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1.
PeerJ ; 9: e12364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760379

RESUMO

In composting, the degradation of lignocellulose in straw is problematic due to its complex structures such as lignin. A common solution to this problem is the addition of exogenous inoculants. AC-1, a stable thermophilic microbial composite, was isolated from high temperature compost samples that can decompose lignocellulose at 50-70 °C. AC-1 had a best degradation efficiency of rice straw at 60 °C (78.92%), of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 82.49%, 97.20% and 20.12%, respectively. It showed degrad-ability on both simple (filter paper, absorbent cotton) and complex (rice straw) cellulose materials. It produced acetic and formic acid during decomposition process and the pH had a trend of first downward then upward. High throughput sequencing revealed the main bacterial components of AC-1 were Tepidimicrobium, Haloplasma, norank-f-Limnochordaceae, Ruminiclostridium and Rhodothermus which provides major theoretical basis for further application of AC-1.

2.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 150, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the feasibility of predicting the expression levels of Ki-67 in breast cancer using ultrasonographic findings and clinical features. METHODS: Fifty-eight breast cancer patients, with 82 lesions confirmed by surgical pathology, were selected retrospectively for this study. Conventional ultrasound examination and elastography examination were performed before surgery. Clinical features (age, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression levels), ultrasonographic findings, and elastography scores, including the maximum size, location, number, margin, borderline, blood flow, and elastography score of the mass, were collected. The expression of Ki-67 was recorded using immunohistochemical staining, and the patients were divided into a high (≥ 20%) expression group and a low (< 20%) expression group. SPSS 23.0 software was used for statistical analysis. An independent sample t-test was used for measurement data, and a χ2 test was used for enumeration data. Logistic regression analysis was performed for meaningful indicators, and the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the best diagnostic cut-off point. RESULTS: Monofactorial analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the high expression of Ki-67 and the maximum diameter of the mass, the margin of the mass, the color Doppler flow imaging of the blood flow, and the resistance index of the blood flow. There were no significant differences in age, mass location, number, morphology, borderline, microcalcification, and elastography score (p > 0.05). Multiple factor regression analysis showed that a large mass and a mass with a rich blood flow had an independent predictive value for Ki-67. When the diameter was > 21.5 mm, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 91.9% and 71.3%, respectively. The expression level of Ki-67 was negatively correlated with that of ER. CONCLUSION: The tumor size and blood flow of breast cancer is correlated with the expression level of Ki-67 and, thus, it could be used to predict the expression level of Ki-67 in ultrasound diagnosis. The margin condition and the expression level of ER of an ultrasonic mass could also indirectly reflect the Ki-67 expression level of the mass.

3.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 388-400, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552820

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a set of proteins involved in many steps of post-transcriptional regulation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most deadly gynecological cancer, but the roles of RBPs in OC are not fully understood. Here, we reported that the RBP QKI5 was significantly negatively correlated with aggressive tumor stage and worse prognosis in serous OC patients. QKI5 could suppress the growth and metastasis of OC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptome analysis showed that QKI5 negatively regulated the expression of the transcriptional coactivator TAZ and its downstream targets (e.g., CTGF and CYR61). Mechanistically, QKI5 bound to TAZ mRNA and recruited EDC4, thus decreasing the stability of TAZ mRNA. Functionally, TAZ was involved in the QKI5-mediated tumor suppression of OC cells, and QKI5 expression was inversely correlated with TAZ, CTGF, and CYR61 expression in OC patients. Together, our study indicates that QKI5 plays a tumor-suppressive role and negatively regulates TAZ expression in OC.

4.
J Org Chem ; 86(18): 12591-12596, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469157

RESUMO

A practicable strategy to a reversible mechanochromic material featuring interconversion of classical/frustrated Brönsted pairs has been established. We report the mechanochromic property of 2,6-bis(4-biphenyl)isonicotinic acid (1), which features a frustrated Brönsted pair in the crystalline form and a classical Brönsted pair after grinding. A large mechanochromic shift was found from 428 to 505 nm. In addition, compound 1 also exhibits acidochromic behavior, which further proves that the formation of an acid-base interaction is responsible for the mechanochromic phenomenon.

5.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 206(2): 196-207, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382213

RESUMO

Elderly individuals exhibit unbalanced bone marrow (BM) effector T cell subset differentiation, such as increased T helper type 1 (Th1) and T cytotoxic type 1 (Tc1) cell frequencies, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Endothelial cells (ECs), which are instructive components of the BM microenvironment, exhibit the phenotype of semi-professional antigen-presenting cells and regulate T cell recruitment and activation. Thus, we compared the frequency and function of BM ECs, especially their capacity to regulate effector T cell subsets, between young and elderly healthy individuals, and explored the underlying mechanism of this immunomodulatory discrepancy. Although the young and elderly EC percentages were comparable, young ECs showed fewer reactive oxygen species and better migratory and tube-forming abilities than elderly ECs. Notably, increased T cell activation molecules and inflammatory cytokines were found in elderly ECs which regulated T cells to differentiate into more proinflammatory T cells, including Th1 and Tc1 cells, than young ECs.

6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437419

RESUMO

Given that the venom system in sea snakes has a role in enhancing their secondary adaption to the marine environment, it follows that elucidating the diversity and function of venom toxins will help to understand the adaptive radiation of sea snakes. We performed proteomic and de novo NGS analyses to explore the diversity of venom toxins in the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) and estimated the adaptive molecular evolution of the toxin-coding unigenes and the toxicity of the major components. We found three-finger toxins (3-FTxs), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) in the venom proteome and 59 toxin-coding unigenes belonging to 24 protein families in the venom-gland transcriptome; 3-FTx and PLA2 were the most abundant families. Nearly half of the toxin-coding unigenes had undergone positive selection. The short- (i.p. 0.09 µg/g) and long-chain neurotoxin (i.p. 0.14 µg/g) presented fairly high toxicity, whereas both basic and acidic PLA2s expressed low toxicity. The toxicity of H. cyanocinctus venom was largely determined by the 3-FTxs. Our data show the venom is used by H. cyanocinctus as a biochemically simple but genetically complex weapon and venom evolution in H. cyanocinctus is presumably driven by natural selection to deal with fast-moving prey and enemies in the marine environment.

7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 692722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456863

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate factors responsible for the psychological performance in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. Methods: A group of 38 PHPT patients receiving questionnaires, including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), was evaluated. The relationships between scores of questionnaires and clinical biomarkers were examined. Collinearity and linear regression model were applied to examine variables determining the scores of the questionnaire. In 192 PHPT patients, bivariate and partial correlation were used to analyze the relationships between serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, osteocalcin (OCN), and cortisol. Results: Among 38 patients receiving questionnaire tests, 50% (19/38) of the patients developed state anxiety, 60.5% (23/38) of the patients had the trait of developing anxiety. In addition, 18.4% (7/38) of the patients developed mild to severe depression. Serum cortisol at 8:00 was negatively and significantly correlated with social function (r = -0.389, p = 0.041) after controlling for age, sex, disease duration, serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. OCN was significantly and negatively correlated with score of STAI-S (r = -0.426, p = 0.027). In the linear regression model for BDI score, variables with statistical significance were serum OCN (ß = -0.422, p = 0.019) and cortisol at 0:00 (ß = 0.371, p = 0.037). In 192 PHPT patients, the serum concentration of OCN (r = 0.373, p = 0.000) was positively correlated with PTH level. After controlling for age, sex, disease duration, serum 25(OH)D, phosphorus, and calcium concentration, the positive correlation between OCN and PTH was still statistically significant (r = 0.323, p = 0.000). The serum concentration of cortisol at 0:00 was significantly and positively correlated with serum calcium (r = 0.246, p = 0.001) in bivariate correlation analysis. After controlling for age, sex, disease duration, serum PTH, 25(OH)D, and phosphorus concentration, serum cortisol at 0:00 was still positively and significantly correlated with serum calcium (r = 0.245, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Serum levels of OCN and cortisol, rather than PTH and calcium, are associated with the development of anxiety and depression symptoms in PHPT patients.

8.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 2827556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434249

RESUMO

Objective: We applied computed tomography (CT) to explore the imaging manifestations of rare parts of osteochondroma. Based on the medical images, deblurring using a convolutional neural network (CNN), and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the images is performed in order to improve the image diagnosis. Methods: Twelve cases of osteochondroma in rare locations confirmed by surgical pathology or clinical long-term dynamic observation were retrospectively analyzed using medical imaging and image reconstruction. There are 7 males and 5 females, with an average age of 43 years. CT examinations were performed in all cases. Image deblurring via the GAN model is performed followed by the 3D reconstruction of the higher quality images is implemented. A retrospective study was performed on the imaging manifestations of the above cases; the imaging characteristics were summarized. Results: The imaging features are the following lesions, including 4 cases of the proximal radius, 4 cases of the scapula, 2 cases of the pelvis, and 2 cases of the proximal ribs. The cartilage caps, cortex, and sternum were typical structures of the bone surface of the studied cases. In the continuous imaging features, calcification was visible in some cases, and no significant enhancement was seen in enhanced scans; there was no obvious direction of lesion growth. The image processing techniques that we performed are useful in enhancing the quality of the medical diagnosis. Conclusions: Rare site osteochondroma has certain imaging features. In most cases, we can accurately diagnose rare site osteochondroma through these features via the image processing methods that are proposed in this paper.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149575, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426311

RESUMO

The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, which has a resource-dependent economy dominated by clusters of heavy industries, has long borne the highest PM2.5 pollution levels in China, prompting serious concerns about the region's disease burden. Pollution-intensive industries in the BTH region not only meet local consumer demands but also those of other places via the supply chain. In the present study, we combined a multi-region input-output model with adjoint source sensitivity modeling technique at a high resolution (0.25° × 0.3125°) to apportion PM2.5-related mortality risks in the BTH to consuming areas and sectors. The model predicted that exposure to ambient PM2.5 caused 0.12 million premature deaths (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.15) in the BTH region in 2013. The adjoint source sensitivity results showed that only 46% of the total premature deaths were attributable to local consumption. The top contributors of local consumption were rural households and the agricultural sector in Hebei, and service sector in Beijing. Consumption of other domestic regions and international export accounted for 25% of the total premature deaths in the BTH, mainly to support consumption of manufacturing and construction products of these outer regions. Atmospheric transport of pollutants, mainly from the surrounding areas, accounted for the remaining 29% of total deaths in BTH. Our findings underline the consumption-based driven force of BTH's pollution and associated health impacts, which may facilitate the joint control actions among the BTH region and its surrounding areas from a comprehensive perspective.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mortalidade Prematura , Material Particulado/análise
10.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117511, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380218

RESUMO

Freight emissions management has entered the deep-water zone. This study evaluated road freight emissions from supply chain perspective using China's 2007, 2010 and 2012 multiregional input-output table. For the first time, we quantified road freight emission based on sectors in China. Heavy industries, mining, agriculture and light industry contributed 71%,14%, 12% and 3% of total NOx emissions in 2012 from production perspective. Construction was the largest consumption sector (43%) responsible for road freight emission from consumption perspective. Upstream transport and final product transport emitted 3.04 Tg (80%) and 0.77 Tg (20%) NOx in 2012. Huge disparities of road freight emissions flows and allocation patterns were found across provinces in China in terms of resource endowments, geographical position and economic development. The road freight emission increased rapidly from 2007 to 2012, and economic growth effect outpaced emission control effect caused by emission standard upgrade and thus dominated the emission growth. The production structure and consumption pattern changes also promoted the emission growth. It is thus important to mitigate freight emissions with different strategies based on a certain sector's freight emissions features from the whole supply chain.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , China
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112620, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392152

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) has been described as a potential inflammatory inducer, while increasing evidence shows that inappropriate inflammation is a contributing factor to kidney injury. Hence, research on Cd-triggered inflammatory response is of great significance for elucidating the mechanism of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. Bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) is an important epigenetic regulator involved in the development of many inflammatory diseases, but its regulatory roles in Cd-triggered inflammatory response remain to be clarified. Here, we found that treatment with Cd in Sprague-Dawley rats (2 mg/kg bw, i.p., 5 consecutive days) and in rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E, 0-10 µM, 12 h) induced the transcription of inflammatory cytokines, which could be reduced by JQ1 (BRD4 inhibitor, 25 mg/kg bw, i.p., 3 consecutive days in vivo; 0.5 µM, 12 h in vitro) or BRD4 small interfering RNA (siRNA, in vitro), suggesting that BRD4 participates in Cd-triggered inflammatory response. Next, our study clarified the roles of BRD4 in Cd-triggered inflammatory response. The inhibition of BRD4 decreased Cd-promoted NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation in vivo and in vitro. Cd increased the acetylation level of RelA K310 and enhanced BRD4 binding to acetylated NF-κB RelA in vivo and in vitro, which were abrogated by inhibiting BRD4. In summary, our study suggests that BRD4 is involved in Cd-triggered transcription of inflammatory cytokines by mediating the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and increasing itself binding to acetylated NF-κB RelA in rat kidney, therefore, BRD4 could be a potential therapeutic target for Cd-induced renal diseases.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 520, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of the -omic profiles of venom is important for understanding the potential function and evolution of snake venom. Here, we conducted an integrated multi-omics-analysis to unveil the venom-transcriptomic and venomic profiles in a same group of spine-bellied sea snakes (Hydrophis curtus) from the South China Sea, where the snake is a widespread species and might generate regionally-specific venom potentially harmful to human activities. The capacity of two heterologous antivenoms to immunocapture the H. curtus venom was determined for an in-depth evaluation of their rationality in treatment of H. curtus envenomation. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood was used to detect the adaptive molecular evolution of full-length toxin-coding unigenes. RESULTS: A total of 90,909,384 pairs of clean reads were generated via Illumina sequencing from a pooled cDNA library of six specimens, and yielding 148,121 unigenes through de novo assembly. Sequence similarity searching harvested 63,845 valid annotations, including 63,789 non-toxin-coding and 56 toxin-coding unigenes belonging to 22 protein families. Three protein families, three-finger toxins (3-FTx), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and cysteine-rich secretory protein, were detected in the venom proteome. 3-FTx (27.15% in the transcriptome/41.94% in the proteome) and PLA2 (59.71%/49.36%) were identified as the most abundant families in the venom-gland transcriptome and venom proteome. In addition, 24 unigenes from 11 protein families were shown to have experienced positive selection in their evolutionary history, whereas four were relatively conserved throughout evolution. Commercial Naja atra antivenom exhibited a stronger capacity than Bungarus multicinctus antivenom to immunocapture H. curtus venom components, especially short neurotoxins, with the capacity of both antivenoms to immunocapture short neurotoxins being weaker than that for PLA2s. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clarified the venom-gland transcriptomic and venomic profiles along with the within-group divergence of a H. curtus population from the South China Sea. Adaptive evolution of most venom components driven by natural selection appeared to occur rapidly during evolutionary history. Notably, the utility of commercial N. atra and B. multicinctus antivenoms against H. curtus toxins was not comprehensive; thus, the development of species-specific antivenom is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Hydrophiidae , Animais , China , Venenos Elapídicos , Humanos , Filogenia , Proteoma/genética , Transcriptoma
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 234, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140465

RESUMO

Dysfunctional megakaryopoiesis hampers platelet production, which is closely associated with thrombocytopenia (PT). Macrophages (MФs) are crucial cellular components in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. However, the specific effects of M1 MФs or M2 MФs on regulating megakaryocytes (MKs) are largely unknown. In the current study, aberrant BM-M1/M2 MФ polarization, characterized by increased M1 MФs and decreased M2 MФs and accompanied by impaired megakaryopoiesis-supporting abilities, was found in patients with PT post-allotransplant. RNA-seq and western blot analysis showed that the PI3K-AKT pathway was downregulated in the BM MФs of PT patients. Moreover, in vitro treatment with PI3K-AKT activators restored the impaired megakaryopoiesis-supporting ability of MФs from PT patients. Furthermore, we found M1 MФs suppress, whereas M2 MФs support MK maturation and platelet formation in humans. Chemical inhibition of PI3K-AKT pathway reduced megakaryopoiesis-supporting ability of M2 MФs, as indicated by decreased MK count, colony-forming unit number, high-ploidy distribution, and platelet count. Importantly, genetic knockdown of the PI3K-AKT pathway impaired the megakaryopoiesis-supporting ability of MФs both in vitro and in a MФ-specific PI3K-knockdown murine model, indicating a critical role of PI3K-AKT pathway in regulating the megakaryopoiesis-supporting ability of M2 MФs. Furthermore, our preliminary data indicated that TGF-ß released by M2 MФs may facilitate megakaryopoiesis through upregulation of the JAK2/STAT5 and MAPK/ERK pathways in MKs. Taken together, our data reveal that M1 and M2 MФs have opposing effects on MKs in a PI3K-AKT pathway-dependent manner, which may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and provide a potential therapeutic strategy to promote megakaryopoiesis.

14.
Front Genet ; 12: 650554, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149801

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy worldwide and it is warranted to dissect the critical gene regulatory network in ovarian cancer. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation, as the most prevalent RNA modification, is orchestrated by the m6A RNA methylation regulators and has been implicated in malignant progression of various cancers. In this study, we investigated the genetic landscape and expression profile of the m6A RNA methylation regulators in ovarian cancer and found that several m6A RNA methylation regulators were frequently amplified and up-regulated in ovarian cancer. Utilizing consensus cluster analysis, we stratified ovarian cancer samples into four clusters with distinct m6A methylation patterns and patients in these subgroups displayed the different clinical outcomes. Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to screen the key m6A regulators associated with the prognosis of ovarian cancer and the last absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression was used to construct the gene signature for prognosis prediction. The survival analysis exhibited the risk-gene signature could be used as independent prognostic markers for ovarian cancer. In conclusion, m6A RNA methylation regulators are associated with the malignant progression of ovarian cancer and could be a potential in prognostic prediction for ovarian cancer.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 664415, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095132

RESUMO

Various factors affect the prognosis of patients with colon cancer. Complicated factors are found to be conducive to accurate assessment of prognosis. In this study, we developed a series of prognostic prediction models for survival time of colon cancer patients after surgery. Analysis of nine clinical characteristics showed that the most important factor was the positive lymph node ratio (LNR). High LNR was the most important clinical factor affecting 1- and 3-year survival; M0&age < 70 was the most important feature for 5 years. The performance of the model was improved through the integration of clinical characteristics and four types of molecule features (mRNA, lncRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation). The model provides guidance for clinical practice. According to the high-risk molecular features combined with age ≥ 70&T3, poorly differentiated or undifferentiated, M0&well differentiated, M0&T2, LNR high, T4&poorly differentiated, or undifferentiated, the survival time may be less than 1 year; for patients with high risk of molecular features combined with M0&T2, M0&T4, LNR 0& M0, LNR median &T3, and LNR high, the survival is predicted less than 3 years; and the survival of patients with M1&T3, M0 and high risk molecular features is less than 5 years. Using multidimensional and complex patient information, this study establishes potential criteria for clinicians to evaluate the survival of patients for colon cancer.

16.
Front Genet ; 12: 686116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995502

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is myocardial necrosis caused by the persistent interruption of myocardial blood supply, which has high incidence rate and high mortality in middle-aged and elderly people in the worldwide. Biomarkers play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of AMI. Recently, more and more researches confirmed that circRNA may be a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. In this paper, a series of biological analyses were performed to find new effective circRNA biomarkers for AMI. Firstly, the expression levels of circRNAs in blood samples of patients with AMI and those with mild coronary stenosis were compared to reveal circRNAs which were involved in AMI. Then, circRNAs which were significant expressed abnormally in the blood samples of patients with AMI were selected from those circRNAs. Next, a ceRNA network was constructed based on interactions of circRNA, miRNA and mRNA through biological analyses to detect crucial circRNA associated with AMI. Finally, one circRNA was selected as candidate biomarker for AMI. To validate effectivity and efficiency of the candidate biomarker, fluorescence in situ hybridization, hypoxia model of human cardiomyocytes, and knockdown and overexpression analyses were performed on candidate circRNA biomarker. In conclusion, experimental results demonstrated that the candidate circRNA was an effective biomarker for diagnosis and therapy of AMI.

17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(8): 1605-1620, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950533

RESUMO

Lgr4, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is associated with various physiological and pathological processes including oncogenesis, energy metabolism, and bone remodeling. However, whether Lgr4 is involved in osteoblasts' metabolism is not clear. Here we uncover that in preosteoblast cell line, lacking Lgr4 results in decreased osteogenic function along with reduced glucose consumption, glucose uptake, and lactate production in the presence of abundant oxygen, which is referred to as aerobic glycolysis. Activating canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling rescued the glycolytic dysfunction. Lgr4 promotes the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (pdk1) and is abolished by interfering canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Mice lacking Lgr4 specifically in osteoblasts (Lgr4osb-/- ) exhibit decreased bone mass and strength due to reduced bone formation. Additionally, glycolysis of osteoblasts is impaired in Lgr4osb-/- mice. Our study reveals a novel function of Lgr4 in regulating the cellular metabolism of osteoblasts. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Glicólise , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
18.
3 Biotech ; 11(5): 234, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968578

RESUMO

Recently, diterpenoids have been shown to exhibit several health benefits including cancer prevention. In the present study, we examined the anticancer effects of sugiol diterpene against the endometrial carcinoma and attempted to explore the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that sugiol significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the proliferation of the endometrial carcinoma cell lines (HEC-1-A, HEC-1-B, and KLE) as compared to the normal THESCs cells. The IC50 of sugiol against all the three endometrial carcinoma cell lines ranged between 14 and 18 µM as against an IC50 of 110 µM against the normal THESCs cells. Sugiol caused several changes in the morphology of the HEC-1-B cells characteristic of apoptosis. The DAPI and annexin PI assays confirmed the induction of apoptosis in HEC-1-B cells. Sugiol also triggered increase in Bax and decrease in Bcl-2 expression. The acridine orange staining revealed that the formation of autolysosomes in HEC-1-B cells upon treatment with sugiol suggestive of autophagy. The autophagy was further confirmed by increase in the expression of LC3B-II, Beclin-1, Atg5, and Atg12 and decrease in the expression of P62. The transwell assay showed that relative to the untreated HEC-1-B cells, the migration and invasion of the sugiol-treated HEC-1-B cells was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited. Collectively, the finding of the present study revealed that sugiol suppresses the growth of human endometrial cells via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Consistently, sugiol may prove to be an important lead molecule in the development of chemotherapy for endometrial carcinoma.

20.
Am J Bot ; 108(5): 777-787, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948954

RESUMO

PREMISE: Current knowledge about defense strategies in plants under herbivore pressure is predominantly based on vascular plants. Bryophytes are rarely consumed by herbivores since they have ample secondary metabolites. However, it is unknown whether bryophytes have induced defenses against herbivory and whether there is a trade-off between growth and defense in bryophytes. METHODS: In an experiment with two peatland bryophytes, Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. and S. fuscum (Schimp.) H. Klinggr., two kinds of herbivory, clipping with scissors and grazing by mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) were simulated. At the end of the experiment, we measured growth traits, carbon-based defense compounds (total phenolics and cellulose) and storage compounds (total nonstructural carbohydrates) of these two Sphagnum species. RESULTS: Grazing but not clipping increased total phenolics and C:N ratio and reduced biomass production and height increment. A negative relationship between biomass production and total phenolics was found in S. magellanicum but not in S. fuscum, indicating a growth-defense trade-off that is species-specific. Grazing reduced the sugar starch content of S. magellanicum and the sugar of S. fuscum. Either clipping or grazing had no effect on chlorophyll fluorescence (including actual and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II) except that a significant effect of clipping on actual photochemical efficiency in S. fuscum was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Sphagnum can have induced defense against herbivory and that this defense can come at a cost of growth. These findings advance our knowledge about induced defense in bryophytes, the earliest land plants.


Assuntos
Briófitas , Sphagnopsida , Biomassa , Herbivoria , Plantas
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