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1.
Plant Dis ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999714

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa) is an annual gramineous crop, which contains a source of soluble dietary fiber, ß-glucan, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids and avenanthramides. It widely cultivated in cool and semi-arid areas in northern China (Li et al, 2017). In July 2018, a severe leaf spot infection was observed in the Forage Germplasm Nursery (31°17'22″N, 103°40'15″E, 2885 m elevation) in Tianzhu County, Wuwei City of Gansu Province in China. Disease incidence (total number of diseased leaves / total number of surveyed leaves X 100%) was 93% over 300 m2 planting area. Symptoms initially appeared as small circular to irregular, gray-green, water-soaked spots on the leaves in the middle or along the margin of leaves, that enlarged and coalesced. The center of the leaf spots turned brown to reddish-brown. Infected tissues from symptomatic leaves were cut into small pieces (5×5 mm), surface sterilized with 70% ethanol for 60 s, soaked in 5% commercial bleach (~0.275% NaClO) for 5 min (Xue et al, 2018), rinsed five times with distilled water, plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and incubated for 3 days in the dark at 25°C (Zhang, 2003; Blagojevic et al, 2020; Humpherson et al, 1989). Hyphae emerging from the tissue were subcultured on fresh PDA medium for purification. All colonies were light brown with intensive sporulation in rings that was grayish white, and later became grayish brown. The back of the colony was dark brown. Conidiophores were light brown, unbranched, grew vertically on hyphae, and each conidiophore produced 3 to 7 conidia (mostly 6). Conidia were light brown, septate, straight to slightly curved, single or in chains, oval or obclavate, measured 17 to 32 µm wide and 63 to 106 µm long with the conical beak cell, 7 to 12 transverse septa, 0 to 5 longitudinal septa. These morphological characteristics were similar to the descriptions of Alternaria spp. (Simmons, 2008). A single isolate, YMZZ1, was selected for molecular identification. The ITS region of rDNA, partial GAPDH and Tef1-α gene sequences were amplified by PCR with the primer pairs of ITS1/ITS4, gpd1/gpd2 and EF1-728F/EF1-986R, respectively (Woudenberg et al, 2013). Sequences were deposited in GeneBank under accessions MN446739 (ITS), MN481462 (GAPDH), and MN464104 (Tef1-α). A nucleotide BLAST search revealed ITS, GAPDH and Tef1-α sequences to be 99% similar to accessions numbers MN856410 (565/573 bp), MK026431 (575/575 bp), and MH754531 (211/211 bp), respectively) of A. brassicae. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analysis were conducted based on ITS, GAPDH and TEF-1α sequences using MEGA7.0 under Kimura 2-parameter model. The isolate YMZZ1 clustered with a representative strain A. brassicae LGBA22 with 100% bootstrap support. To test its pathogenicity, six healthy 3 week old plants were spray-inoculated with a suspension of 3×105 conidia/mL of YMZZ1. The same number of plants were sprayed with sterilized water as control. All plants were covered with transparent plastic bags for 48 h to maintain high relative humidity and incubated in a 25°C growth chamber (16/8 h light/dark) for observation. Ten days after inoculation, leaf spot symptoms were observed on leaves similar to those previously observed in nursery; no symptoms were observed on the control. The pathogenicity test was repeated twice under the same conditions and A. brassicae was re-isolated from inoculated plants each time fulfilling Koch's postulates. A. brassicae has not been previously reported as a pathogen of A. sativa in the world, but has been mentioned as a pathogen of horse radish (Armoracia rusticana) in Serbia (Blagojevic et al, 2015). To our knowledge, this is the first report of leaf spot caused by A. brassicae on A. sativa in China. This study stresses an urgent need to identify appropriate management strategies of A. brassicae that help in preventing losses in quality and yield of oats in northern China.

2.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026303

RESUMO

Oat (Avena sativa) is extensively planted as a fodder crop on the vast ranges of northern and northwestern China, and it has become an important supplementary feed for grazing livestock (Yang et al. 2010). Microdochium nivale has been reported associated with seedling blight in many temperate regions (Imathiu et al. 2010) and the damage can result in serious loss of oat production. In August 2018, a serious seedling blight of oat (cv. Baiyan 7; about 30-day-old) was observed in the field in Shandan County, Zhangye City, Gansu Province (38.22° N, 101.22° E). More than 20% of oat plants were severely affected. Symptoms included leaf chlorosis and wilt. The root systems of infected plants were black and severely rotted, often with only a small amount of fine root remaining after removal from the soil. Twenty isolations were made from blackened roots on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and five isolations (TM-1, TM-2, TM-3, TM-4 and TM-5) were further purified by a single-spore method (Choi et al. 1999). Each isolate was identical based on preliminary molecular analyses of their DNA sequences of ITS by blast in the NCBI GenBank. The representative isolate TM-2 was selected for sequencing of the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) gene. The isolated colonies were grown on PDA and formed colonies of approximately 62 mm (diameter) in 5 days at 25 ± 1 °C. Colonies exhibited entire margins, the color varied from white to pale yellow, and the sparse aerial mycelium were villous-floccose and cottony. The conidia were falcate, straight to curved, apex pointed or obtuse to subacute, lacking basal differentiation, 0-3-septate, most one-septate, 2.2 to 3.1 × 12.3 to 22.6µm (av.= 2.8 ×17.6; n=50). These morphological characteristics were consistent with previous descriptions of Microdochium (Zhang et al. 2010). Molecular identity was confirmed by sequencing partial sequences of ITS gene (ITS1 and ITS4 primers) (White et al. 1990) and RPB2 regions (RPB2-5f2 and RPB2-7cr) (O'Donnell et al. 2010). Sequences were deposited in GenBank under accessions MN428647 (RPB2) and MN428646 (ITS). Blast search revealed that both of the ITS and RPB2 sequences to be 99% similar to the corresponding sequences of M. nivale(CBS 116205) accession numbers KP859008.1 and KP859117.1. For pathogenicity tests, millet seed-based inoculum of M. nivale was prepared using a modified procedure of Fang et al. (2011). Three-week-old healthy oat seedlings of cv. Baiyan 7 were transplanted into potting mix containing millet seed-based inoculum of M. nivale at a rate of 3%. Control seedlings for comparison were transplanted into pots containing uninoculated potting mix. After 10 days, all the inoculated plants had developed seedling blight symptoms and that were similar to those observed in the field; while control plants remained healthy. The pathogen was reisolated from inoculated plants and identified as M. nivale based on morphological characteristics and the molecular methods described above. To our knowledge, this is the first report of seedling blight of oat caused by M. nivale in China.

3.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 95(1): 58-65, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452330

RESUMO

In this study, a peptide-drug conjugate was designed and synthesized by connecting a transferrin receptor (TfR)-targeted binding peptide analog BP9a (CAHLHNRS) with doxorubicin (DOX) through N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate (SMP) as the cross-linker. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results indicated that free DOX mainly accumulated in the nuclei of both TfR overexpressed HepG2 hepatoma cells and L-O2 normal liver cells expressing low level of TfR; most of the BP9a-DOX conjugate displayed cytoplasmic location, and its cellular uptake by HepG2 cells was obviously reduced by TfR blockage test. Nevertheless, the cellular uptake of this conjugate by L-O2 cells was much less than that of free DOX. Meanwhile, the BP9a-DOX conjugate exhibited lower in vitro antiproliferative activity against HepG2 cells than free DOX, but its cytotoxic effect on L-O2 cells was decreased compared with that of free DOX. These results suggest that BP9a could be applied as a potential TfR-targeted peptide vector for selective drug delivery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Peptídeos Penetradores de Células/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Peptídeos/química , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Maleimidas/química , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Succinimidas/química
4.
Pharm Res ; 36(12): 168, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Transferrin receptors (TfRs) are overexpressed in tumor cells but are scarce in normal tissues, which makes TfR an attractive target for drug treatment of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of BP9a (CAHLHNRS) as a peptide vector for constructing TfR targeted peptide-drug conjugates and selective drug delivery. METHODS: Doxorubicin (DOX) was connected to BP9a via a disulfide-intercalating linker to afford a reduction-responsive BP9a-SS-DOX conjugate. By using HepG2 human liver cancer cells and L-O2 normal hepatic cells as TfR over-expressing and low-expressing in vitro models, respectively, TfR mediated cellular uptake of this conjugate was studied by using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the conjugate against HepG2 and L-O2 cells were examined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay to evaluate its tumorous specificity. RESULTS: Cellular uptake and TfR blockage test results showed that the BP9a-SS-DOX conjugate gained entry into HepG2 cells via endocytosis mediated by TfR and mainly accumulated in cytoplasm. The in vitro antiproliferative activity of this conjugate against HepG2 cells (IC50 6.21 ± 1.12 µM) was approximately one-sixth of that of free DOX (IC50 1.03 ± 0.13 µM). However, its cytotoxic effect on L-O2 cells was obviously reduced compared with that of free DOX. CONCLUSIONS: The BP9a-SS-DOX conjugate showed specific antiproliferative activity against HepG2 liver cancer cells. Our study suggests that BP9a has the potential to target chemotherapeutic agents to tumor cells over-expressing TfR and facilitate selective drug delivery.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Peptídeos/química , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 1323-1326, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443824

RESUMO

Erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens Pall.) is a major legume forage plant widely grown in Northern China. However, the lack of molecular markers has limited its research into its genetic diversity and work on germplasm improvement. In this study, a total of 39,163 EST-SSR loci were identified from 30,262 unigene sequences in the erect milkvetch transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. Moreover, 22,367 EST-SSR primer pairs (PPs) were successfully designed. In addition, 100 PPs were synthesized and preliminarily screened in two accessions; of these, 90 were determined to be clear and stable EST-SSR markers. Fifty-one PPs were randomly selected in order to assess the genetic diversity of 27 erect milkvetch accessions. The average polymorphism information content of the 51 PPs was 0.682. Greater genetic diversity was detected in accessions from Inner Mongolia and in the group of landrace and wild erect milkvetch accessions. This study provides an important resource for germplasm improvement and genetic diversity analysis in erect milkvetch.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos
6.
J Anim Sci ; 96(8): 3151-3160, 2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846606

RESUMO

Oat is a main feed crop in high- altitude areas of western China, but few studies have been done on its silage making. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silage additives on fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of different oat varieties (OV) grown in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. Two OV (Avena sativa L. cv. Longyan No.1 (OVL1) and Avena sativa L. cv. Longyan No.3 (OVL3)) were planted in a randomized complete block design, harvested at early dough stage with 32.6% and 34.1% DM, respectively. The fresh material was chopped to 2-cm length and treated with additives (0, Sila-Mix (MIX), Sila-Max (MAX) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three replicates. Both additives contained a mixture of lactic acid bacteria and supplied a final application rate of 2.5 × 108 of lactic acid bacteria per kg of fresh forage weight. After 60 d of ensiling, the number of lactic acid bacteria in treated silages was about 10-fold greater than the control and generally resulted in a lower pH and ammonia-nitrogen (P < 0.001), greater total acids and ratios of lactic acid/acetic acid (P < 0.001), and DM recovery (P = 0.028). Treatment with additives also decreased (P < 0.001) the number of yeasts, which resulted in marked (P < 0.001) improvements in aerobic stability with the effect being greatest with MAX. Both additives improved (P ≤ 0.036) the 48-h in situ DM digestion in OVL1, but not in OVL3 (P ≥ 0.052). Treatment with both additives also increased (P ≤ 0.003) NDF digestion in OVL1 while it was improved (P < 0.001) only by MAX in OVL3. In contrast, the additives did not affect (P ≥ 0.088) in situ hemicellulose digestion in OVL1, but it was improved (P = 0.048) by MIX and further improved (P = 0.002) by MAX in OVL3. Treatment with MAX improved yields of digestible DM and digestible NDF in both varieties. Dry matter recovery was not affected (P = 0.121) by variety. Compared to CTRL, silage treated with MAX had a greater (P = 0.015) DM recovery (96.7% vs. 93.9%). Inoculation improved (P < 0.001) aerobic stability. The MAX was the most effective for both varieties, while MIX was intermediate and was more effective in OVL3 than OVL1 silage. The results also showed that in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, compared to OVL1, OVL3 resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.002) yields of digestible nutrients; specifically, treated with MAX improved silage fermentation efficiency, DM recovery, and provided excellent aerobic stability for feeding to ruminants.


Assuntos
Avena , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Silagem/análise , Fermentação , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Tibet , Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 37(6): 731-4, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22715710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of long-term external use of Goupi Gao on renal function and lead accumulation in rats. METHOD: Rats were externally administered with Goupi Gao at different doses (7, 3.5 and 1.75 g x kg(-1)) for 90 d. At 45 days and 90 days after administration, the renal indicator, levels of blood urea nitrogen (BU) and creatinine (Cr) in serum, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in urine were determined. Lead content in kidneys was detected by atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULT: A 90-day administration with Goupi Gao significantly enhanced the renal indicator, levels of NAG in urine and lead content in renal, when compared with the normal rats. However, the levels of BUN and beta2-MG as well as renal pathology in Goupi Gao treated rats were not obviously changed. CONCLUSION: Consecutive administration of Goupi Gao for 90 days can increase the renal indicator and levels of NAG in urine, enhance the accumulation of lead in renal, but with no effect on excretory function of kidneys and organic changes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Rim/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Acetilglucosaminidase/urina , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Chumbo/análise , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Microglobulina beta-2/urina
8.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 46(10): 1221-4, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22242454

RESUMO

The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Jasminum/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 125(2): 265-8, 2009 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19580857

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum (JOG) is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. Phytochemical studies showed that secoiridoid glycosides are the typical constituents of this plant. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of oleuropein (Ole) derived from the flowers of JOG on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in HepG2 2.2.15 cell line in vitro and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in ducklings in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The extracellular hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by ELISA. DHBV in duck serum was analyzed by dot blot. RESULTS: Ole blocks effectively HBsAg secretion in HepG2 2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50)=23.2 microg/ml). Ole (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice daily) also reduced viremia in DHBV-infected ducks. CONCLUSION: Ole therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for HBV infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite Viral Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Jasminum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos , Flores , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B do Pato/fisiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/sangue , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Humanos , Iridoides , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 43(5): 513-7, 2008 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18717340

RESUMO

To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Jasminum/química , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/química , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Guaiacol/química , Guaiacol/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Iridoides/química , Estrutura Molecular , Plantas Medicinais/química
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 33(1): 38-42, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18338617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. METHOD: The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. RESULT: Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flores/química , Jasminum/química , Saponinas/química , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Yao Xue Xue Bao ; 42(10): 1066-9, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18229614

RESUMO

To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Jasminum/química , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Piranos/isolamento & purificação , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/química , Iridoides , Quempferóis/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Piranos/química
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