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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5008, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429436

RESUMO

Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Pressão , Temperatura , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , Pele , Termografia/instrumentação , Termografia/métodos
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1035-1045, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972800

RESUMO

Advanced technologies for controlled delivery of light to targeted locations in biological tissues are essential to neuroscience research that applies optogenetics in animal models. Fully implantable, miniaturized devices with wireless control and power-harvesting strategies offer an appealing set of attributes in this context, particularly for studies that are incompatible with conventional fiber-optic approaches or battery-powered head stages. Limited programmable control and narrow options in illumination profiles constrain the use of existing devices. The results reported here overcome these drawbacks via two platforms, both with real-time user programmability over multiple independent light sources, in head-mounted and back-mounted designs. Engineering studies of the optoelectronic and thermal properties of these systems define their capabilities and key design considerations. Neuroscience applications demonstrate that induction of interbrain neuronal synchrony in the medial prefrontal cortex shapes social interaction within groups of mice, highlighting the power of real-time subject-specific programmability of the wireless optogenetic platforms introduced here.


Assuntos
Optogenética/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Camundongos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941674

RESUMO

Tissue-on-chip systems represent promising platforms for monitoring and controlling tissue functions in vitro for various purposes in biomedical research. The two-dimensional (2D) layouts of these constructs constrain the types of interactions that can be studied and limit their relevance to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. The development of 3D electronic scaffolds and microphysiological devices with geometries and functions tailored to realistic 3D tissues has the potential to create important possibilities in advanced sensing and control. This study presents classes of compliant 3D frameworks that incorporate microscale strain sensors for high-sensitivity measurements of contractile forces of engineered optogenetic muscle tissue rings, supported by quantitative simulations. Compared with traditional approaches based on optical microscopy, these 3D mechanical frameworks and sensing systems can measure not only motions but also contractile forces with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. Results of active tension force measurements of engineered muscle rings under different stimulation conditions in long-term monitoring settings for over 5 wk and in response to various chemical and drug doses demonstrate the utility of such platforms in sensing and modulation of muscle and other tissues. Possibilities for applications range from drug screening and disease modeling to biohybrid robotic engineering.

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731359

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D), submillimeter-scale constructs of neural cells, known as cortical spheroids, are of rapidly growing importance in biological research because these systems reproduce complex features of the brain in vitro. Despite their great potential for studies of neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling, 3D living objects cannot be studied easily using conventional approaches to neuromodulation, sensing, and manipulation. Here, we introduce classes of microfabricated 3D frameworks as compliant, multifunctional neural interfaces to spheroids and to assembloids. Electrical, optical, chemical, and thermal interfaces to cortical spheroids demonstrate some of the capabilities. Complex architectures and high-resolution features highlight the design versatility. Detailed studies of the spreading of coordinated bursting events across the surface of an isolated cortical spheroid and of the cascade of processes associated with formation and regrowth of bridging tissues across a pair of such spheroids represent two of the many opportunities in basic neuroscience research enabled by these platforms.

5.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568482

RESUMO

Accurate, real-time monitoring of intravascular oxygen levels is important in tracking the cardiopulmonary health of patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Existing technologies use intravascular placement of glass fiber-optic catheters that pose risks of blood vessel damage, thrombosis, and infection. In addition, physical tethers to power supply systems and data acquisition hardware limit freedom of movement and add clutter to the intensive care unit. This report introduces a wireless, miniaturized, implantable optoelectronic catheter system incorporating optical components on the probe, encapsulated by soft biocompatible materials, as alternative technology that avoids these disadvantages. The absence of physical tethers and the flexible, biocompatible construction of the probe represent key defining features, resulting in a high-performance, patient-friendly implantable oximeter that can monitor localized tissue oxygenation, heart rate, and respiratory activity with wireless, real-time, continuous operation. In vitro and in vivo testing shows that this platform offers measurement accuracy and precision equivalent to those of existing clinical standards.

6.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(10): 997-1009, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895515

RESUMO

The rigidity and relatively primitive modes of operation of catheters equipped with sensing or actuation elements impede their conformal contact with soft-tissue surfaces, limit the scope of their uses, lengthen surgical times and increase the need for advanced surgical skills. Here, we report materials, device designs and fabrication approaches for integrating advanced electronic functionality with catheters for minimally invasive forms of cardiac surgery. By using multiphysics modelling, plastic heart models and Langendorff animal and human hearts, we show that soft electronic arrays in multilayer configurations on endocardial balloon catheters can establish conformal contact with curved tissue surfaces, support high-density spatiotemporal mapping of temperature, pressure and electrophysiological parameters and allow for programmable electrical stimulation, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. Integrating multimodal and multiplexing capabilities into minimally invasive surgical instruments may improve surgical performance and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cateteres Cardíacos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Animais , Ablação por Cateter , Eletroporação , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Pressão , Coelhos , Temperatura
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(14): 17113-17120, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134249

RESUMO

Micro- and nanotextured surfaces with reconfigurable textures can enable advancements in the control of wetting and heat transfer, directed assembly of complex materials, and reconfigurable optics, among many applications. However, reliable and programmable directional shape in large scale is significant for prescribed applications. Herein, we demonstrate the self-directed fabrication and actuation of large-area elastomer micropillar arrays, using magnetic fields to both program a shape-directed actuation response and rapidly and reversibly actuate the arrays. Specifically, alignment of magnetic microparticles during casting of micropost arrays with hemicylindrical shapes imparts a deterministic anisotropy that can be exploited to achieve the prescribed, large-deformation bending or twisting of the pillars. The actuation coincides with the finite element method, and we demonstrate reversible, noncontact magnetic actuation of arrays of tens of thousands of pillars over hundreds of cycles, with the bending and twisting angles of up to 72 and 61°, respectively. Moreover, we demonstrate the use of the surfaces to control anisotropic liquid spreading and show that the capillary self-assembly of actuated micropost arrays enables highly complex architectures to be fabricated. The present technique could be scaled to indefinite areas using cost-effective materials and casting techniques, and the principle of shape-directed pillar actuation can be applied to other active material systems.

8.
Adv Mater ; 32(14): e1908424, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100406

RESUMO

Deterministic transformations of 2D patterns of materials into well-controlled 3D mesostructures serve as the basis for manufacturing methods that can bypass limitations of conventional 3D micro/nanofabrication. Here, guided mechanical buckling processes provide access to a rich range of complex 3D mesostructures in high-performance materials, from inorganic and organic semiconductors, metals and dielectrics, to ceramics and even 2D materials (e.g., graphene, MoS2 ). Previous studies demonstrate that iterative computational procedures can define design parameters for certain targeted 3D configurations, but without the ability to address complex shapes. A technical need is in efficient, generalized inverse design algorithms that directly yield sets of optimized parameters. Here, such schemes are introduced, where the distributions of thicknesses across arrays of separated or interconnected ribbons provide scalable routes to 3D surfaces with a broad range of targeted shapes. Specifically, discretizing desired shapes into 2D ribbon components allows for analytic solutions to the inverse design of centrally symmetric and even general surfaces, in an approximate manner. Combined theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of ≈20 different 3D structures with characteristic sizes (e.g., ribbon width) ranging from ≈200 µm to ≈2 cm and with geometries that resemble hemispheres, fire balloons, flowers, concave lenses, saddle surfaces, waterdrops, and rodents, illustrate the essential ideas.

9.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax4790, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646176

RESUMO

Automated handling of microscale objects is essential for manufacturing of next-generation electronic systems. Yet, mechanical pick-and-place technologies cannot manipulate smaller objects whose surface forces dominate over gravity, and emerging microtransfer printing methods require multidirectional motion, heating, and/or chemical bonding to switch adhesion. We introduce soft nanocomposite electroadhesives (SNEs), comprising sparse forests of dielectric-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have electrostatically switchable dry adhesion. SNEs exhibit 40-fold lower nominal dry adhesion than typical solids, yet their adhesion is increased >100-fold by applying 30 V to the CNTs. We characterize the scaling of adhesion with surface morphology, dielectric thickness, and applied voltage and demonstrate digital transfer printing of films of Ag nanowires, polymer and metal microparticles, and unpackaged light-emitting diodes.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(27): 13239-13248, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217291

RESUMO

Recently developed methods in mechanically guided assembly provide deterministic access to wide-ranging classes of complex, 3D structures in high-performance functional materials, with characteristic length scales that can range from nanometers to centimeters. These processes exploit stress relaxation in prestretched elastomeric platforms to affect transformation of 2D precursors into 3D shapes by in- and out-of-plane translational displacements. This paper introduces a scheme for introducing local twisting deformations into this process, thereby providing access to 3D mesostructures that have strong, local levels of chirality and other previously inaccessible geometrical features. Here, elastomeric assembly platforms segmented into interconnected, rotatable units generate in-plane torques imposed through bonding sites at engineered locations across the 2D precursors during the process of stress relaxation. Nearly 2 dozen examples illustrate the ideas through a diverse variety of 3D structures, including those with designs inspired by the ancient arts of origami/kirigami and with layouts that can morph into different shapes. A mechanically tunable, multilayered chiral 3D metamaterial configured for operation in the terahertz regime serves as an application example guided by finite-element analysis and electromagnetic modeling.

11.
Langmuir ; 35(24): 7659-7671, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013102

RESUMO

Printing of ultrathin layers of polymeric and colloidal inks is critical for the manufacturing of electronics on nonconventional substrates such as paper and polymer films. Recently, we found that nanoporous stamps overcome key limitations of traditional polymer stamps in flexographic printing, namely, enabling the printing of ultrathin nanoparticle films with micron-scale lateral precision. Here, we study the dynamics of liquid transfer between nanoporous stamps and solid substrates. The stamps comprise forests of polymer-coated carbon nanotubes, and the surface mechanics and wettability of the stamps are engineered to imbibe colloidal inks and transfer the ink upon contact with the target substrate. By high-speed imaging during printing, we observe the dynamics of liquid spreading, which is mediated by progressing contact between the nanostructured stamp surface and by the substrate and imbibition within the stamp-substrate gap. From the final contact area, the volume of ink transfer is mediated by rupture of a capillary bridge; and, after rupture, liquid spreads to fill the area defined by a precursor film matching the stamp geometry with high precision. Via modeling of the liquid dynamics, and comparison with data, we elucidate the scale- and rate-limiting aspects of the process. Specifically, we find that the printed ink volume and resulting layer thickness are independent of contact pressure; and that printed layer thickness decreases with retraction speed. Under these conditions, nanoparticle films with controlled thickness in the <100 nm regime can be printed using nanoporous stamp flexography, at speeds commensurate with industrial printing equipment.

12.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaaw0873, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873435

RESUMO

Monitoring regional tissue oxygenation in animal models and potentially in human subjects can yield insights into the underlying mechanisms of local O2-mediated physiological processes and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance for relevant disease states. Existing technologies for tissue oxygenation assessments involve some combination of disadvantages in requirements for physical tethers, anesthetics, and special apparatus, often with confounding effects on the natural behaviors of test subjects. This work introduces an entirely wireless and fully implantable platform incorporating (i) microscale optoelectronics for continuous sensing of local hemoglobin dynamics and (ii) advanced designs in continuous, wireless power delivery and data output for tether-free operation. These features support in vivo, highly localized tissue oximetry at sites of interest, including deep brain regions of mice, on untethered, awake animal models. The results create many opportunities for studying various O2-mediated processes in naturally behaving subjects, with implications in biomedical research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Oximetria/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Substitutos Sanguíneos/análise , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/cirurgia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Oxigênio/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Materiais Inteligentes
13.
Adv Mater ; 31(14): e1807686, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761627

RESUMO

Many natural surfaces such as butterfly wings, beetles' backs, and rice leaves exhibit anisotropic liquid adhesion; this is of fundamental interest and is important to applications including self-cleaning surfaces, microfluidics, and phase change energy conversion. Researchers have sought to mimic the anisotropic adhesion of butterfly wings using rigid surface textures, though natural butterfly scales are sufficiently compliant to be deflected by capillary forces exerted by drops. Here, inspired by the flexible scales of the Morpho aega butterfly wing, synthetic surfaces coated with flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) microscales with anisotropic drop adhesion properties are fabricated. The curved CNT scales are fabricated by a strain-engineered chemical vapor deposition technique, giving ≈5000 scales of ≈10 µm thickness in a 1 cm2 area. Using various designed CNT scale arrays, it is demonstrated that the anisotropy of drop roll-off angle is influenced by the geometry, compliance, and hydrophobicity of the scales; and a maximum roll-off anisotropy of 6.2° is achieved. These findings are supported by a model that relates the adhesion anisotropy to the scale geometry, compliance, and wettability. The electrical conductivity and mechanical robustness of the CNTs, and the ability to fabricate complex multidirectional patterns, suggest further opportunities to create engineered synthetic scale surfaces.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Adesividade , Anisotropia , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Adv Mater ; 31(11): e1807326, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656742

RESUMO

Shaping ceramics into complex 3D geometries is desirable yet challenging, particularly those with structural hierarchy spanning different length scales. A mechano-plastic pyrolysis process that overcomes this limitation is reported. In addition to taking advantage of the moldability of organic polymers, the process uniquely incorporates mechano-plasticity via dynamic covalent bond exchange for reconfiguring the shape of a preceramic polymer. The combined steps result in simultaneous shape control at both micro- and macro-scales. Further pyrolysis leads to complex ceramic structures that are otherwise difficult to produce. To enable this process, rational design of the polymer network is required to satisfy an unusual combination of mechano-plasticity and pyrolysis. Overall, the process offers an avenue for efficient fabrication of hierarchical 3D ceramic structures suitable for engineering applications.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(49): 43287-43299, 2017 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131948

RESUMO

Scalable manufacturing of structured materials with engineered nanoporosity is critical for applications in energy storage devices (i.e., batteries and supercapacitors) and in the wettability control of surfaces (i.e., superhydrophobic and superomniphobic surfaces). Patterns formed in arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) have been extensively studied for these applications. However, the as-deposited features are often undesirably altered upon liquid infiltration and evaporation because of capillarity-driven aggregation of low density CNT forests. Here, it is shown that an ultrathin, conformal, and low-surface-energy layer of poly perfluorodecyl acrylate, poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) (pPFDA), makes the VA-CNTs robust against surface-tension-driven aggregation and densification. This single vapor-deposition step allows the fidelity of the as-deposited VA-CNT patterns to be retained during wet processing, such as inking, and subsequent drying. It is demonstrated how to establish omniphobicity or liquid infiltration by controlling the surface morphology. Retaining a crust of entangled CNTs and pPFDA aggregates on top of the patterned VA-CNTs produces micropillars with re-entrant features that prevent the infiltration of low-surface-tension liquids and thus gives rise to stable omniphobicity. Plasma treatments before and after polymer deposition remove the crust of entangled CNTs and pPFDA aggregates and attach hydroxyl groups to the CNT tips, enabling liquid infiltration yet preventing densification of the highly porous CNTs. The latter observation demonstrates the protective character of the pPFDA coating with the potential application of these surfaces for direct contact printing of microelectronic features.

16.
Langmuir ; 32(48): 12686-12692, 2016 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934531

RESUMO

Understanding of the liquid imbibition dynamics in nanoporous materials is important to advances in chemical separations, phase change heat transfer, electrochemical energy storage, and diagnostic assays. We study the liquid imbibition behavior in films of ceramic-coated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanoscale porosity of the films is tuned by conformal ceramic coating via atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling stable liquid imbibition and precise measurement of the imbibition dynamics without capillary densification of the CNTs. We show that the imbibition rate decreases as the ceramic coating thickness increases, which effectively changes the CNT-CNT spacing and therefore decreases the permeability. We derive a model, based on Darcy's law, that incorporates an expression for the permeability of nanoscale post arrays, and we show that the model fits the experimental results with high accuracy. The tailorable porosity, along with controllable surface wettability and mechanical stability of coated CNTs, suggest their suitability for application-guided engineering, and for further investigation of imbibition behavior at finer length scales.

17.
Sci Adv ; 2(12): e1601660, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27957542

RESUMO

Since its invention in ancient times, relief printing, commonly called flexography, has been used to mass-produce artifacts ranging from decorative graphics to printed media. Now, higher-resolution flexography is essential to manufacturing low-cost, large-area printed electronics. However, because of contact-mediated liquid instabilities and spreading, the resolution of flexographic printing using elastomeric stamps is limited to tens of micrometers. We introduce engineered nanoporous microstructures, comprising polymer-coated aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as a next-generation stamp material. We design and engineer the highly porous microstructures to be wetted by colloidal inks and to transfer a thin layer to a target substrate upon brief contact. We demonstrate printing of diverse micrometer-scale patterns of a variety of functional nanoparticle inks, including Ag, ZnO, WO3, and CdSe/ZnS, onto both rigid and compliant substrates. The printed patterns have highly uniform nanoscale thickness (5 to 50 nm) and match the stamp features with high fidelity (edge roughness, ~0.2 µm). We derive conditions for uniform printing based on nanoscale contact mechanics, characterize printed Ag lines and transparent conductors, and achieve continuous printing at a speed of 0.2 m/s. The latter represents a combination of resolution and throughput that far surpasses industrial printing technologies.

18.
Small ; 12(32): 4393-403, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378165

RESUMO

High-throughput fabrication of microstructured surfaces with multi-directional, re-entrant, or otherwise curved features is becoming increasingly important for applications such as phase change heat transfer, adhesive gripping, and control of electromagnetic waves. Toward this goal, curved microstructures of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fabricated by engineered variation of the CNT growth rate within each microstructure, for example by patterning of the CNT growth catalyst partially upon a layer which retards the CNT growth rate. This study develops a finite-element simulation framework for predictive synthesis of complex CNT microarchitectures by this strain-engineered growth process. The simulation is informed by parametric measurements of the CNT growth kinetics, and the anisotropic mechanical properties of the CNTs, and predicts the shape of CNT microstructures with impressive fidelity. Moreover, the simulation calculates the internal stress distribution that results from extreme deformation of the CNT structures during growth, and shows that delamination of the interface between the differentially growing segments occurs at a critical shear stress. Guided by these insights, experiments are performed to study the time- and geometry-depended stress development, and it is demonstrated that corrugating the interface between the segments of each microstructure mitigates the interface failure. This study presents a methodology for 3D microstructure design based on "pixels" that prescribe directionality to the resulting microstructure, and show that this framework enables the predictive synthesis of more complex architectures including twisted and truss-like forms.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(12): 8110-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943057

RESUMO

Liquid crystalline polymers have recently been engineered to exhibit complex macroscopic shape adaptivity, including optically- and thermally driven bending, self-sustaining oscillation, torsional motion, and three-dimensional folding. Miniaturization of these novel materials is of great interest for both fundamental study of processing conditions and for the development of shape-changing microdevices. Here, we present a scalable method for high-fidelity replica molding of glassy liquid crystalline polymer networks (LCNs), by vacuum-assisted replica molding, along with magnetic field-induced control of the molecular alignment. We find that an oxygen-free environment is essential to establish high-fidelity molding with low surface roughness. Identical arrays of homeotropic and polydomain LCN microstructures are fabricated to assess the influence of molecular alignment on the elastic modulus (E = 1.48 GPa compared to E = 0.54 GPa), and side-view imaging is used to quantify the reversible thermal actuation of individual LCN micropillars by high-resolution tracking of edge motion. The methods and results from this study will be synergistic with future advances in liquid crystalline polymer chemistry, and could enable the scalable manufacturing of stimuli-responsive surfaces for applications including microfluidics, tunable optics, and surfaces with switchable wetting and adhesion.


Assuntos
Cristais Líquidos/química , Molhabilidade
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