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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(8): 1573-1587, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090321

RESUMO

UPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS was used to analyze,identify and attribute the chemical constituents in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4.6 mm × 150 mm,3.5 µm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol-0.1% formic solution system at the flow rate of 0.5 m L·min-1. The sample volume was 2 µL. The column temperature was30 ℃. The high-resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry was used as detector,with electrospray ion source in both positive and negative models,and the MS scanning ranged between m/z 50 and 2 000. Based on the analysis of mass spectrometry and literature reports,79 compounds were confirmed,including 30 alkaloids,28 organic acids,18 flavonoids and 3 coumarins. Finally,39 compounds,such as rutin,esculetin,gallic acid,caffeic acid,cichoric acid,were identified from Taraxacum mongolicum; 11 compounds,such as baicalin,baicalein,apigenin,chrysin,oroxylin A,were identified from Scutellaria baicalensis; 13 compounds,such as arginine,proline,hypoxanthine,epigoitrin,indirubin,were identified from Isatis indigotica; and 18 compounds,such as dehydrocheilanthifoline,oxysanguinarine,corynoline,protopine,spallidamine,were identified from Corydalis bungeana. After the analysis of chemical model and attribution,the contents of some compounds were high in Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,such as baicalin,wogonoside,baicalein,wogonin,apigenin,chrysin,skullcapflavonⅡ,oroxylin A,cichoric acid,chlorogenic acid,caffeic acid,esculetin,dehydrocheilanthifoline,dihydrosanguinarine,protopine,corynoline and indirubin. The established method is simple,accurate,rapid,sensitive and reproducible,and thus suitable for the qualitative identification and quantitative determination of Pudilan Antiphlogistic Oral Liquid,which lays a foundation for the systematic quality control and the establishment of whole-course traceability system of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(1): 158-166, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868827

RESUMO

In order to find the endogenous potential biomarkers of in vitro hepatic injury caused by NCTD-Na and elucidate the mechanism of hepatic injury of NCTD-Na,ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used for lipidomics detection.Multivariate statistical analysis was used to study the endogenous lipid metabolic changes of human normal liver cells LO2 injury after the treatment with sodium norcantharidate(NCTD-Na).The results showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration(IC50) of NCTD-Na was 0.034 mmol·L-1.A total of 280 differential metabolites were found between the control group and the low-dose group,with VIP > 2.0 and P<0.05.At the same time,a total of 273 differential metabolites were found between the control group and the high-dose group,with VIP > 2.0 and P<0.05.Cell metabolite profiles showed clear separation among control group,the low-dose group and the high-dose group,and 111 differential metabolites were found,with VIP > 2.0,P<0.05,RSD<30% and in a dose-dependent manner.It was found that most of the above differential metabolites were lipid metabolites after the analysis of simple preparnation methods and database search.A total of 32 potential biomarkers were identified,including 3 phosphatidylcholine(PC),5 lysophosphatidylcholine(Lyso PC),3 ceramide(Cer),1 sphingomyelin(SM),1 phosphatidylethanolamine(PE),10 lysophosphatidylethanolamine(LysoPE),4 diacylglycerol(DG),1 Phosphatidic acid(PA),1 lysophosphatidic acid(Lyso PA),1 phosphatidyl glycerol(PG),1 fatty acid hydroxy fatty acid(FAHFA) and 1 phosphatidylserine(PS).The changes of PCs,Cers,SM,PE and DGs were closely related liver protection,DNA methylation and self-repair in hepatocytes,apoptosis,methylation and detoxification of carcinogens,as well as lipid peroxides production process.Also,they had impact on the proliferation of hepatocytes,differentiation and gene transcription disorders.Cells stimulated by NCTD-Na could promote the production of PA as well as the synthesis and catabolism of FAHFA in a variety of ways.The levels of Lyso PCs,LysoPEs and Lyso PA were correlated with PCs,PE and PA;PE and PS might have valgus during apoptosis,triggering phagocytosis.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Células Cultivadas , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Int J Oncol ; 53(6): 2488-2502, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272276

RESUMO

Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal intracranial tumor type, characterized by high angiogenic and infiltrative capacities. To provide a novel insight into therapeutic strategies against glioblastoma, the cytotoxicity of arenobufagin and hellebrigenin was investigated in the human glioblastoma cell line, U-87. Similar dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in the cells, whereas no detectable toxicity was confirmed in mouse primary astrocytes. Treatment with each drug downregulated the expression levels of Cdc25C, Cyclin B1 and survivin, which occurred in parallel with G2/M phase arrest. Necrotic-like cell death was only observed in the cells treated with a relatively high concentration (>100 ng/ml). These results indicate that the two drugs exhibited distinct cytotoxicity against cancerous glial cells with high potency and selectivity, suggesting that growth inhibition associated with G2/M phase arrest and/or necrosis were attributed to their toxicities. Activation of the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also observed in treated cells. Notably, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, itself caused a significant decrease in cell viability, and further enhanced the cytotoxicity of the two drugs, suggesting an important pro-survival role for p38 MAPK. Given that p38 MAPK serves an essential role in promoting glioblastoma cell survival, developing a novel combination regimen of arenobufagin/hellebrigenin plus a p38 MAPK inhibitor may improve the efficacy of the two drugs, and may provide more therapeutic benefits to patients with glioblastoma. The qualitative assessment demonstrated the existence of arenobufagin in the cerebrospinal fluid of arenobufagin-treated rats, supporting its clinical application.

5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(14): 3006-3011, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111062

RESUMO

To study the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients (alkaloids, iridoids and flavonoids) in Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and investigate its mechanism in treatment of AD. All of rats were divided into normal control group (n=6), shame operation group (n=6) and model group (n=12). Rats in shame operation group received daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal 50 mg·kg⁻¹) for a total of 45 d to induce subacute aging model. Based on the operation of shame operation group, the rats in model group were given with an injection of Aß25₋35 (4.0 g·L⁻¹)-ibotenic acid (2.0 g·L⁻¹) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Then rats in model group were divided into HLJDD one day administration group (n=6) and HLJDD one week group (n=6). The plasma concentration of alkaloids, iridoid and flavonoids was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) at different time points. The levels of seven inflammatory factors (MIP-2, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α) in cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) were measured by Bio-Plex multi-factor detection technology. Iridoids in AD model rats, with high bioavailability, were easily absorbed and eliminated. The plasma concentration of alkaloid was lower, and the AUC (area under the curve) was higher in HLJDD one week group than that in HLJDD one day group. The plasma concentration-time curves of flavonoids showed obvious bimodal phenomena. After the gastric administration of HLJDD, the inflammatory factors in CSF of AD rats demonstrated a callback trend, including IL-1ß/IL-10 (P<0.05) with significant difference. The pharmacokinetic behaviors of iridoids, alkaloids and flavonoids (41 compounds) in AD model rats were fundamentally elucidated, and HLJDD can improve the central inflammatory status of AD rats by regulating the levels of inflammatory factors.

6.
Tissue Cell ; 52: 1-8, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857817

RESUMO

Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) mediates cellular resistance toward various forms of stress. SIRT3 expression in the developing brain, especially its localization in various glial cell types, has not been fully explored. This study aimed to determine SIRT3 expression in the brain of neonatal rats subjected to hypoxia. By immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting, we show here that SIRT3 expression in the periventricular white matter was up-regulated in hypoxia group compared with the control group at the corresponding time points. Intense SIRT3 expression was detected in microglia at early time points after hypoxia whose cell number was increased with reduced ramifications in hypoxia group compared with the control group. Furthermore, SIRT3 immunoreactivity was obviously enhanced at 24 h, 3 and 7d, but was declined at 14d after hypoxia so that SIRT3 expression between the two groups was comparable. SIRT3 immunofluorescence was also localized in astrocytes labeled with GFAP which was augmented at different time points in hypoxia group. GPAP positive astrocytes exhibited long extending processes being most pronounced at 3d. SIRT3 was moderately expressed at 24 h, 3 and 7d, but was markedly increased at 14d after hypoxia. Moderate SIRT3 expression was also localized in oligodendrocytes labeled with CNPase in the control group. The incidence of CNPase positive oligodendrocytes showing colocalization of SIRT3 increased significantly at 24 h, 3 and 7d after hypoxia. In conclusion, SIRT3 expression was differentially up-regulated in all three major glial cell types following hypoxia. It is suggested that increased SIRT3 expression in the respective glial cell types following hypoxia is involved in different signaling pathways that protect against hypoxic stress in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Sirtuínas/biossíntese , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(11): 2917-2924, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504397

RESUMO

Formononetin and its glycoside ononin are bioactive isoflavones widely present in legumes. The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and in vitro absorption of formononetin and ononin. After an oral administration to rats, formononetin showed a higher systemic exposure over ononin. The oral bioavailability of formononetin and ononin were 21.8% and 7.3%, respectively. Ononin was more bioavailable than perceived, and its bioavailability reached 21.7% when its metabolite formononetin was taken into account. Both formononetin and ononin exhibited better absorption in large intestine segments than that in small intestine segments. Formononetin displayed a better permeability in all intestinal segments over ononin. Transport of formononetin across Caco-2 cell monolayer was mainly through passive diffusion, while ononin was actively pumped out by MRP2 but not P-gp. The results provide evidence for better understanding of the pharmacological actions of formononetin and ononin, which advocates more in vivo evaluations or human trials.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Isoflavonas/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/química , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1532-1538, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071858

RESUMO

Biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) emphasizes characteristic of the multi-component environment based on the drug solubility and permeability. In this study, the in situ closed-loop method combined with LC-MS technique was utilized to study the intestinal absorption and metabolism of Puerariae Lobatae Radix decoction (PLRD), providing selection basis for intestinal permeability components in CMMBCS. A total of 36 components were identified from PLRD. Among them, 17 components could be detected in the plasma sample, indicating that 17 components could be absorbed into blood, so these 17 components could be used as intestinal permeability evaluation components in CMMBCS. The other 19 components were not detected in the plasma sample, suggesting that they may not be absorbed or metabolized by the gut wall enzymes.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Pueraria/química , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 55-64, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28461119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and deadly breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options. It is necessary to seek complementary strategies for TNBC management. Taraxacum mongolicum, commonly named as dandelion, is a herb medicine with anti-cancer activity and has been utilized to treat mammary abscess, hyperplasia of mammary glands from ancient time in China, but the scientific evidence and action mechanisms still need to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was intended to investigate the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanisms of dandelion extract in TNBC cell line. METHODOLOGY: Dandelion extract was prepared and purified, and then its chemical composition was determined. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Analysis of cell apoptosis and cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of mRNA and proteins were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and CHOP siRNA were used to confirm the cell apoptosis induced by dandelion extract. RESULTS: Dandelion extract significantly decreased MDA-MB-231cell viability, triggered G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Concurrently, it caused a markedly increase of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP proteins. Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK abolished the apoptosis triggered by dandelion extract. The three ER stress-related signals were strongly induced after dandelion treatment, including increased mRNA expressions of ATF4, ATF6, XBP1s, GRP78 and CHOP genes, elevated protein levels of phosphorylated PERK, eIF-2α, IRE1, as well as the downstream molecules of CHOP and GRP78. MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with CHOP siRNA significantly reduced apoptosis induced by dandelion extract. The underlying mechanisms at least partially ascribe to the strong activation of PERK/p-eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP axis. CONCLUSION: ER stress related cell apoptosis accounted for the anti-cancer effect of dandelion extract, and these findings support dandelion extract might be a potential therapeutic approach to treat TNBC.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Taraxacum/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Oncol Rep ; 36(3): 1377-84, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431260

RESUMO

The growth inhibitory effects of bufadienolide compounds were investigated in two intractable cancer cells, a human glioblastoma cell line U-87 and a pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. Among four bufadienolide compounds, a dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in these cancer cells after treatment with gamabufotalin and arenobufagin. The IC50 values of the two compounds were 3-5 times higher in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) than these values for both cancer cell lines. However, similar phenomena were not observed for two other bufadienolide compounds, telocinobufagin and bufalin. These results thus suggest that gamabufotalin and arenobufagin possess selective cytotoxic activity against tumor cells rather than normal cells. Moreover, a clear dose-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, a well-known hallmark of necrosis, was observed in both cancer cells treated with gamabufotalin, suggesting that gamabufotalin-mediated cell death is predominantly associated with a necrosis-like phenotype. Of most importance, treatment with as little as 8 ng/ml of gamabufotalin, even an almost non-toxic concentration to PBMCs, efficiently downregulated the percentages of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulator T (Treg) cells in mitogen-activated PBMCs. Given that Treg cells play a critical role in tumor immunotolerance by suppressing antitumor immunity, these results suggest that gamabufotalin may serve as a promising candidate, as an adjuvant therapeutic agent by manipulating Treg cells to enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs and lessen their side-effects. These findings provide insights into the clinical application of gamabufotalin for cancer patients with glioblastoma/pancreatic cancer based on its cytocidal effect against tumor cells as well as its depletion of Treg cells.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156256, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280291

RESUMO

Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula with heat-dissipating and detoxifying effects. It is used to treat inflammation-associated diseases. However, no systematic pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data concerning the activity of HLJDD under inflammatory conditions is available to date. In the present study, the concentration-time profiles and the hepatic clearance rates (HCR) of 41 major components in rat plasma in response to the oral administration of a clinical dose of HLJDD were investigated by LC-QqQ-MS using a dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM) method. Additionally, the levels of 7 cytokines (CKs) in the plasma and the body temperature of rats were analyzed. Furthermore, a PK-PD model was established to describe the time course of the hemodynamic and anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDD. As one of the three major active constituents in HLJDD, iridoids were absorbed and eliminated more easily and quickly than alkaloids and flavonoids. Compared with the normal controls, the flavonoids, alkaloids and iridoids in inflamed rats exhibited consistently changing trends of PK behaviors, such as higher bioavailability, slower elimination, delays in reaching the maximum concentration (Tmax) and longer substantivity. The HCR of iridoids was different from that of alkaloids and flavonoids in inflamed rats. Furthermore, excellent pharmacodynamic effects of HLJDD were observed in inflamed rats. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and body temperature significantly decreased after the administration of HLJDD. Based on PK-PD modeling with the three-phase synchronous characterization of time-concentration-effect, flavonoids exhibited one mechanism of action in the anti-inflammatory process, while iridoids and alkaloids showed another mechanism of action. Taken together, the results demonstrated that HLJDD may restrain inflammation synergistically via its major constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids and iridoids). A correlation between the exposure concentration of different types of compounds and their anti-inflammatory effects in the body was shown. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the anti-inflammatory activity of HLJDD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Citocinas/sangue , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 30(11): 1757-1765, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106066

RESUMO

Marsdenia tenacissima, which is widely used as an anticancer herb in traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to possess anticancer activity. However, its metabolic profile is poorly investigated. Tenacigenin B is the major steroidal skeleton of C-21 steroids in M. tenacissima. Tenacissoside H and Tenacissoside I are detected at relatively high levels in M. tenacissima. Therefore, we studied their metabolic characteristics in human liver microsomes by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Fourteen metabolites were tentatively identified by accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation behavior. It was found that hydroxylation reactions were the major metabolic pathway of Tenacissoside H and Tenacissoside I in human liver microsomes, whereas the metabolic pathway of Tenacigenin B involved dehydrogenation reactions. This is the first time that the metabolic profile of C-21 steroids from M. tenacissima has been explored in human liver microsomes, which is of great significance for subsequent pharmacokinetic and interaction research. Biotransformation in vivo or in vitro may influence the structure of a compound and change its activity. Identification of their fragmentation behaviors and metabolites provides valuable and new information for further understanding the anti-tumor activity of M. tenacissima. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Marsdenia/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Fitosteróis/química , Saponinas/química , Esteroides/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(16): 3084-3089, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920353

RESUMO

Piperine, piperlonguminine and pellitorine are three major amide alkaloids from Piper longum, showing a variety of pharmacological activities. In order to investigate the different metabolism pathways of these compounds in five species of liver microsomes in vitro, the data of full mass spectrum, and MS2, MS3 spectra of these three alkaloids were collected and analyzed by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS); gragment ion information was collected and combined with fragmentation regularities of mass spectra and accurate mass spectrometry data of metabolites, to compare the metabolism difference of three amide alkaloids in liver microsomes of human, rhesus monkey, Beagle dogs, rats and mice. 3 metabolites of piperine, 2 metabolites of piperlonguminine and 1 metabolite of pellitorine were identified quickly. The results showed that the major metabolic pathways of these amide alkaloids in liver microsomes were methylenedioxy group demethylation and oxidation reaction, and metabolic rates were different between species. This study provides basis for further research on in vivo metabolism of piperine analogues from Piper longum.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Piper/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cães , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(20): 3767-3772, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929654

RESUMO

Fifteen compounds were isolated from the toad skin by a combination of various chromatographic methods including macroporous resin, silica gel, ODS and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as 4,5-dimethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-6-ol(1), serotonin(2), N-methyl serotonin(3), O-methyl bufotenine(4), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-ß-carboline(5), O-methylserotonin(6), glycinebetaine(7), caffeine(8), bufotenine(9), shepherdine(10), tryptophan(11), (5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid(12), 5-hydroxy tryptophol(13), 2-methyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-ß-carboline(14), bufothionine(15). Among them, compound 1 was a new compound,compound 5 was a new natural product. Compounds 4-8 and 10-14 were separated from toad skin for the first time.


Assuntos
Bufonidae , Pele/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(20): 3792-3797, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929657

RESUMO

This study is to determine five naphthaquinones (acetylshikonin, ß-acetoxyisovalerylalkannin, isobutylshikonin, ß,ß'-dimethylacrylalkannin,α-methyl-n-butylshikonin) by quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker (QAMS). ß,ß'-Dimethylacrylalkannin was selected as the internal reference substance, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs) of acetylshikonin, ß-acetoxyisovalerylalkannin, isobutylshikonin and α-methyl-n-butylshikonin were calculated. Then the ruggedness of relative correction factors was tested on different instruments and columns. Meanwhile, 16 batches of Arnebia euchroma were analyzed by external standard method (ESM) and QAMS, respectively. The peaks were identifited by LC-MS. The ruggedness of relative correction factors was good. And the analytical results calculated by ESM and QAMS showed no difference. The quantitative method established was feasible and suitable for the quality evaluation of A. euchroma.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Naftoquinonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1178-1182, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879727

RESUMO

The multiple components in Chinese herbal medicines (CHMS) will experience complex absorption and metabolism before entering the blood system. Previous studies often lay emphasis on the components in blood. However, the dynamic and sequential absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration has not been studied. In this study, the in situ closed-loop method combined with LC-MS techniques were employed to study the sequential process of Chuanxiong Rhizoma decoction (RCD). A total of 14 major components were identified in RCD. Among them, ferulic acid, senkyunolide J, senkyunolide I, senkyunolide F, senkyunolide G, and butylidenephthalide were detected in all of the samples, indicating that the six components could be absorbed into blood in prototype. Butylphthalide, E-ligustilide, Z-ligustilide, cnidilide, senkyunolide A and senkyunolide Q were not detected in all the samples, suggesting that the six components may not be absorbed or metabolized before entering the hepatic portal vein. Senkyunolide H could be metabolized by the liver, while senkyunolide M could be metabolized by both liver and intestinal flora. This study clearly demonstrated the changes in the absorption and metabolism process following multi-component oral administration of RCD, so as to convert the static multi-component absorption process into a comprehensive dynamic and continuous absorption and metabolism process.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rizoma/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(14): 2669-2674, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905604

RESUMO

In this study, 10 samples of parasites, cursive, and the whole from six different species of Cordyceps were determined and compared by HPLC and LC-MS methods. Uridine, adenosine, and cordycepin were selected as the main evaluation index. The anti-fibrotic activity of different species Cordyceps extracts was observed using in vitro TGF-ß1-induced ECM accumulation in human embryonic fibroblasts CCC-ESF-1. The results demonstrated that the number of atoms and hyphae ingredients of different species showed little difference, however, the content distribution of each component has obvious significance. The in vitro anti-fibrotic activities of different species were as follow: Cordyceps flower > Cicada Cordyceps (Cicada flower)> Silkworm Cordyceps> Tussah Cordyceps>natural Cordyceps. Our preliminary data could serve as reference for the discovery of artificial alternatives of natural Cordyceps.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenosina/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiadenosinas/farmacologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Uridina/farmacologia
18.
Xenobiotica ; 46(1): 65-81, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26084375

RESUMO

1. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD) is widely used for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, inflammation and neural system diseases in clinic. In the present study, the comprehensive metabolic profile of HLJDD was demonstrated reliably and rapidly followed by the metabolic pathway analysis of six typical pure compounds (four alkaloids, one flavonoid and one iridoid) in HLJDD using LC-IT-MS combined with high resolution LC-FT-ICR-MS. 2. Totally, 85 compounds, including 32 prototype components and 53 biotransformed metabolites were detected and characterized in the urine and feces after oral administration of HLJDD and six pure compounds to rats, respectively. Among them, 17 prototypes were identified definitely with standard references. 3. Hydroxylation, demethylation and glucuronidation reactions of alkaloids, as well as glucuronidation and sulfonation reactions of iridoids and flavonoids, were observed as the major metabolic pathways of HLJDD. Flavonoids, iridoids and their metabolites were mainly excreted from urine. However, amount of alkaloids were detected in feces. 4. In general, the distinctive metabolic process of three kinds of representative components in HLJDD was clarified. The in vivo metabolic network of HLJDD was demonstrated. Meanwhile, the investigation of representative pure compounds in metabolic study provided a valuable strategy to elucidate the full-scale metabolic fate of HLJDD. This might be helpful to understand the in vivo mechanism of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Urina/química , Alcaloides/urina , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/urina , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Padrões de Referência
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(14): 2727-31, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26666017

RESUMO

In this study, chemistry, biology and pharmacology were combinated to screen pseudoallergenic substances of Shuang-huanglian injection (SHLI) so that to establish a scientific and systematic approach to screen pseudoallergenic substances of traditional Chinese medicine injections. The mouse pseudoallergic reaction models were used to screen the pseudoallergic reaction of SHLI's intermediate extract and the intermediate extract's component or ingredient. Among the three intermediates of Shuanghuanglian injection (extract of Scutellaria baicalensis, extract of Lonicera japonica, extract of Forsythia suspensa) , pseudoallergic action of Forsythia suspensa was the strongest, Forsythia suspesnsa's pseudoallergic reaction mainly associated with the composition with largerchemical polarity. Further it was found that forsythiaside A and arctiin which existed in the the composition with largerchemical polarity caused obvious pseudoallergic reactions. SHLI with removal forsythoside A with the technology of HPLC-MS displayed reduced pseudoallergic reaction and a significant improved safety. This study provided a scientific basis for SHLI process improvements and also offered idea and research foundation for screening pseudoallergenic substances injections in other TCM injections.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Furanos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glicosídeos/efeitos adversos , Injeções , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
20.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 29(21): 2045-56, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26443405

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Limonoids, characterized by a triterpenoid skeleton with a furan ring, are unique secondary metabolites widely distributed in the families of Rutaceae, particularly in Citrus species and Meliaceae. Studies on health benefits have demonstrated that limonoids have a range of biological activities. Dietary intake of citrus limonoids may provide a protective effect against the onset of various cancers and other xenobiotic related diseases. However, few studies about the metabolic profiles of limonoids have been carried out. METHODS: The objectives of this study were to investigate the metabolic profiles of four limonoids (limonin, obacunone, nominin and gedunin) in human liver microsomes (HLMs) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/HRMS) and to identify the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the formation of their metabolites by recombinant human CYP enzymes. RESULTS: Based on the accurate HR-MS/MS spectra and the proposed MS/MS fragmentation pathways, four metabolites of limonin (M1-1, M1-2, M1-3 and M1-4), eight metabolites ofobacunone (M2-1, M2-2, M2-3, M2-4, M2-5, M2-6, M2-7 and M2-8), six metabolites of nominin (M3-1, M3-2, M3-3, M3-4, M3-5 and M3-6) and three metabolites of gedunin (M4-1, M4-2 and M4-3) in HLMs were tentatively identified and the involved CYPs were investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that reduction at C-7 and C-16, hydroxylation and reaction of glycine with reduction limonoids were the major metabolic pathways of limonoids in HLMs. Among them, glycination with reduction was the unique metabolic process of limonoids observed for the first time. CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 played an important role in the isomerization and glycination of limonoids in HLMs, whereas other CYP isoforms were considerably less active. The results might help to understand the metabolic process of limonoids in vitro such as the unidentified metabolites of limonin glucoside observed in the medium of microbes and the biotransformation of limonin in juices. Moreover, it would be beneficial for us to further study the pharmacokinetic behavior of limonoids in vivo systematically.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microssomos Hepáticos/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
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