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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 555: 175-181, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819748

RESUMO

Microgravity and radiation exposure-induced bone damage is one of the most significant alterations in astronauts after long-term spaceflight. However, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Recent ground-based simulation studies have suggested that this impairment is likely mediated by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during spaceflight. The small Maf protein MafG is a basic-region leucine zipper-type transcription factor, and it globally contributes to regulation of antioxidant and metabolic networks. Our research investigated the role of MafG in the process of apoptosis induced by simulated microgravity and radiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that simulated microgravity or radiation alone decreased MafG expression and elevated apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells, and combined simulated microgravity and radiation treatment aggravated apoptosis. Meanwhile, under normal conditions, increased ROS levels facilitated apoptosis and downregulated the expression of MafG in MC3T3-E1 cells. Overexpression of MafG decreased apoptosis induced by simulated microgravity and radiation. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of bone damage induced by microgravity and radiation during space flight.

2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 80, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daqu is the most important fermentation starter for Chinese liquor, with large number of microbes and enzymes being openly enriched in the Daqu system over thousands of years. However, only a few enzymes have been analyzed with crude protein for total liquefying power and saccharifying power of Daqu. Therefore, the complex enzymatic system present in Daqu has not been completely characterized. Moreover, their pivotal and complicated functions in Daqu are completely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, a novel α-amylase NFAmy13B, from GH13_5 subfamily (according to the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes Database, CAZy) was successfully heterologous expressed by Escherichia coli from Chinese Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. It exhibited high stability ranging from pH 5.5 to 12.5, and higher specific activity, compared to other GH13_5 fungal α-amylases. Moreover, NFAmy13B did not show activity loss and retained 96% residual activity after pre-incubation at pH 11 for 21 h and pH 12 for 10 h, respectively. Additionally, 1.25 mM Ca2+ significantly improved its thermostability. NFAmy13B showed a synergistic effect on degrading wheat starch with NFAmy13A (GH13_1), another α-amylase from Daqu. Both enzymes could cleave maltotetraose and maltopentaose in same degradation pattern, and only NFAmy13A could efficiently degrade maltotriose. Moreover, NFAmy13B showed higher catalytic efficiency on long-chain starch, while NFAmy13A had higher catalytic efficiency on short-chain maltooligosaccharides. Their different catalytic efficiencies on starch and maltooligosaccharides may be caused by their discrepant substrate-binding region. CONCLUSIONS: This study mined a novel GH13_5 fungal α-amylase (NFAmy13B) with outstanding alkali resistance from Nong-flavor (NF) Daqu. Furthermore, its synergistic effect with NFAmy13A (GH13_1) on hydrolyzing wheat starch was confirmed, and their possible contribution in NF Daqu was also speculated. Thus, we not only provide a candidate α-amylase for industry, but also a useful strategy for further studying the interactions in the complex enzyme system of Daqu.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e2004542, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829543

RESUMO

Inorganic-organic hybrid molecular multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials, similar to multiferroic oxide compounds, have recently attracted increasing attention because they exhibit diverse architectures, a flexible framework, fascinating physics, and potential magnetoelectric functionalities in novel multifunctional devices such as energy transformation devices, sensors, and information storage systems. Herein, the classification of multiferroicity and magnetoelectricity is briefly outlined and then the recent advances in the multiferroicity and magnetoelectricity of inorganic-organic hybrid molecular materials, particularly magnetoelectricity and the relevant magnetoelectric mechanisms and their categories are summarized. In addition, a personal perspective and an outlook are provided.

4.
Int J Urol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report our single-center experience of the management of children with prostatic utricle cysts. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 children who were incidentally found to have a prostatic utricle cyst and were admitted to our department between October 2013 and August 2020. Clinical characteristics and management were collected and catalogued. RESULTS: Recurrent genitourinary tract infections were the most frequent complaint, and two-thirds of patients also had hypospadias. A connection between the posterior urethra and the prostatic utricle cyst was found in all cases. Two patients directly had their progressively enlarging prostatic utricle cyst resected laparoscopically. Endoscopic techniques were used in 13 patients, two of whom underwent laparoscopic excision for repeated symptoms. The mean (range) follow-up period was 34.9 (2-82) months. No recurrences were observed in four patients who underwent prostatic utricle cyst excision and eight patients who received endoscopic treatment. Three patients had recurrent symptoms after endoscopic treatment and were managed by nonsurgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic utricle cyst is a rare disease which can cause recurrent genitourinary tract infections. Extra attention should be paid to evaluation for prostatic utricle cyst in children with external genital anomalies. Retrograde urethrogram and magnetic resonance imaging are useful tools with which to distinguish prostatic utricle cyst from other cystic lesions that are located in the midline pelvis in male patients. Individualized treatment is appropriate when considering fertility preservation, recurrences and malignancy. Laparoscopic excision is feasible for symptomatic and large prostatic utricle cyst. Regular long-term monitoring is recommended for all patients with prostatic utricle cyst.

5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e9850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656056

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. However, there is no effective treatment for RSV infection. Here, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers to aid in the treatment of RSV infection. Children in the acute and convalescence phases of RSV infection were recruited and proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Subsequently, promising candidate proteins were determined by functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analysis, and underwent further validation by western blot both in clinical and mouse model samples. Among the 79 DEPs identified in RSV patient samples, 4 proteins (BPGM, TPI1, PRDX2, and CFL1) were confirmed to be significantly upregulated during RSV infection. Functional analysis showed that BPGM and TPI1 were mainly involved in glycolysis, indicating an association between RSV infection and the glycolysis metabolic pathway. Our findings provide insights into the proteomic profile during RSV infection and indicated that BPGM, TPI1, PRDX2, and CFL1 may be potential therapeutic biomarkers or targets for the treatment of RSV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Proteômica
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5260, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664278

RESUMO

Aphids are infected by a series of bacteria that can help them survive on specific host plants. However, the associations between aphids and these bacteria are not clear, and the bacterial communities in many aphid species are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) on 2 representative winter host plants and transferred to 3 summer host plants by 16S rDNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our results revealed that the bacterial communities varied among cotton aphids on hibiscus, cotton aphids on pomegranate, cotton aphids on cotton transferred from hibiscus, cotton aphids on muskmelon transferred from hibiscus, cotton aphids on cucumber transferred from hibiscus,. The diversity and richness of the bacterial communities were significantly higher in aphids on muskmelon and aphids on cucumber than in the other treatments. There were two main factors influencing the distribution of internal bacterial OTUs revealed by principal component analysis, including the differences among Punicaceae, Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. There were 28 bacterial communities with significant differences between two arbitrary treatments, which could be grouped into 6 main clusters depending on relative abundance. Moreover, our results indicated that in addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera, with a dominant position (> 52%), A. gossypii also harbored 3 facultative endosymbiotic bacteria (Serratia, Arsenophonus, and Wolbachia) and 3 possibly symbiotic bacteria (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, and Flavobacterium). There were several correspondences between the symbiotic bacteria in cotton aphids and the specific host plants of the aphids. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions among symbiotic bacteria, aphids and host plants, suggesting that the selection pressure on aphid bacterial communities is likely to be exerted by the species of host plants.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 171-176, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645067

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to study the effect and mechanism of fucoxanthin on insulin resistance of obese mice induced by high-fat diet. Fifty C57 BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into control group and high-fat diet group. The insulin resistance model was induced with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and model mice were randomly divided into model group, fucoxanthin-0.2% group, fucoxanthin-0.4% group and metformin group. After dietary treatment for 6 weeks, the body weight and epididymal fat weight in each group were measured. Fasting blood glucose(FBG), fasting insulin(FINS), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein(LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C) were measured, and insulin resistance index(HOMA-IR) was calcula-ted. The pathological morphology in liver was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the expressions of some key proteins in insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS-1)/posphoinositide 3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ(PPARγ)/sterol regulatory element binding protein-1(SREBP-1)/fatty acid synthetase(FAS) pathways in liver were detected by Western blot. According to the findings, compared with the model group, levels of body weight, epididymal fat weight, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL-C and HOMA-IR, as well as protein expressions of PPARγ, SREBP-1 and FAS in liver were significantly reduced(P<0.05 or P<0.01), while level of HDL-C and protein expressions of p-IRS-1, IRS-1, PI3 K and p-Akt in liver were signi-ficantly increased after treatment with fucoxanthin(P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the pathological changes of liver tissue in fucoxanthin-treated mice were also improved obviously. The results showed that fucoxanthin could improve obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and alleviate insulin resistance in obese mice, and its mechanism is possibly related to the regulation of IRS-1/PI3 K/Akt and PPARγ/SREBP-1/FAS pathways.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Insulina , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Xantofilas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650846

RESUMO

Efficient and safe cleanup for the high-viscosity heavy oil spill has been a worldwide challenge due to its sluggish flowability, while classic absorption methods by electric/solar heating are seriously limited by low efficiency and high fire hazards during heating of highly flammable oil. Facing this dilemma, we reported a novel flame-retardant photothermal conversion nanocoating to endow commercial foams with highly efficient and safe heavy oil cleanup absorption. This multifunctional nanocoating consisting of nano-Fe3O4 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) that both showed photothermal conversion ability and non-flammable nature can be firmly deposited on the polymer foam skeletons via facile coprecipitation and dip-coating processes. The composite foam showed a tough morphology with high hydrophobicity and low density, thus leading to selective high absorption for various oils and organic solvents. Due to the double photothermal conversion effects of nano-Fe3O4 and rGO, the temperature of the foam can be rapidly heated at a rate of ∼103.5 °C/min (the fastest rate ever) under 1 sun irradiation. Consequently, the foam with a high absorption capacity of 75.1 times its weight demonstrated a rapid absorption rate of 9000 g m-2 min-1 for large-viscosity oil under 1 sun irradiation, which was 3 times faster than previously reported. Furthermore, benefitting from high flame retardancy, elasticity, and magnetism, the foam can be safely and repeatedly used for magnetically controllable oil cleanup absorption, which effectively avoids oil spill hazards.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116834, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714787

RESUMO

In this work, the ammonium-tolerant duckweed Landoltia punctata 0202 was used to study the effect of ammonium stress on carbon and nitrogen metabolism and elucidate the detoxification mechanism. The growth status, protein and starch content, and activity of nitrogen assimilation enzymes were determined, and the transcriptional levels of genes involved in ion transport and carbon and nitrogen metabolism were investigated. Under high ammonium stress, the duckweed growth was inhibited, especially when ammonium was the sole nitrogen source. Ammonium might mainly enter cells via low-affinity transporters. The stimulation of potassium transport genes suggested sufficient potassium acquisition, precluding cation deficiency. In addition, the up-regulation of ammonium assimilation and transamination indicated that excess ammonium could be incorporated into organic nitrogen. Furthermore, the starch content increased from 3.97% to 16.43% and 26.02% in the mixed-nitrogen and ammonium-nitrogen groups, respectively. And the up-regulated starch synthesis, degradation, and glycolysis processes indicated that the accumulated starch could provide sufficient carbon skeletons for excess ammonium assimilation. The findings of this study illustrated that the coordination of carbon and nitrogen metabolism played a vital role in the ammonium detoxification mechanism of duckweeds.

10.
Fitoterapia ; 151: 104877, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667564

RESUMO

Five new flavonol glycosides (1-5), one new phenylpropanoid glycoside (6), and nine known glycosides (7-15) were isolated from the stems and leaves of Neoshirakia japonica. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and acid hydrolysis experiment. The antineuroinflammatory effects of all the isolates were evaluated by inhibiting NO production against LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 1, 8, and 9 showed more potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 2.7, 5.5, and 4.1 µM, respectively, than that of the positive control minocycline (IC50 = 15.6 µM), while compounds 7 (IC50 = 17.0 µM) and 10 (IC50 = 24.3 µM) also displayed inhibitory activities to a certain degree.

11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111380, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601146

RESUMO

Iron is an essential trace element in the metabolism of almost all living organisms. Iron overload can disrupt bone homeostasis by significant inhibition of osteogenic differentiation and stimulation of osteoclastogenesis, consequently leading to osteoporosis. Iron accumulation is also involved in the osteoporosis induced by multiple factors, such as estrogen deficiency, ionizing radiation, and mechanical unloading. Iron chelators are first developed for treating iron overloaded disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that iron chelators can be potentially used for the treatment of bone loss. In this review, we focus on the therapeutic effects of iron chelators on bone loss. Iron chelators have therapeutic effects not only on iron overload induced osteoporosis, but also on osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, ionizing radiation, and mechanical unloading, and in Alzheimer's disease-associated osteoporotic deficits. Iron chelators differently affect the cellular behaviors of bone cells. For osteoblast lineage cells (bone mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblasts), iron chelation stimulates osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, iron chelation significantly inhibits osteoclast differentiation. These different responses may be associated with the different needs of iron during differentiation. Fibroblast growth factor 23, angiogenesis, and antioxidant capability are also involved in the osteoprotective effects of iron chelators.

12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 272: 113917, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609729

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qingxin Lianzi Yin Decoction (QXLZY), a Chinese classical formula, has been widely used in the treatment of various chronic kidney diseases over 1,000 years. However, the current studies on QXLZY were mostly focused on its clinical efficacy, lacking systematic material basis research on constituents. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aims to elucidate and quantify the chemical constituents, clarify the blood-absorbed components and excretion pathways, predict major bioactive constituents and discover potential therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS was employed to clarify the chemical constituents and metabolites of QXLZY. The extraction of diagnostic ion and neutral loss fragment was aimed for searching specific type of constituents. The plasma, urine, bile and feces samples of rats after oral administration of QXLZY were systematically studied. UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously detect different types of constitutes. Based on the analysis of ingredients in vivo, the bioactive constituents and potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was investigated by using network pharmacological analysis. RESULTS: Totally, 220 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS. Among them, 59 compounds were confirmed by reference standards. Meanwhile, 21 representative components were simultaneously determined within 15 min by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. 123 components (74 prototypes as well as 49 metabolites) were identified or tentatively characterized. By using network pharmacological analysis, baicalein, liquiritigenin, succinic acid, formononetin, wogonin might be the major effective constituents in QXLZY during the treatment of DN. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoids, saponins and organic acids were the major chemical ingredients of QXLZY. Flavonoids were the main components absorbed into blood, followed by organic acids. Phase II conjugation reaction was the major metabolic type. The pathways that QXLZY in the treatment of DN were probably related to glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577448

RESUMO

Text encoding is one of the most important steps in Natural Language Processing (NLP). It has been done well by the self-attention mechanism in the current state-of-the-art Transformer encoder, which has brought about significant improvements in the performance of many NLP tasks. Though the Transformer encoder may effectively capture general information in its resulting representations, the backbone information, meaning the gist of the input text, is not specifically focused on. In this paper, we propose explicit and implicit text compression approaches to enhance the Transformer encoding and evaluate models using this approach on several typical downstream tasks that rely on the encoding heavily. Our explicit text compression approaches use dedicated models to compress text, while our implicit text compression approach simply adds an additional module to the main model to handle text compression. We propose three ways of integration, namely backbone source-side fusion, target-side fusion, and both-side fusion, to integrate the backbone information into Transformer-based models for various downstream tasks. Our evaluation on benchmark datasets shows that the proposed explicit and implicit text compression approaches improve results in comparison to strong baselines. We therefore conclude, when comparing the encodings to the baseline models, text compression helps the encoders to learn better language representations.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619966

RESUMO

The magnetodielectric effect is closely related to multiferroic or magnetoelectric coupling; thus, it can be used to predict magnetoelectric coupling, especially in compounds with special magnetic properties. The magnetodielectric response can often be used to predict many interesting and meaningful physical coupling mechanisms. Therefore, fabricating magnetodielectric materials is an effective step toward the development of magnetoelectric materials. Herein, we synthesize the mixed-valence layered ferrimagnetic molecular compound (C6N2H14)FeIII2FeIIF8(HCOO)2 (1) and demonstrate that it exhibits both slow magnetic relaxation behavior and long-range magnetic order. This long-range order occurs because of the coexistence and competition between two typical magnetic interactions, namely, an FeIII-F-FeII superexchange and a long-distance superexchange FeII-O-C-O-FeIII-F-FeIII path in the interlayer and interchain spin frustration. Notably, this compound also demonstrates two abnormal dielectric relaxation processes: the first process is dominated by dynamic guest cations, while the other process is related to the increasing magnetic correlation. Over a wide temperature range below 170 K, the magnetodielectric effect reveals that the magnetic correlation maybe promotes electron dynamics and leads to magnetodielectric coupling. These findings pave a novel path for designing magnetodielectric molecular materials.

15.
Cryobiology ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561454

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is one antioxidant enzyme which could control the levels of reactive oxygen species and to avoid oxidative damage of sperm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the position change of PRDX6 in human sperm under oxidative stress during cryopreservation. Semen samples were obtained from 98 healthy donors and 27 asthenozoospermic donors. The plasma membrane protein and cytoplasmic protein of sperm samples were extracted and analyzed after cryopreservation. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to measure the expressions of PRDX6. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed to confirm the component of sperm membrane complex. Western blot showed that the detection rate of PRDX6 in plasma membranes with low sperm motility (≤20%) was significantly higher than that with high sperm motility (≥40%). Western blot and Immunofluorescence revealed that cryopreservation and thawing induced the position change of the PRDX6 from cytoplasm to sperm membrane. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that PRDX6, ADP/ATP translocase 4 (ANT4) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphte dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) were present in the components of membrane complex after cryopreservation. The present study indicated that the presence of PRDX6 in sperm plasma membrane was related to sperm motility. GAPDHS and ANT4 may be involved the position change of the PRDX6 from cytoplasm to sperm membrane under oxidative stress during cryopreservation.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145216, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513505

RESUMO

Duckweed-based waste stabilization ponds (DWPs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment. However, the effects of sediment, an essential component of DWPs, on their performance have rarely been studied. In this study, two pilot-scale DWPs (12 m2) with sediment (DPS) and without sediment (DP) were evaluated over more than 1 year to determine the effects of sediment on duckweed growth, wastewater treatment, and greenhouse gas (GHG) production and emission in DWPs. The results indicated that the annual average duckweed growth rate were comparable, but protein content, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) recovery rates of duckweed were slightly higher in the DPS than in the DP. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation reduction potential (ORP), removal efficiencies of COD, TP, TN, NH4+-N, and turbidity of pond water from the DPS were significantly lower than for DP. More importantly, the DPS had considerably higher CH4 production/emission and global warming potential (GWP) than the DP, even though more than 90% of CH4 released from the sediment was consumed during its passage through the water column and duckweed layer. Sediment increased the recoveries of C and N by 7.94% and 8.82%, respectively. Influencing degree for COD, TP, TN, NH4+-N and turbidity were -27.92%, -20.98%, -22.61%, -24.13% and -14.91%, respectively; for pond water DO and ORP, the values were - 35.68% and -44.59%, respectively; and for CO2, CH4 and N2O emission and "combined GWP", they were 21.66%, 271.67%, -8.47% and 178.02%, respectively. Thus, this study indicates that sediment formed in the DWPs has a multi-faced effect on the performance of a DWP. In particular, sediment has an unfavourable effect on the wastewater treatment and the GHGs mitigation, but a favourable effect on the protein content and the C and N recoveries in duckweed.


Assuntos
Araceae , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Nitrogênio , Tanques
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(4): 1669-1681, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511441

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is closely related to host health and disease. However, there are no suitable animal models available at present for exploring its functions. We analyzed the effect of 3 different antibiotic cocktails (ABx) via two administration routes on the composition of murine gut microbiota, as well as on the general physiological and metabolic indices. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing showed that ABx treatment altered the gut microbiota community structure, and also caused low-degree inflammation in the colon. In addition, ad libitum administration of antibiotics depleted the gut microbiota more effectively compared to direct oral gavage, especially with 3ABx. The ABx treatment also had a significant impact on renal and liver functions, as indicated by the altered serum levels of creatinine, urea, total triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Finally, Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the predominant bacterial genera resulting from ABx intervention, including Lactobacillus, Roseburia, and Candidatus-Saccharimonas, were negatively correlated with renal function indices. Taken together, different antibiotic combinations and interventions deplete the gut microbiota and induce physiological changes in the host. Our findings provide the basis for developing an adaptive animal model for studying gut microbiota. KEY POINTS: • Ad libitum administration of 3ABx can effectively deplete intestinal microbiota. • ABx treatment may have slight effect on renal and liver function. • The levels of urea and creatinine correlated with the growth of Roseburia.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412268

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Financial toxicity is a priority concern faced by cancer patients and oncology providers. A validated instrument is important to measure this toxicity and improve health-related quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity and responsiveness of the Chinese version of the COmprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) and to measure financial toxicity using the COST instrument in Chinese health care systems. METHODS: A longitudinal observational study was performed at three cancer centers from March 2017 to October 2018 for eligible patients. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The convergent and discriminant validity was tested by examining the correlation coefficient. Responsiveness was tested using the standardized response mean and effect size. Associations between the financial toxicity and variables were assessed by multivariable linear analysis. RESULTS: There were 440 participants at baseline and 268 participants at 6-month follow up. A two-factor solution better represented the Chinese version of COST structure with good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity showed mild to moderate correlations between the domains of COST and the similar domains of Self-Perceived Burden Scale and Quality of Life Discriminant validity showed a low correlation between the COST and the subjective support of Social Support Rate Scale. Sensitivity to change at the sixth month showed effect sizes with global COST scores of 0.3. Multivariable analysis showed that age, household income, and health insurance were significantly associated with financial toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of COST is a valid and clinically responsive instrument. The identified baseline variables can be used to provide evidence for a financial toxicity intervention study.

19.
Environ Int ; 148: 106383, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) rapidly increased over the past decades. However, little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on MetS in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between long-term ambient air pollution and the prevalence of MetS in a large population of Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: In 2013, a total of 9,897 children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were recruited from seven provinces/municipalities in China. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Satellite based spatio-temporal models were used to estimate exposure to ambient air pollution (including particles with diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)). Individual exposure was calculated according to 94 schools addresses. After adjustment for a range of covariates, generalized linear mixed-effects models were utilized to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS and its components. In addition, several stratified analyses were examined according to sex, weight status, outdoor physical activity time, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 2.8%. The odds ratio of MetS associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was 1.20 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.46), 1.31 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.64), 1.32 (95%CI: 1.08, 1.62), and 1.33 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.72), respectively. Regarding the MetS components, we observed associations between all pollutants and abdominal obesity. In addition, long-term PM1 and NO2 exposures were associated with the prevalence of elevated fasting blood glucose. Stratified analyses detected that the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS were stronger in boys (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were positively associated with the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents. Our findings may have certain public health implications for some comprehensive strategy of environment improvement and lifestyles changes in order to reduce the burden of non-communicable disease.

20.
Arch Microbiol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394080

RESUMO

The gut microbiota inhabits the animal intestinal tract, and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may result in disease. Senecio scandens has pharmaceutical antibacterial activities and is regarded as a broad-spectrum antibiotic in traditional Chinese medicine. Extracts of S. scandens are reported to show strong antimicrobial activity, and quercetin significantly decreases some species in the caecal microflora. However, the bactericidal effects of the extracts on the gut microbiota remain obscure. Here, we supplied ethanol extract of S. scandens, which might possibly be used as an alternative for chemical antibiotics, to mice to investigate the state of the intestinal microbiota. Our studies included a control group, low-, moderate-, and high-dose ethanol extract groups, and cefixime capsule group. The ethanol extract groups did not present reduced diversity or differences in the gut microbiota balance. There were significant differences between the ethanol extract and cefixime capsule groups in terms of the gut microbiota. The control and ethanol extract groups contained similar bacteria, which suggested that the ethanol extract has no inhibitory effect on the gut microbiota in vivo. Bifidobacteriales and Lactobacillus acidophilus were significantly increased in the high-dose group. Both secretory immunoglobulin A and mucin 2 concentrations increased as the dose of ethanol extract increased. The functional prediction differences between the control and ethanol extract groups decreased with increasing extract doses, which indicated that the low-dose and high-dose extract treatments might regulate different pathways and functions of the gut microbiota. The results also highlighted the prevention of bacterial drug resistance in the ethanol extract groups.

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