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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159364, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228794

RESUMO

The coupling of microscale zero-valent iron with autotrophic hydrogen bacteria (mZVI-AHB) are often believed to show greater potential than the single abiotic or biotic systems in remediating chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater. However, our understanding of the remediation performance of this system under real field conditions, especially by incorporating the concept of sustainable remediation, remains limited. In this study, the performances of the mZVI, H2-AHB, and mZVI-AHB systems in dechlorinating groundwater containing complex electron acceptors were compared by evaluating their removal efficiency (RE), reaction products, and electron efficiency (EE), using trichloroethylene (TCE) as the target contaminant and NO3- and SO42- as the coexisting natural electron acceptors. Ultimately, which of these systems had TCE removal superiority was dependent on the coexisting electron acceptor. mZVI-AHB and mZVI resulted in more complete dechlorination, whereas H2-AHB exhibited higher N2 selectivity in reducing NO3-. Regardless of the coexisting electron acceptor, the mZVI-alone system showed the highest EE. Finally, the sustainability concerns and applicability of the three systems were evaluated on the basis of their TCE RE, complete dechlorination ratio, N2 selectivity, EE, and cost, which were integrated into a comparison of overall benefits. Our findings provide comprehensive and insightful information on the factors that determine remediation scheme selection in real practice.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Tricloroetileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Hidrogênio , Ferro , Tricloroetileno/análise , Bactérias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Carbon Balance Manag ; 17(1): 17, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CO2 released by humans and livestock through digestion and decomposition is an important part of the urban carbon cycle, but is rarely considered in studies of city carbon budgets since its annual magnitude is usually much lower than that of fossil fuel emissions within the boundaries of cities. However, human and livestock respiration may be substantial compared to fossil fuel emissions in areas with high population density such as Manhattan or Beijing. High-resolution datasets of CO2 released from respiration also have rarely been reported on a global scale or in cities globally. Here, we estimate the CO2 released by human and livestock respiration at global and city scales and then compare it with the carbon emissions inventory from fossil fuels in 14 cities worldwide. RESULTS: The results show that the total magnitude of human and livestock respiration emissions is 38.2% of the fossil fuel emissions in Sao Paulo, highest amongst the 14 cities considered here. The proportion is larger than 10% in cities of Delhi, Cape Town and Tokyo. In other cities, it is relatively small with a proportion around 5%. In addition, almost 90% of respiratory carbon comes from urban areas in most of the cities, while up to one-third comes from suburban areas in Beijing on account of the siginificant livestock production. CONCLUTION: The results suggest that the respiration of human and livestock represents a significant CO2 source in some cities and is nonnegligible for city carbon budget analysis and carbon monitoring.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366231

RESUMO

This paper presented a new kind of salinity and temperature dual-parameter sensor based on a fiber ring laser (FRL) with tapered side-hole fiber (SHF) embedded in a Sagnac interferometer. The sensing structure is majorly composed of tapered SHF located in the middle of SHF inside the Sagnac interferometer loop structure. The influences of the SHF's diameters of different tapered in the Sagnac interferometer loop on the FRL sensing system are studied. The presence of air holes in the SHF makes the cladding mode easier to excite, and the interaction between the cladding mode with its surroundings is enhanced, thus having higher salinity sensitivity. Besides, the unique advantages of high resolution, narrower linewidth, and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of fiber laser make the measurement results more accurate. In this experiment, the SHF with different taper diameters was made, and it was found that reducing the diameter of the taper waist diameter could further improve the salinity sensitivity. When the waist diameter was 9.70 µm, the maximum salinity sensitivity of 0.2867 nm/‱ was achieved. Temperature sensing experiments were also carried out. The maximum temperature sensitivity of the FRL sensing system was -0.3041 nm/°C at the temperature range from 20 to 30 °C. The sensor has the characteristics of easy manufacture, good selectivity, and high sensitivity, proving the feasibility of simultaneous measurement of seawater salinity and temperature.

4.
Food Policy ; 112: 102377, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338242

RESUMO

We investigated the operation of e-stores specializing in food and agricultural products before and after the occurrence of COVID-19. A difference-in-difference (DID) method was employed to estimate the relationship between COVID-19 and the online sales of agricultural products using data from 164,002 food and agricultural product e-commerce stores (in short, e-stores) of two major Chinese e-commerce platforms in 120 prefectural-level or above cities. The results demonstrated that while COVID-19 and its control measures were associated with a substantial growth in the monthly sales of food and agricultural product e-stores, the growth varies considerably across store scales and with the type of food and agricultural product in which an e-store is specialized. Micro stores experienced much larger growth and played a more important role in maintaining the resilience of the supply chain of food and agricultural products than larger-scale stores; stores selling more essential food items experienced larger growth than those selling leisure food items. A mechanism analysis further revealed that the growth of online sales of agricultural products was mainly driven by changes in consumers' food purchase behaviors from offline channels to online channels (i.e., an increase in the number of online customer orders and price per online order) starting with the onset of COVID-19. The results of this paper underscore the importance of e-commerce in maintaining the resilience of the agri-food supply chain and call for public support of the development of micro- and small-scale e-stores to meet consumers' increasing demand for food supply from those types of stores during the pandemic period.

5.
J Environ Manage ; 324: 116433, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352732

RESUMO

Ecological treatment technologies, applied to deal with polluted river water in the low temperature season, remain limited. In this study, a new insight was put forward for purifying polluted river water using a combination system (CS) of large-scale rotating biological contactors (RBCs) and integrated constructed wetlands in autumn and winter. The treatment performance, average removal contribution (RC), nitrification and denitrification rates, microbial community structure, and ecosystem service value were considered to estimate the combination system. Results revealed that the average removal efficiencies of ammonium (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.9%, 20.8%, 36.5%, and 37.1%, respectively. The combination system showed excellent removal efficiency of NH4+-N regardless of the effect of low temperature. The maximum values of nitrification and denitrification rates were 59.57 g N/(m3·d) and 0.78 g N/(m2·d), respectively. Considerable differences in bacterial community diversity, richness and relative abundance of functional microbes were observed in the main treatment units, resulting in different average RC to pollutants. The unit capital cost of CS purifying polluted river water was 260 USD/m3 and the operation and maintenance cost was 0.144 million USD/yr. Meanwhile, the ecosystem service value of the CS was 0.334 million USD in autumn and winter. CS not only possessed excellent pollutant purifying efficiencies, but also achieved high ecological service value in the cold season.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Água , Desnitrificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1006116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353462

RESUMO

1,3-xylan, an important organic carbon in the ocean, is peculiar to marine algae. 1,3-xylanase-secreting bacteria and their extracellular 1,3-xylanases play pivotal roles in the degradation and biomass conversion of 1,3-xylan. However, only a few 1,3-xylanase-secreting bacteria and 1,3-xylanases have been reported. Here, we identified a novel marine bacterium capable of secreting 1,3-xylanases, designated as strain HB14T. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain HB14T clustered tightly with known species of the genus Gilvimarinus, showing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.7%) with the type strain of Gilvimarinus chinensis. Based on phylogenetic, genomic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic studies, strain HB14T was classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus xylanilyticus sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is HB14T (=CCTCC AB 2022109T = KCTC 92379T). Four 1,3-xylanases secreted by strain HB14T were identified based on genome and secretome analyses, and the two (Xyn65 and Xyn80) with relatively higher abundance in secretome were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. They showed the highest activity at pH 6.0-7.0 and 40°C and released mainly 1,3-xylobiose and 1,3-xylotriose from 1,3-xylan. These data suggest that strain HB14T acts as a player in marine 1,3-xylan degradation and recycling and that its extracellular 1,3-xylanases may have a good potential in 1,3-xylooligosaccharides preparation.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2239788, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322088

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding the detailed symptom spectrum of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) could facilitate shared decision-making and promote early intervention. Objective: To compare the symptom spectrum of patient-reported CIPN associated with nab-paclitaxel, paclitaxel, and docetaxel treatments among patients with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted at 9 medical centers across China from 2019 to 2021. Participants included hospitalized women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, assessed with overlap propensity score weighting. Data were analyzed from from December 2021 to May 2022. Exposures: Treatment with nab-paclitaxel-, paclitaxel-, or docetaxel-based regimens. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-reported CIPN on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire: CIPN 20-item instruments, consisting of sensory, motor, and autonomic scales. Multiple regression models were adjusted for baseline patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Results: Of 1234 participants, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (10.4) years, and 295 patients (23.9%) received nab-paclitaxel, 514 patients (41.7%) received paclitaxel, and 425 patients (34.4%) received docetaxel. The nab-paclitaxel group mostly reported numbness in hands or feet related to sensory symptoms (83 patients [81.4%]), while the paclitaxel and docetaxel groups reported mainly motor (eg, weakness in legs: 60 patients [47.2%] in the paclitaxel group; 52 patients [44.4%] in the docetaxel group) and autonomic (eg, blurred vision: 58 patients [45.7%] in the paclitaxel group; 51 patients [43.6%] in the docetaxel group) symptoms. Patients reported motor symptoms earlier than sensory abnormalities, with a median of 0.4 (95% CI, 0.4-2.3) weeks in the nab-paclitaxel group, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.7-3.4) weeks in the paclitaxel group, and 5.6 (95% CI, 3.1-6.1) weeks in the docetaxel group. After overlap propensity score weighting and compared with the nab-paclitaxel group, the risks of patient-reported CIPN were lower in the paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.41-0.87]; P = .008) and the docetaxel (HR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.45-0.94]; P = .02) groups. Similarly, patients who received paclitaxel (HR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.30-0.64]; P < .001) or docetaxel (HR, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.36-0.75]; P < .001) reported less sensory discomfort compared with those who received nab-paclitaxel. However, the risk of patients in the paclitaxel or docetaxel groups reporting motor (paclitaxel: HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.52-1.11]; P = .15; docetaxel: HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.47-1.01]; P = .05) and/or autonomic (paclitaxel: HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.68-1.49]; P = .98; docetaxel: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.59-1.30]; P = .52) symptoms was not lower than that in the nab-paclitaxel group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of women with invasive breast cancer, nab-paclitaxel was associated with more severe CIPN than either paclitaxel or docetaxel. In addition to sensory symptoms, the risk of motor and autonomic abnormalities was not low among these 3 taxanes, and patients-reported motor symptoms even earlier than sensory symptoms. These findings may facilitate early detection and intervention for CIPN in taxane treatments for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic and cerebrovascular disease are strong independent contributors to cognitive irmpairment in people living with HIV (PWH). Data suggest that cardiovascular risk may play a greater role in cognitive health in women than men with HIV. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 104 participants with virologically suppressed HIV from two clinics in urban China. Participants underwent neuropsychological testing from which we calculated T-scores globally and in 5 cognitive domains. We assessed cerebral vasoreactivity of the middle cerebral arteries in response to breath-holding. We constructed linear regression models to determine associations between cerebrovascular and cognitive function overall and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Women were younger than men (48 versus 51 years, p=0.053), had fewer years of education (9 years versus 12 years, p=0.004), and fewer cardiometabolic risk factors (0 versus 1 factor, p=0.008). In a model with all participants, cerebrovascular function was significantly associated with global cognition (2.74 higher T-score per 1-point higher cerebral vasoreactivity [SE 1.30], p=0.037). Cerebrovascular function remained significantly associated with global cognition among women (4.15 higher T-score [SE 1.78], p=0.028) but not men (1.70 higher T-score [SE 1.74], p=0.33). The relationships between cerebrovascular function and specific cognitive domains followed a similar pattern, with significant associations present among women but not men. CONCLUSIONS: Women with well-controlled HIV may be more vulnerable to the impact of cerebrovascular injury on cognitive health than men. Studies evaluating strategies to protect against cognitive impairment in PWH should include adequate representation of women and stratification of analyses by sex.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19165, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357435

RESUMO

Machine learning methods are a novel way to predict and rank donors' willingness to donate blood and to achieve precision recruitment, which can improve the recruitment efficiency and meet the challenge of blood shortage. We collected information about experienced blood donors via short message service (SMS) recruitment and developed 7 machine learning-based recruitment models using PyCharm-Python Environment and 13 features which were described as a method for ranking and predicting donors' intentions to donate blood with a floating number between 0 and 1. Performance of the prediction models was assessed by the Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score in the full dataset, and by the accuracy in the four sub-datasets. The developed models were applied to prospective validations of recruiting experienced blood donors during two COVID-19 pandemics, while the routine method was used as a control. Overall, a total of 95,476 recruitments via SMS and their donation results were enrolled in our modelling study. The strongest predictor features for the donation of experienced donors were blood donation interval, age, and donation frequency. Among the seven baseline models, the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) and Support vector machine models (SVM) achieved the best performance: mean (95%CI) with the highest AUC: 0.809 (0.806-0.811), accuracy: 0.815 (0.812-0.818), precision: 0.840 (0.835-0.845), and F1 score of XGBoost: 0.843 (0.840-0.845) and recall of SVM: 0.991 (0.988-0.994). The hit rate of the XGBoost model alone and the combined XGBoost and SVM models were 1.25 and 1.80 times higher than that of the conventional method as a control in 2 recruitments respectively, and the hit rate of the high willingness to donate group was 1.96 times higher than that of the low willingness to donate group. Our results suggested that the machine learning models could predict and determine the experienced donors with a strong willingness to donate blood by a ranking score based on personalized donation data and demographical details, significantly improve the recruitment rate of blood donors and help blood agencies to maintain the blood supply in emergencies.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Intenção , Surtos de Doenças
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362094

RESUMO

Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4), a member of the SIRT family, has been reported to be a key factor involved in antioxidant defense in mitochondria. This study aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism via which SIRT4 regulates heat stress-induced oxidative stress and lactoprotein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Our results showed that SIRT4 was significantly decreased in heat stressed mammary tissue. Depletion of SIRT4 in BMECs induced the generation of ROS, which, as exhibited by the decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, changed mitochondrial morphology through mediating protein and mRNA levels related to mitochondrial fission and fusion. Moreover, we found that depletion of SIRT4 or stress conditions inhibited the expression of milk proteins, as well as lipid and glucose synthesis-related genes, and activated the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Increased SIRT4 expression was found to have the opposite effect. However, blocking the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway could inhibit the regulatory function of SIRT4 in milk synthesis-related gene expression. In summary, our results suggest that SIRT4 may play critical roles in maintaining mammary gland function by regulating the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in dairy cows, indicating that SIRT4 may be a potential molecular target for curing heat stress-induced BMEC injury and low milk production in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Antioxidantes , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo
11.
Mol Plant ; 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348623

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) deficiency is common in agricultural crops and affects millions of people worldwide. Translocation of Fe in the xylem is a key step for Fe distribution in plants. The mechanism controlling this process remains largely unknown. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis ferroxidases, LPR1 and LPR2, play a crucial and redundant role in controlling Fe translocation in the xylem. LPR1 and LPR2 are mainly localized in the cell walls of xylem vessels and the surrounding cells in roots, leaves, and stems. Knockout of both LPR1 and LPR2 increased the proportion of Fe(II) in the xylem sap, and caused Fe deposition along the vascular bundles especially in the petioles and main veins of leaves, which was alleviated by blocking blue light. The lpr1 lpr2 double mutant displayed constitutive expression of Fe deficiency response genes and overaccumulation of Fe in the roots and mature leaves under Fe-sufficient supply, but Fe deficiency chlorosis in the new leaves and inflorescences under low Fe supply. Moreover, the lpr1 lpr2 double mutant showed lower Fe concentrations in the xylem and phloem saps, and impaired 57Fe translocation along the xylem. In vitro assays showed that Fe(III)-citrate, the main form of Fe in xylem sap, is easily photoreduced to Fe(II)-citrate, which is unstable and prone to adsorption by cell walls. Taken together, these results indicate that LPR1 and LPR2 are required to oxidize Fe(II) and maintain Fe(III)-citrate stability and mobility during xylem translocation against photoreduction. Our study not only uncovers an essential physiological role of LPR1 and LPR2 but also reveals a new mechanism by which plants maintain Fe mobility during long-distance translocation in the xylem.

12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418022

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic metals affecting human health globally. Food is an important source of chronic Pb exposure in humans. How Pb is taken up by rice, a staple food for over half of the global population, remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of OsNRAMP5, a member of the NRAMP (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) transporter family, in Pb uptake by rice roots. Heterologous expression of OsNRAMP5 in yeast increased Pb uptake and sensitivity toward Pb. Knockout of OsNRAMP5 in rice by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing resulted in significant decreases in root uptake of Pb and accumulation in rice shoots. The maximum influx velocity (Vmax) for Pb uptake of the knockout mutants was 70% lower than that of wild-type plants. When grown in Pb-contaminated paddy soil, OsNRAMP5 knockout mutants accumulated approximately 50 and 70% lower Pb concentrations in the grain and straw, respectively, than the wild type. OsNRAMP5 expression in rice roots was not affected by Pb exposure. These results indicate that OsNRAMP5 is a major transporter for Pb uptake in rice, in addition to its role in the uptake of manganese and cadmium. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of Pb uptake in rice plants and a potential strategy to limit Pb accumulation in rice grains.

13.
Plant Physiol ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36423229

RESUMO

The concentration, chemical speciation, and spatial distribution of essential and toxic mineral elements in cereal seeds have important implications for human health. To identify genes responsible for element uptake, translocation, and storage, high throughput phenotyping methods are needed to visualize element distribution and concentration in seeds. Here, we used X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-XRF) as a method for rapid and high-throughput phenotyping of seed libraries and developed an ImageJ-based pipeline to analyze the spatial distribution of elements. Using this method, we non-destructively scanned 4,190 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized M1 rice (Oryza sativa) seeds and 533 diverse rice accessions in a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) panel to simultaneously measure concentrations and spatial distribution of elements in the embryo, endosperm, and aleurone layer. A total of 692 putative mutants and 65 loci associated with the spatial distribution of elements in rice seed were identified. This powerful method provides a basis for investigating the genetics and molecular mechanisms controlling the accumulation and spatial variations of mineral elements in plant seeds.

14.
Transl Pediatr ; 11(9): 1502-1509, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36247893

RESUMO

Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) has become prevalent in many parts of the world. It is commonly referred to as atypical HFMD which more likely to present as bullous lesions. Compared with traditional HFMD, its misdiagnosis rate is relatively high, which brings difficulties to clinical diagnosis. We retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of children with HFMD with bullous lesions caused by CV-A6. Methods: The study included 68 children with atypical HFMD caused by CV-A6 who were hospitalized from 2018 to 2020. Data of the children including age, sex, month of HFMD onset, the morphologies and distribution of rashes, the details of fever, the presence or absence of onychomadesis, and laboratory test results were analyzed and compared between an infant group (<1 year), a toddler group (1-<3 years), and a preschool group (3-<6 years). Results: Of the 68 children, 67 were younger than 5 years old, with a male to female ratio of 1.62:1. The disease peaked in the period from June to September. With 75.0% of the infant group had more than three kinds of rashes; 95.0% of the preschool group had rashes in more than five locations. These differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). All children had fever. The peak fever in the toddler group was lower (P=0.033). No critical cases were observed in any of the groups. Of the 61 children who were successfully followed up, 68.9% developed onychomadesis within 2-3 weeks. The proportion of cases with abnormal liver function was 83.3%, 41.7%, and 10.0% in the infant, toddler, and preschool groups (P<0.001). The proportion of cases with increased serum creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) were significantly higher in the toddler group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Atypical HFMD caused by CV-A6 infection usually occurred in children under 5 years old. The morphologies of the rashes in the infant group changed more, while the rashes in the preschool group was more widely distributed. The incidence of critical cases was low. More than half of the cases can develop onychomadesis in the recovery period. Organ damage was relatively mild in the preschool group.

15.
16.
J Exp Bot ; 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272142

RESUMO

Rice is an important source of calories and mineral nutrients for more than half of the world's population. The accumulation of essential and toxic mineral elements in rice grain affects its nutritional quality and safety. However, the patterns and processes by which different elements progressively accumulate during grain filling remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in dry matter, elemental concentrations, and the transcriptome in the grain of field-grown rice. We also investigated the effects of seed setting rate and the position of grain within rice panicle on element accumulation. Three different patterns of accumulation were observed: (i) elements including K, Mn, B, and Ca showed an early accumulation pattern; (ii) dry matter and elements including N, P, S, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, and Cd showed a mid-accumulation pattern; and (iii) elements such as Fe showed a gradual increase pattern. These different accumulation patterns can be explained by the differences in the biogeochemical behavior of the various elements in the soil, as well as differences in plant nutrient redistribution, gene expression, and the sink-source relationship. These results improve our knowledge of the dynamics of elemental accumulation in rice grain and are helpful for identification of functional genes mediating the translocation of elements to grain.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36262169

RESUMO

Introduction: Changes in eating habits have made gout a metabolic disease of increasing concern. Previous studies have indicated that there are significant differences in species composition and abundance of gut microbiome in gout patients compared with average. Considering that traditional Chinese medicine has a momentous effect in treating gout, the research study aimed to explore the differences of genomic and metabolomics of gut microbiome before and after traditional Chinese medicine treatment in patients with gout. Method: 30 patients with gout and 29 matched controls were recruited of which 16 patients took H treatment and 14 patients took T treatment. Stools were collected twice for patients before and after treatment and only once for controls. A total of 89 samples were annotated with metagenomic species and functions, and the enrichment analysis of differential genes and KO pathway was carried out. Result: The results showed a decrease in the diversity of gut microbiome in gout patients and the gene abundance and metabolomics had great differences among study groups. The number of bacterial genera also had significant differences among treatment groups. Moreover, among different groups, the regulation of different species was variously correlated. The correlation between species and clinical laboratory indicators in the rising group was stronger than that in the decreasing group and the upregulation of some strain was related to the content of urea nitrogen. Conclusion: After the traditional Chinese medicine treatment, the glutathione pathway was significantly enriched and some pathogenic bacteria were significantly inhibited. The study suggests that traditional Chinese medicine treatment may exert its therapeutic effect by inhibiting relevant pathways.

18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7676872, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36238644

RESUMO

Numerous studies have examined the effects of lead (Pb) on cognitive ability. It is essential for the brain to maintain its functions through the differentiation of neural stem cells into various types of cells. Despite this, it remains unclear how Pb exposure affects neural stem cells and how it does, so the Pb-exposed mice were treated with the Notch inhibitor DAPT after we established the Pb exposure models. Neuronal stem cells and autophagy were assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. The microbiota of the feces was also analyzed using the 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing technique. In this study, we found that Pb exposure caused neural injuries and deficits in neural stem cells, whereas DAPT rescued the damage. With DAPT, Pb-induced autophagy was partially reversed. Exposure to Pb also reduced inflammation and damaged gut barrier function. Furthermore, Pb exposure led to low bacterial diversity, an increase in pathogen abundance, and an unusual mode of interaction. Taken together, this study revealed that damages in neural stem cells contributed largely to cognitive impairment during Pb exposure, and this process was partially dependent on the Notch pathway and gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Células-Tronco Neurais , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Chumbo/toxicidade , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232745

RESUMO

Lead exposure may weaken the ability of learning and memory in the nervous system through mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In our works, with SD rats, primary culture of hippocampal neuron and PC12 cell line model were built up and behavioral tests were performed to determine the learning and memory insults; Western blot, immunological staining, and electron microscope were then conducted to determine endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. Co-immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate potential protein-protein interaction. The results show that lead exposure may cripple rats' learning and memory capability by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial paramorphia and dysfunction. Furthermore, we clarify that enhanced MFN2 ubiquitination degradation mediated by PINK1 may account for mitochondrial paramorphia and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our work may provide important clues for research on the mechanism of how Pb exposure leads to nervous system damage.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269927

RESUMO

Generative (generalized) zero-shot learning (G)ZSL models aim to synthesize unseen class features by using only seen class feature and attribute pairs as training data. However, the generated fake unseen features tend to be dominated by the seen class features and thus classified as seen classes, which can lead to inferior performances under zero-shot learning (ZSL), and unbalanced results under generalized ZSL (GZSL). To address this challenge, we tailor a novel balanced semantic embedding generative network (BSeGN), which incorporates balanced semantic embedding learning into generative learning scenarios in the pursuit of unbiased GZSL. Specifically, we first design a feature-to-semantic embedding module (FEM) to distinguish real seen and fake unseen features collaboratively with the generator in an online manner. We introduce the bidirectional contrastive and balance losses for the FEM learning, which can guarantee a balanced prediction for the interdomain features. In turn, the updated FEM can boost the learning of the generator. Next, we propose a multilevel feature integration module (mFIM) from the cycle-consistency branch of BSeGN, which can mitigate the domain bias through feature enhancement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to explore embedding and generative learning jointly within the field of ZSL. Extensive evaluations on four benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of BSeGN over its state-of-the-art counterparts.

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