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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1907061, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022974

RESUMO

Solar vapor generation has presented great potential for wastewater treatment and seawater desalination with high energy conversion and utilization efficiency. However, technology gaps still exist for achieving a fast evaporation rate and high quality of water combined with low-cost deployment to provide a sustainable solar-driven water purification system. In this study, a naturally abundant biomass, konjac glucomannan, together with simple-to-fabricate iron-based metal-organic framework-derived photothermal nanoparticles is introduced into the polyvinyl alcohol networks, building hybrid hydrogel evaporators in a cost-effective fashion ($14.9 m-2 of total materials cost). With advantageous features of adequate water transport, effective water activation, and anti-salt-fouling function, the hybrid hydrogel evaporators achieve a high evaporation rate under one sun (1 kW m-2 ) at 3.2 kg m-2 h-1 out of wastewater with wide degrees of acidity and alkalinity (pH 2-14) and high-salinity seawater (up to 330 g kg-1 ). More notably, heavy metal ions are removed effectively by forming hydrogen and chelating bonds with excess hydroxyl groups in the hydrogel. It is anticipated that this study offers new possibilities for a deployable, cost-effective solar water purification system with assured water quality, especially for economically stressed communities.

2.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 67, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) plays a vital role in preventing microvascular thrombosis and inflammation. Reduced ADAMTS13 levels in plasma have been detected in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In the present study, we have determined the role of ADAMTS13 in the disease progression of MS using a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35-55 peptide and then treated with ADAMTS13 or vehicle in preventive and therapeutic settings. Mice were analyzed for clinical deficit, white matter demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration. To explore the underlying mechanism, VWF expression and blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) were determined. RESULTS: Plasma ADAMTS13 activity was suppressed in EAE mice. ADAMTS13-treated EAE mice exhibited an ameliorated disease course, reduced demyelination, and decreased T lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Consistently, ADAMTS13 treatment reduced VWF levels and inhibited BSCB breakdown in the spinal cords of EAE mice. However, leukocytes in the blood and spleen of EAE mice remained unaffected by ADAMTS13 administration. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADAMTS13 treatment ameliorates inflammatory responses, demyelination and disease course in EAE mice. Therefore, our study suggests that ADAMTS13 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for MS patients.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137092, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044495

RESUMO

Bisphenol S (BPS), a main substitute of bisphenol A, has been reported to induce multiple endocrine disrupting effects on animals, however, whether it can interfere with the corticosteroid-endocrine system still remains unknown. Furthermore, previous studies mainly investigated the influences of environmental pollutants on corticosteroid levels and gene expressions of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal/adrenal (HPI/A) axis, while the downstream toxic effects caused thereafter have not yet been fully elucidated. Considering the key role of cortisol, a primary corticosteroid hormone in teleost, in mediating stress adaptation and the highly positive correlation between cortisol level and anxious phenotype in the novel environment, we hypothesized that an imbalanced cortisol homeostasis due to environmental pollutant exposure may further affect the behavioral responses to novelty stress. In the present study, zebrafish, a valuable model in studying human stress physiology and anxiety behavior, were exposed to BPS from embryos to adults (120 days) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 and 10 µg/L) and 100 µg/L. Results found that long-term exposure to BPS increased whole-body cortisol levels and caused abnormal expressions of HPI axis genes. Moreover, the excessive cortisol levels may be due to the inhibition of cortisol catabolism and excretion, as evidenced by the down-regulated expressions of hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 and hydroxysteroid 20-beta dehydrogenase 2 genes. More importantly, as we speculated, excessive cortisol levels may be responsible for the occurrence of anxiety-like behavioral responses indicated by longer latency, fewer time spent in the upper half, and more erratic movements in a 6-min novel tank test. Overall, our study provides basic data for the comprehensive understanding of BPS toxicity, and emphasizes environmental health risks of BPS in inducing anxiety syndrome at environmentally realistic concentrations.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More and more azole-resistant strains emerged through the development of acquired resistance and an epidemiological shift towards inherently less susceptible species. The mechanisms of azoles resistance of Candida albicans is very complicated. In this study, we aim to investigate the mechanism of azole-resistant C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity of a patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). CASE PRESENTATION: CMC diagnosis was given based on clinical manifestations, laboratory test findings and gene sequencing technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the fungal isolate, obtained from oral cavity termed as CA-R, was obtained by in vitro anti-fungal drugs susceptibility test. To further investigate the resistant mechanisms, we verified the mutations of drug target genes (i.e. ERG11 and ERG3) by Sanger sequencing, and verified the over-expression of ERG11 and drug efflux genes (i.e. CDR1 and CDR2) by RT-PCR. A heterozygous mutation of c.1162A > G resulting in p.K388E was detected in STAT1 of the patient. The expression of CDR1 and CDR2 in CA-R was 4.28-fold and 5.25-fold higher than that of type strain SC5314, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Up-regulation of CDR1 and CDR2 was mainly responsible for the resistance of CA-R. For CMC or other immunodeficiency patients, drug resistance monitoring is necessary.

6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 81: 106290, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058933

RESUMO

Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive drug, was recommended by the 2012 KDIGO guidelines to treat nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children and adults. However, it has high interpatient pharmacokinetic variability and exposure levels should be monitored, although there are no specified target concentrations. This retrospective study aimed to review efficacy and safety after concomitant treatment with tacrolimus and prednisone, and to identify factors that contribute to the variable blood-trough-concentration-to-dose (C0/Dose) ratio in children with refractory NS (RNS). A 6-month therapy induced complete or partial remission in 95% of patients. One-year follow-up indicated a high remission rate and low nephrotoxicity. Under maintenance dosages, approximately 95% of the C0 values were 2-7 ng/mL. Body weight (BW), age, CYP3A5 polymorphisms were the factors affecting the C0/Dose ratio. The C0/Dose ratio in patients with a BW of <20 kg was 1.5-fold than that in patients with BW of ≥40 kg. Moreover, the C0/Dose ratio in patients aged 1-≤6 and 6-≤12 years was significantly lower than that in patients aged 12-≤18 years, by 25% and 48%, respectively. There were no significant association between CYP3A5 genotyping and C0/Dose ratio in younger children (1-≤6 years), rather than older children (6-≤18 years). In conclusion, routine CYP3A5 genotyping should be considered in children aged over 6 years and exposure levels (C0) of 2-7 ng/mL may be feasible when tacrolimus is combined with low-dose prednisone to treat childhood RNS.

7.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016800

RESUMO

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious pregnancy complication defined as hypertension combined with proteinuria. Previous report has indicated that the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated in PE placentas. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential association between the methylation of the CTGF promoter and PE. The methylation status of CTGF promoter was assessed by methylation-specific PCR and the expression of CTGF was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry staining, in placental samples from PE patients and normal pregnant women. The methylation level of the CTGF promoter was also analyzed in peripheral blood DNA samples from 90 PE patients and 94 normal pregnant women and further confirmed by methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme digestion combined with real-time PCR. We found a decreased methylation rate of CTGF promoter in PE placentas compared with normal control. In addition, the frequency of hemimethylated (UM) promoter of CTGF in peripheral blood was significantly lower in the PE group (P = 0.019), while the frequency of overall methylated (MU + MM) promoter of CTGF in peripheral blood was lower (borderline significance P = 0.043) in the PE group. The percentage of methylated CpG in CTGF promoter was 30% lower in maternal blood of PE subjects than in controls. Moreover, the lower methylation frequency of CTGF promoter was in accordance with the higher expression of CTGF in trophoblast cells. Together, our data suggested an association between PE and the hypomethylation of CTGF promoter both in placentas and peripheral blood from a Chinese Han population.

8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23226, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida glabrata is a common pathogen that causes invasive candidiasis. Among non-albicans Candida infections, C glabrata infections are associated with the highest fatality rates. Candida glabrata sensu stricto, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis have been identified and together form the C glabrata species complex. It is difficult to detect the two rare species by traditional laboratory methods. This study established a method for the rapid identification of members of the C glabrata species complex based on high-resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis and evaluated its practical application. METHODS: The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used as target gene region to design specific primers. HRM analysis was performed with three subspecies of the C glabrata species complex and negative controls to test its specificity and sensitivity. To evaluate its practical application, the HRM technique was tested with clinical isolates, and the results were compared with the DNA sequencing results. RESULTS: Differences were detected among the melting profiles of the members of the C glabrata species complex. The negative controls were not amplified, indicating the high specificity of the method. The minimum detection limits of C glabrata sensu stricto, C nivariensis, and C bracarensis were approximately 1 × 101  copies/µL or less. The results of the HRM analysis of the clinical isolates were consistent with the DNA sequencing results. CONCLUSIONS: The HRM method is sensitive and can be used to rapidly identify the members of the C glabrata species complex. The method can allow early and targeted treatment of patients with invasive candidiasis.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 13, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is facing challenges of the shifting presentation of tuberculosis (TB) from younger to elderly due to an ageing population, longer life expectancy and reactivation disease. However, the burden of elderly TB and influence factors are not yet clear. To fill the gap, we generated a cohort study to measure the magnitude of TB incidence and associated factors among the elderly population aged 65 years and above in China. METHODS: In this cohort established in 2013 through a prevalence survey conducted in selected sites, a total of 34 076 elderlies without TB were enrolled into two-year follow-up. We used both active and passive case findings to find out all TB patients among them. The person-year (PY) incidence rates for both bacteriologically positive TB and active TB were calculated. Cox proportional regression model was performed to test effect of risk factors, and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of each risk factor contributing to incident TB among elderlies was calculated. RESULTS: Over the two-year follow-up period, a total of 215 incident active TB were identified, 62 of which were bacteriologically positive. The incidence rates for active TB and bacteriologically positive TB were 481.8 per 100 000 PY (95% CI: 417.4-546.2 per 100 000 PY) and 138.9 per 100 000 PY (95% CI: 104.4-173.5 per 100 000 PY), respectively. Incident cases detected by active case finding were significantly higher (P < 0.001). Male, non-Han nationality, previously treated TB, ex/current smoker and body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 presented as independent predictors for developing TB disease. For developing bacteriologically positive TB, the biggest contribution was from self-reported ex or current smoker (18.06%). And, for developing active TB, the biggest contribution was from non-Han nationality (35.40%), followed by male (26.80%) and age at 75 years and above (10.85%). CONCLUSIONS: Ageing population in China had a high TB incidence rate and risk to develop TB disease, implying that National TB Program (NTP) needs to prioritize for elderly. Active case finding should be applied capture more active TB cases among this particular population, especially for male, non-Han nationality, and those with identified risk factors.

10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 7, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954401

RESUMO

In the original publication of this article [1] we noticed the Fig. 4 was incorrect. The correct Fig. 4 is as below.

11.
Sci Adv ; 6(1): eaax5819, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911943

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process, which plays a vital role in removing misfolded proteins and clearing damaged organelles to maintain internal environment homeostasis. Here, we uncovered the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2)-FOXK (FOXK1 and FOXK2) axis playing an important role in DNA damage-mediated autophagy at the transcriptional regulation layer. Mechanistically, following DNA damage, CHK2 phosphorylates FOXK and creates a 14-3-3γ binding site, which, in turn, traps FOXK proteins in the cytoplasm. Because FOXK functions as the transcription suppressor of ATGs, DNA damage-mediated FOXKs' cytoplasmic trapping induces autophagy. In addition, we found that a cancer-derived FOXK mutation induces FOXK hyperphosphorylation and enhances autophagy, resulting in chemoresistance. Cotreatment with cisplatin and chloroquine overcomes the chemoresistance caused by FOXK mutation. Overall, our study highlights a mechanism whereby DNA damage triggers autophagy by increasing autophagy genes via CHK2-FOXK-mediated transcriptional control, and misregulation of this pathway contributes to chemoresistance.

12.
J Crit Care ; 56: 249-256, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of an enteral nutrition (EN) feeding protocol in critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a prospective multi-center before-after study. We compared energy related and prognostic indicators between the control group (pre-implementation stage) and intervention group (post-implementation stage). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients receiving EN within 7 days after ICU admission. RESULTS: 209 patients in the control group and 230 patients in the intervention group were enrolled. The implementation of the EN protocol increased the percentage of target energy reached from day 3 to day 7, and the difference between two groups reached statistical significance in day 6 (P = .01) and day 7 (P = .002). But it had no effects on proportion of patient receiving EN (P = .65) and start time of EN (P = .90). The protocol application might be associated with better hospital survival (89.1% vs 82.8%, P = .055) and reduce the incidence of EN related adverse (P = .004). There was no difference in ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU cost. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the enteral feeding protocol is associated with improved energy intake and a decreased incidence of enteral nutrition related adverse events for critically ill patients, but it had no statistically beneficial effects on reducing the hospital mortality rate. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02976155. Registered November 29, 2016- Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02976155.

13.
J Virol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969440

RESUMO

The features of HSV-1 strain 129 (H129), including natural neurotropism and anterograde transneuronal trafficking, make it a potential tool for anterograde neural circuitry tracing. Recently anterograde poly-synaptic and mono-synaptic tracers were developed from H129, and have been applied for identification of novel connections and functions of different neural circuitries. However, how H129 viral particles are transported in neurons, especially those of the central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, we constructed recombinant H129 variants with mCherry-labeled capsids and/or GFP-labeled envelopes and infected the cortical neurons to study axonal transport of H129 viral particles. We found that different types of viral particles were unevenly distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm of the cell body and axon. Most H129 progeny particles were unenveloped capsids and transported as capsids rather than virions in the axon. Notably, capsids acquired envelopes at axonal varicosities and terminals where are the sites forming synapse connected with other neurons. Moreover, viral capsids moved more frequently in the anterograde direction in axons, with an average velocity of 0.62 ± 0.18 µm/s and maximal velocity of 1.80 ± 0.15 µm/s. We also provided evidence that axonal transport of capsids requires the kinesin-1 molecular motor. These findings support that H129-derived tracers mapping neural circuit anterogradely and possibly transsynaptically. These data will guide future modifications and improvements of the H129-based anterograde viral tracers.IMPORTANCE Anterograde transneuronal tracers derived from H129 virus are important tools for mapping neural circuit anatomic and functional connections. It is therefore critical to elucidate the transport pattern of H129 virus within neuron and between neurons. We constructed recombinant H129 variants with genetically encoded fluorescence labeled capsid protein and/or glycoprotein to visualize viral particle movement in neurons. Both electron microscopy and light microscopy data show that H129 capsids and envelopes move separately, and notably capsids are enveloped at axonal varicosity and terminal which are the sites forming synapse to connect with other neurons. Super-resolution microscopy-based colocalization analysis and inhibition of H129 particle movement by inhibitors of molecular motors support that kinesin-1 contributes to the anterograde transport of capsids. These results shed light into mechanisms for anterograde transport of H129-derived tracers' transport in axon, and transmission between neurons via synapses, explaining the anterograde labeling of neural circuits by H129-derived tracers.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9814916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998803

RESUMO

Background: Extensive studies have focused on the diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection; however, rare studies investigated the posttreatment conditions. We analyzed the carrying status of M. pneumoniae in the respiratory tract of children before and after treatment. Methods: Ninety-two children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia were included in this study. Clinical data were obtained from each patient, and pharyngeal swab sampling was performed at preliminary diagnosis and discharge. Real-time PCR and dilution quantitative culture were utilized to determine the DNA quantification and number of viable M. pneumoniae from samples collected upon preliminary diagnosis and discharge. Results: All the 92 cases showed DNA positivity upon preliminary diagnosis, serum IgM antibody was detected in 80 patients, and positivity of M. pneumoniae culture was observed in 82 cases. Upon discharge, the M. pneumoniae nucleotide and culture positivity were detected in 87 and 49 cases, respectively. The content of viable M. pneumoniae was 10-104 CCU/mL and 10-102 CCU/mL in the preliminary diagnosis samples and discharge samples, respectively. Conclusions: Real-time PCR was rapid and effective for the qualitative diagnosis of M. pneumoniae at the early stage, but it cannot be used to evaluate the prognosis of patients with M. pneumoniae infection. Quantitative analysis for M. pneumoniae DNA could not directly reflex the viable strain content.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(1): 64, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988283

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly prevalent type of metastatic tumor. The mechanisms underlying GC metastasis are poorly understood. Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) reportedly play key roles in regulating metastasis of GC. However, the biological roles of five natural antisense lncRNAs (AC093818.1, CTD-2541M15.1, BC047644, RP11-597M12.1, and RP11-40A13.1) in GC metastasis remain unclear. In this study, the expression of these lncRNAs was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing and the Transwell assay, respectively. Stable cells were injected into the tail veins of nude mice. Sections of collected lung and liver tissues were stained using hematoxylin and eosin. Protein expression was analyzed by western blot. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay was used to verify whether the STAT3 and SP1 transcription factors bound to AC093818.1 in GC cells. Expression levels of the five lncRNAs, especially AC093818.1, were significantly upregulated in metastatic GC tissues relative to those in nonmetastatic GC tissues. AC093818.1 expression was correlated with invasion, lymphatic metastasis, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. AC093818.1 expression was highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of metastatic or nonmetastatic GC. AC093818.1 overexpression promoted GC migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. AC093818.1 overexpression increased PDK1, p-AKT1, and p-mTOR expression levels. AC093818.1 silencing decreased these expressions. AC093818.1 bound to transcription factors STAT3 and SP1, and SP1 or STAT3 silencing could alleviated the effect of AC093818.1 overexpression. The data demonstrate that lncRNA AC093818.1 accelerates gastric cancer metastasis by epigenetically promoting PDK1 expression. LncRNA AC093818.1 may be a potential therapeutic target for metastatic GC.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 81, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum armatum (Z. armatum) is a highly economically important tree that presents a special numbing taste. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of the numbing taste remains poorly understood. Thus, the elucidation of the key genes associated with numbing taste biosynthesis pathways is critical for providing genetic information on Z. armatumand the breeding of high-quality germplasms of this species. RESULTS: Here, de novo transcriptome assembly was performed for the five major organs of Z. armatum, including the roots, stems, leaf buds, mature leaves and fruits. A total of 111,318 unigenes were generated with an average length of 1014 bp. Additionally, a large number of SSRs were obtained to improve our understanding of the phylogeny and genetics of Z. armatum. The organ-specific unigenes of the five major samples were screened and annotated via GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. A total of 53 and 34 unigenes that were exclusively upregulated in fruit samples were identified as candidate unigenes for terpenoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation and degradation pathways, respectively. Moreover, 40 days after fertilization (Fr4 stage) could be an important period for the accumulation of terpenoid compounds during the fruit development and maturation of Z. armatum. The Fr4 stage could be a key point at which the first few steps of the fatty acid biosynthesis process are promoted, and the catalysis of subsequent reactions could be significantly induced at 62 days after fertilization (Fr6 stage). CONCLUSIONS: The present study realized de novo transcriptome assembly for the five major organs of Z. armatum. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive analysis revealing the genes underlying the special numbing taste of Z. armatum. The assembled transcriptome profiles expand the available genetic information on this species and will contribute to gene functional studies, which will aid in the engineering of high-quality cultivars of Z. armatum.

17.
Biophys J ; 118(3): 729-741, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928764

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize cupular deformation by calculating the degree of cupular expansion and cupular deflection using a finite element model of bilateral human semicircular canals (SCCs). The results showed that cupular deflection responses were consistent with Ewald's II law, whereas each pair of bilateral cupulae simultaneously expanded or compressed to the same degree. In addition, both the degree of cupular expansion and cupular deflection can be expressed as the solution of forced oscillation during head sinusoidal rotation, and the amplitude of cupular expansion was approximately two times greater than that of cupular deflection. Regarding the amplitude frequency and phase frequency characteristics, the amplitude ratios among the horizontal SCC, the anterior SCC, and the posterior SCC cupular expansion was constant at 1:0.82:1.62, and the phase differences among them were constant at 0 or 180° at the frequencies of 0.5-6 Hz. However, both the amplitude ratio and the phase differences of the cupular deflection increased nonlinearly with the increase of frequency and tended to be constant at the frequency band between 2 and 6 Hz. The results indicate that the responses of cupular expansion might only be related to the mass and rigidity of three cupulae and the endolymph, but the responses of cupular deflection are related to the mass, rigidity, or damping of them, and these physical properties would be affected by vestibular dysfunction. Therefore, both the degree of cupular expansion and cupular deflection should be considered important mechanical variables for induced neural signals as these variables provide a better understanding of the SCCs system's role in the vestibulo-ocular reflex during the clinical rotating chair test and the vestibular autorotation test. Such a numerical model can be further built to provide a useful theoretical approach for exploring the biomechanical nature underlying vestibular dysfunction.

18.
Talanta ; 209: 120599, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892078

RESUMO

In this work, a simple and sensitive fluorescent aptasensor for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection was proposed using gold nanostars (AuNSs) as a novel fluorescence quenching material. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled complementary DNA with hairpin structure (FAM-labeled HP) was designed to hybridize with AFB1 aptamer to form double-stranded DNA, resulting in the opening of hairpin structure. When double-stranded DNA was modified on AuNSs surface, FAM was far from AuNSs and produced a strong fluorescence intensity. The introduction of AFB1 in the system led to the specific interaction of AFB1 and aptamer, and changed the conformation of aptamer, inducing the release of aptamer from double-stranded DNA and the restoration of hairpin structure. Fluorescence quenching occurred when FAM was close to AuNSs, and the fluorescence intensity decreased. In the presence of 5 ng/mL AFB1, ΔF/F0 of the AuNSs/FAM-labeled HP/Apt was ~44.2%, higher than that of the AuNPs/FAM-labeled HP/Apt, indicating the better quenching effect of AuNSs. The change of fluorescence intensity linearly increased by adding AFB1 in the concentration range of 0.1 ng/mL-10 ng/mL, with the LOD of 21.3 pg/mL. The proposed aptasensor exhibited good selectivity in the presence of other toxins at 10-fold concentration of AFB1, and showed satisfactory recovery in the range of 92%-112% toward AFB1 detection in spiked corn flour sample.

19.
Med Mycol ; 58(1): 61-65, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927430

RESUMO

Sporothrix globosa is an important clinical pathogen in the Sporothrix complex, which is causing sporotrichosis. S. globosa is distributed worldwide, especially in Asia. The transmission medium of S. globosa is mainly contaminated soil or decaying vegetation, and the infection usually caused by transcutaneous trauma, through which the fungal conidia or yeast cells enter the host. Although the clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis caused by S. globosa is always benign, there have been several outbreaks worldwide. In this study, we established a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence for the identification of S. globosa. The assay was further evaluated by clinical specimens obtained from patients of sporotrichosis. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR method was both 100%. The detection limit was 10 fg. The positive detection rate for 30 clinical specimens, which were confirmed infected by S. globosa, was 100%. The real-time PCR method established in this paper is a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the identification of S. globosa. It can detect S. globosa in clinical specimen from patients with sporotrichosis, which is helpful for fast clinical diagnosis.

20.
J Fish Dis ; 43(2): 239-252, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820468

RESUMO

Pure bacterial cultures were isolated from different tissues of moribund Megalobrama terminalis from a high mortality event that occurred at a farm in Foshan, China. Two isolates (F2 and F3) were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae based on morphological and biochemical detection as well as molecular analysis. In brain heart infusion broth, the best growth conditions of isolate F3 were 35ºC, salinity 5‰ and pH 7. Furthermore, infection with isolate F3 (1.2 × 106  CFU/fish) led to the death of M. terminalis and zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, isolate F3 had no obvious pathogenicity to tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). When the water temperature was 29ºC, the corresponding mortality rates for zebrafish infected by isolate F3 were higher than those at 23ºC. Culture for 24 and 72 hr with isolate F3 resulted in the same mortality rates for zebrafish. The antimicrobial susceptibility assay revealed that isolate F3 was susceptible to ampicillin, florfenicol and several other antibiotics but resistant to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, neomycin and amikacin. To our knowledge, this is the first report that S. dysgalactiae infected the subtropical freshwater fish M. terminalis, which indicates that this bacterium is a potential threat to subtropical freshwater fish.

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