at 8 h and 24 h after PCI in the TEAS group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: TEAS effectively improves the vascular endothelial function and reduces serum inflammatory factors after PCI.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Pontos de Acupuntura , Proteína C-Reativa , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos
16.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 695-9, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect on the core symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated with acupuncture at "ghost points", combined with the acupoints selected by syndrome differentiation. METHODS: A total of 124 ASD children were divided into a control group and a treatment group according to random number table, 62 cases in each group. In the control group, the routine rehabilitation treatment was provided in all of children, while in the treatment group, acupuncture was exerted at "ghost points", combined with the acupoints selected by syndrome differentiation. Acupuncture treatment was conducted for 15 min each time, 5 days weekly, for 3 months totally. Before and after treatment, the children were assessed with autism spectrum rating scale (ASRS) in two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the total score (T-score) of ASRS and the score of each sub-scale, e.g. peer socialization, adult socialization, social/emotional reciprocity, atypical language, stereotypy, repetitive behavior, sensory sensitivity, attention/self-regulation were all reduced remarkably as compared with those before treatment in intra-group comparison (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the scores aforementioned were all significantly reduced in the treatment group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture at "ghost poitns" combined with the acupoints selected by syndrome differentiation effectively relieves the core symptoms of ASD in children and improves the holistic therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Pontos de Acupuntura , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(9): 2451-2469, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate insulin injection knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nurses across China in order to provide reference for the formulation of a national unified standard of insulin injection practice and the targeted implementation of standardized training on insulin injection for nurses. METHODS: We enrolled nurses who worked and injected insulin at grassroot hospitals including community health service centers and township clinics, secondary and tertiary care hospitals across China between July 28, 2019 and August 30, 2019. A nurse insulin injection knowledge, attitude, and practice questionnaire was used to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice level of nurses. RESULTS: A total of 223,368 nurses were included in the study. The mean knowledge score was 13.70 ± 3.30 and 35.19% had a poor knowledge score. The mean attitude score was 17.18 ± 2.69 for the study nurses; merely 3.15% had a poor attitude score. The mean practice score of the study population was 83.03 ± 8.16 and only 0.88% had a poor practice score. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the knowledge score and the attitude score (r = 0.29; P < 0.001), the knowledge score and the practice score (r = 0.27; P < 0.001), and between the attitude score and the practice score (r = 0.56; P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed that nurses with higher knowledge scores were also more likely to have higher attitude scores and practice scores, and nurses with higher attitude scores were also more likely to have higher practice scores. CONCLUSION: Chinese nurses have a good attitude and behavior towards insulin injection, while their knowledge of insulin injection is insufficient. It is also revealed that knowledge of insulin injection can directly or indirectly affect insulin injection behavior through attitude, indicating that hospitals should formulate unified insulin injection norms and regularly organize relevant training and assessment so as to improve nurses' knowledge, attitude, and behavior of insulin injection.

18.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113455, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365185

RESUMO

Improper waste disposal and low rates of household waste diversion through material and organic waste recycling are a global concern. Understanding community perspectives on solid waste management services, outreach activities, and regulatory measures, and the barriers to sustainable practices, is crucial for designing effective waste management programmes. Longitudinal content analysis of archival data, such as newspapers, is a cost-effective, yet underutilised, research method to identify the viewpoints of diverse civic groups and examine the developments and challenges associated with the waste management sector. This paper investigates divergent stakeholders' perspectives and priorities using the Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) to examine the micro-system (intrapersonal and interpersonal), meso- and exo-system (community and institutional), and macro-system (policy level) factors that influence sustainable SWM practices. Using specific keywords, the authors searched online archives of a national newspaper in Fiji with a weekday circulation of over 20,000. Data from 482 newspaper articles, dated 2009-2020, were reviewed and dual-coded by two researchers using QDA Miner Lite. Findings indicate that poor waste management behaviour is linked to all factors within the Socio-Ecological system. While micro-level factors such as negligence, personal responsibility, lack of civic pride, and lack of awareness are causes of anti-environmental behaviour, structural factors such as inadequate waste collection services and recycling infrastructure contribute to low recycling rates. Civic education has been highlighted as a solution to encouraging pro-environmental behaviour (PEB), but there is a need to identify the type of educational tools and the frequency and impact of education workshops. This paper further discusses about the implications of community-based strategies and regulatory measures.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fiji , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
19.
Endocr Connect ; 10(9): 1055-1064, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348234

RESUMO

Mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MINEN) are rare tumors that consist of at least 30% of both neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine components. The data concerning the pathogenesis of MINEN suggest a monoclonal origin. We describe a spontaneously immortalized cell line derived from gastric MINEN called GNEN-1. Primary tumor consisted of components of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The GNEN-1 cell line was initiated from metastatic tumor cells of peritoneal fluid and expresses a purely neuroendocrine phenotype. The GNEN-1 cell line grows as monolayers and has retained the neuroendocrine phenotype with positivity for chromogranin A in immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic dense core granules and axon hillocks. The karyotype revealed alterations typical of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma such as trisomy 7 and 8. GNEN-1 cells were also positive for stanniocalcin-1, a marker of poor prognosis in gastric carcinomas. Expression of several markers related to neuroendocrine tumors was found. There have been only a few studies on the pathogenesis of MINEN and management of the disease due to the rarity of this tumor type. Here we describe for the first time an immortalized cell line derived from mixed gastric NEN. The GNEN-1 line offers a tool for future research on gastric NEN.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117918, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426194

RESUMO

Representing the staple crop for half of the world population, rice can accumulate high levels of cadmium (Cd) in its grain, posing concerns on food safety. Different soil amendments have been proposed to decrease Cd accumulation in rice grain by either decreasing soil Cd availability, introducing competitive ions on Cd uptake, or down-regulating the expression of transporters for Cd uptake. However, the effectiveness of soil amendments applied alone or in combinations needs to be tested under field conditions. Here, we present results of field trials with two rice cultivars differing in Cd accumulation grown at three field sites in southern China in two years, to investigate the effects of two Mn-containing soil amendments (MnO2, Mn-loaded biochar (MB)), Si fertilizer (Si), limestone, and K2SO4, as well as interactions among MnO2, Si, and limestone on decreasing Cd accumulation in rice grain. We found that single applications of MnO2 or MB to acidic soils low in Mn decreased grain Cd concentrations by 44-53 % or 78-82 %, respectively, over two years without decrease in performance. These effects were comparable to or greater than those induced by limestone liming alone (45-62 %). Strong interactions between MnO2 and limestone resulting from their influence on soil extractable Cd and Mn led to non-additive effects on lowering grain Cd. MB addition minimized grain Cd concentrations, primarily by increasing extractable and dissolved Mn concentrations, but also by decreasing Cd extractability in soil. In comparison, Si and K2SO4 amendments affected grain Cd levels only weakly. We conclude that the amendments that decrease labile Cd and increase labile Mn in soils are most effective at reducing Cd accumulation in rice grain, thus contributing to food safety.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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