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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 189, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782378

RESUMO

Genetic factors increase the risk of depression, but the extent to which this can be offset by modifiable lifestyle factors is unknown. We investigated whether a combination of healthy lifestyles is associated with lower risk of depression regardless of genetic risk. Data were obtained from the UK Biobank and consisted of 339,767 participants (37-73 years old) without depression between 2006 and 2010. Genetic risk was categorized as low, intermediate, or high according to polygenic risk score for depression. A combination of healthy lifestyles factors-including no current smoking, regular physical activity, a healthy diet, moderate alcohol intake and a body mass index <30 kg/m2-was categorized into favorable, intermediate, and unfavorable lifestyles. The risk of depression was 22% higher among those at high genetic risk compared with those at low genetic risk (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14-1.30). Participants with high genetic risk and unfavorable lifestyle had a more than two-fold risk of incident depression compared with low genetic risk and favorable lifestyle (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.84-2.58). There was no significant interaction between genetic risk and lifestyle factors (P for interaction = 0.69). Among participants at high genetic risk, a favorable lifestyle was associated with nearly 50% lower relative risk of depression than an unfavorable lifestyle (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60). We concluded that genetic and lifestyle factors were independently associated with risk of incident depression. Adherence to healthy lifestyles may lower the risk of depression regardless of genetic risk.

2.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(4): e289-e298, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune bleeding disorder. Preclinical reports suggest that the sialidase inhibitor oseltamivir induces a platelet response in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. This study investigated the activity and safety of dexamethasone plus oseltamivir versus dexamethasone alone as initial treatment in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel group, phase 2 trial was done in five tertiary medical hospitals in China. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed, treatment-naive primary immune thrombocytopenia. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), using block randomisation, to receive either dexamethasone (orally at 40 mg per day for 4 days) plus oseltamivir (orally at 75 mg twice a day for 10 days) or dexamethasone monotherapy (orally at 40 mg a day for 4 days). Patients who did not respond to treatment (platelet counts remained <30 × 109 cells per L or showed bleeding symptoms by day 10) were given an additional cycle of dexamethasone for 4 days in each group. Patients in the dexamethasone plus oseltamivir group who relapsed (platelet counts reduced again to <30 × 109 cells per L) after an initial response were allowed a supplemental course of oseltamivir (75 mg twice a day for 10 days). The coprimary endpoints were 14-day initial overall response and 6-month overall response. Complete response was defined as a platelet count at or above 100 × 109 cells per L and an absence of bleeding. Partial response was defined as a platelet count at or above 30 × 109 cells per L but less than 100 × 109 cells per L and at least a doubling of the baseline platelet count and an absence of bleeding. A response lasting for at least 6 months without any additional primary immune thrombocytopenia-specific intervention was defined as sustained response. All patients who were randomly assigned and received the allocated intervention were included in the modified intention-to-treat population analysis. This study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01965626. FINDINGS: From Feb 1, 2016, to May 1, 2019, 120 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 24 were ineligible and excluded, 96 were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone plus oseltamivir (n=47) or dexamethasone (n=49), and 90 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Six patients did not receive the allocated intervention. Patients in the dexamethasone plus oseltamivir group had a significantly higher initial response rate (37 [86%] of 43 patients) than did those in the dexamethasone group (31 [66%] of 47 patients; odds ratio [OR] 3·18; 95 CI% 1·13-9·23; p=0·030) at day 14. The 6-month sustained response rate in the dexamethasone plus oseltamivir group was also significantly higher than that in the dexamethasone group (23 [53%] vs 14 [30%]; OR 2·17; 95 CI% 1·16-6·13; p=0·032). During the median follow-up of 8 months (IQR 5-14), two of 90 patients discontinued treatment due to serious adverse events (grade 3); one (2%) patient with general oedema in the dexamethasone plus oseltamivir group and one (2%) patient with fever in the dexamethasone group. The most frequently observed adverse events of any grade were fatigue (five [12%] of 43 in the dexamethasone plus oseltamivir group vs eight [17%] of 47 in the dexamethasone group), gastrointestinal reactions (eight [19%] vs three [6%]), insomnia (seven [16%] vs four [9%]), and anxiety (five [12%] vs three [6%]). There were no grade 4 or 5 adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: Dexamethasone plus oseltamivir offers a readily available combination therapy in the management of newly diagnosed primary immune thrombocytopenia. The preliminary activity of this combination warrants further investigation. Multiple cycles of oseltamivir, as a modification of current first-line treatment, might be more effective in maintaining the platelet response. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oseltamivir/administração & dosagem , Oseltamivir/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Plaquetas/tendências , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(3): e9810, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769711

RESUMO

Identifying cooperating modules of driver alterations can provide insights into cancer etiology and advance the development of effective personalized treatments. We present Cancer Rule Set Optimization (CRSO) for inferring the combinations of alterations that cooperate to drive tumor formation in individual patients. Application to 19 TCGA cancer types revealed a mean of 11 core driver combinations per cancer, comprising 2-6 alterations per combination and accounting for a mean of 70% of samples per cancer type. CRSO is distinct from methods based on statistical co-occurrence, which we demonstrate is a suboptimal criterion for investigating driver cooperation. CRSO identified well-studied driver combinations that were not detected by other approaches and nominated novel combinations that correlate with clinical outcomes in multiple cancer types. Novel synergies were identified in NRAS-mutant melanomas that may be therapeutically relevant. Core driver combinations involving NFE2L2 mutations were identified in four cancer types, supporting the therapeutic potential of NRF2 pathway inhibition. CRSO is available at https://github.com/mikekleinsgit/CRSO/.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 632-655, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770506

RESUMO

The development of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) has proved useful to stratify the general European population into different risk groups. However, PRSs are less accurate in non-European populations due to genetic differences across different populations. To improve the prediction accuracy in non-European populations, we propose a cross-population analysis framework for PRS construction with both individual-level (XPA) and summary-level (XPASS) GWAS data. By leveraging trans-ancestry genetic correlation, our methods can borrow information from the Biobank-scale European population data to improve risk prediction in the non-European populations. Our framework can also incorporate population-specific effects to further improve construction of PRS. With innovations in data structure and algorithm design, our methods provide a substantial saving in computational time and memory usage. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we show that our framework provides accurate, efficient, and robust PRS construction across a range of genetic architectures. In a Chinese cohort, our methods achieved 7.3%-198.0% accuracy gain for height and 19.5%-313.3% accuracy gain for body mass index (BMI) in terms of predictive R2 compared to existing PRS approaches. We also show that XPA and XPASS can achieve substantial improvement for construction of height PRSs in the African population, suggesting the generality of our framework across global populations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713851

RESUMO

Transcriptional regulators (TRs) participate in essential processes in cancer pathogenesis and are critical therapeutic targets. Identification of drug response-related TRs from cell line-based compound screening data is often challenging due to low mRNA expression levels of TRs, protein modifications, and other confounders. In this study, we developed a regression-based pharmacogenomic and ChIP-seq data integration method (RePhine) to infer the impact of TRs on drug response through integrative analysis of pharmacogenomic and ChIP-seq data. RePhine was evaluated in simulation and pharmacogenomic data and was applied to pan-cancer datasets with the goal of biological discovery. In simulation data with added noise or confounders and in pharmacogenomic data RePhine demonstrated an improved performance in comparison with several commonly used methods such as correlation analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Utilizing RePhine and Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data, we observed that RePhine-derived TR signatures could effectively cluster drugs with different mechanisms of action. RePhine predicted that loss of function of EZH2/PRC2 reduces cancer cell sensitivity toward the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720. Experimental validation confirmed that pharmacological EZH2 inhibition increases the resistance of cancer cells to PLX4720 treatment. Our results support that RePhine is a useful tool for inference of the TRs related to drug response and for potential therapeutic applications. The source code for RePhine is freely available at https://github.com/coexps/RePhine.

6.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736542

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early mobilization is believed to be helpful for patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study aimed to compare the difference between starting rehabilitation between 24 and 48 h and 72 and 96 h following the onset of ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. The early rehabilitation (ER) group started exercising between 24 and 48 h after stroke onset, which the standard rehabilitation (SR) group started exercising between 72 and 96 h. The two groups received sitting, standing, and repetitive body strength training respectively. RESULTS: In this study, 110 patients were analyzed. Patients in the early rehabilitation group had more favorable outcomes (The modified Rankin scale score 0-2, ER group = 32 versus SR group = 20, adjusted odds ratio 2.27, 95% CI 1.05-4.87; p = 0.036) at 3-month follow-up. The simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores for the lower extremity were influenced by the interaction effect (F = 7.24, p = 0.01). The post-hoc analysis revealed a difference in the lower extremity FMA score at one week after stroke (difference 2.30 (95% CI 0.65-3.96); p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Early physical rehabilitation training between 24 and 48 h may be beneficial and improve patients' lower extremity function within the first week. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION UNIQUE IDENTIFIER: NCT02718534Implications for rehabilitationAcute ischemic stroke has a variety of symptoms, and acroparalysis is a major concern.Starting physical rehabilitation early can improve the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke.Early rehabilitation is more conducive to the recovery of lower extremity motor function, but in the subsequent rehabilitation process, the upper extremity function should be paid more attention.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases. However, the current diagnostic method for OLP has limitations, and sometimes it is easy to be misdiagnosed. Salivary metabolomics may provide new ideas for the diagnosis of OLP. OBJECTIVE: To identify the biomarkers for the early detection of OLP. METHODS: A non-targeted metabolomic analysis method was established based on UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS (Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry) to analyze the differential metabolites in saliva samples of patients with OLP and healthy subjects. Saliva samples were collected from 120 OLP patients and 125 healthy subjects. RESULTS: A total of 19 differential metabolites were identified, including 6 amino acid metabolites, 2 carnitines, 2 lipid metabolites and 9 other metabolites. The integrated biomarkers were constructed by 3 metabolites according to Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC). Meanwhile, multiple metabolic pathways were found to be involved in the occurrence and development of OLP. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics can be used to characterize the characteristics of metabolic disorders in patients with OLP, which is also helpful to the early diagnosis of OLP and reveal the pathological process of OLP.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672828

RESUMO

Gait analysis, as a common inspection method for human gait, can provide a series of kinematics, dynamics and other parameters through instrumental measurement. In recent years, gait analysis has been gradually applied to the diagnosis of diseases, the evaluation of orthopedic surgery and rehabilitation progress, especially, gait phase abnormality can be used as a clinical diagnostic indicator of Alzheimer Disease and Parkinson Disease, which usually show varying degrees of gait phase abnormality. This research proposed an inertial sensor based gait analysis method. Smoothed and filtered angular velocity signal was chosen as the input data of the 15-dimensional temporal characteristic feature. Hidden Markov Model and parameter adaptive model are used to segment gait phases. Experimental results show that the proposed model based on HMM and parameter adaptation achieves good recognition rate in gait phases segmentation compared to other classification models, and the recognition results of gait phase are consistent with ground truth. The proposed wearable device used for data collection can be embedded on the shoe, which can not only collect patients' gait data stably and reliably, ensuring the integrity and objectivity of gait data, but also collect data in daily scene and ambulatory outdoor environment.


Assuntos
Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758988

RESUMO

Here, we present the rational design of a pinwheel-shaped three-dimensional microfluidic paper-based analytical device (3D-µPAD) for specific, sensitive and multiplexed detection of heavy metals in coastal waters. A more homogeneous permeation of fluids along the chip than common design, even under unskilled performance, has been achieved by the elaborate chip design of the hydrostatic balancing inlet port and uniformly stressed reversible sealing. With the combination of ion imprinted polymer grafted CdTe quantum-dots and fluid accumulation pad, 4 metals (Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+) in 1 analysis and 25-fold enrichment for each metal can be simultaneously performed within 20 min, with detection limits of 0.007-0.015 µg/L. It has the ability to selectively recognize these 4 metals in mixtures and immunizing to interferences from components found in coastal waters, which provided results that were in agreement with values gained from atomic absorption. The inexpensive and portable nature as well as the highly sensitive and flexible performance of the new developed 3D-µPAD could make it attractive as an on-site testing approach for marine environmental monitoring.

10.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 46, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), as a lethal malignancy in women, is often diagnosed as advanced stages. In contrast, intermediating between benign and malignant tumors, ovarian low malignant potential (LMP) tumors show a good prognosis. However, the differential diagnosis of the two diseases is not ideal, resulting in delays or unnecessary therapies. Therefore, unveiling the molecular differences between LMP and EOC may contribute to differential diagnosis and novel therapeutic and preventive policies development for EOC. METHODS: In this study, three microarray data (GSE9899, GSE57477 and GSE27651) were used to explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between LMP and EOC samples. Then, 5 genes were screened by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), survival and Pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, chemical-core gene network construction was performed to identify the potential drugs or risk factors for EOC based on 5 core genes. Finally, we also identified the potential function of the 5 genes for EOC through pathway analysis. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-four DEGs were successfully screened, including 81 up-regulated genes and 153 down-regulated genes. Then, 5 core genes (CCNB1, KIF20A, ASPM, AURKA, and KIF23) were identified through PPI network analysis, ROC analysis, survival and Pearson correlation analysis, which show better diagnostic efficiency and higher prognostic value for EOC. Furthermore, NetworkAnalyst was used to identify top 15 chemicals that link with the 5 core genes. Among them, 11 chemicals were potential drugs and 4 chemicals were risk factors for EOC. Finally, we found that all 5 core genes mainly regulate EOC development via the cell cycle pathway by the bioinformatic analysis. CONCLUSION: Based on an integrated bioinformatic analysis, we identified potential biomarkers, risk factors and drugs for EOC, which may help to provide new ideas for EOC diagnosis, condition appraisal, prevention and treatment in future.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 147-155, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549879

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Little is known about the variation in sleep quality and its association with coping style and mental health in 21st century China, despite of enormous socioeconomic changes. This study aims to document the variation in sleep quality and its contribution to the association between coping style and mental health in China. METHODS: Pooled cross-sectional data of 46,561 adults was obtained from the 2004 and 2015 mental health surveys conducted in Shandong Province, China. A Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were assessed, with mental health measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A mediation regression model was run to test the mediating effect of sleep quality. RESULTS: Above 10% reported poor sleep quality or median-to-high risk of mental disorders according to GHQ results in year 2015, and a significant but small improvement for sleep quality and mental health came during the studied decade, with the exception of poor sleep quality increasing among males. In 2015, a one-point increase in sleep quality score was associated with an increase of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.16-0.18) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.14-0.17) points on the GHQ for males and females, respectively. Sleep quality mediated the relationship between negative tendency of coping style and elevated GHQ scores, and the mediating effects grew stronger in 2015 than those in 2004. LIMITATION: The study is a cross-sectional study, and the sample is not nationally representative. CONCLUSION: An integrative intervention of mental health promotion is recommended to account for sleep quality and coping strategies..

12.
Curr Biol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636118

RESUMO

Mutations in WDR45 and WDR45B cause the human neurological diseases ß-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) and intellectual disability (ID), respectively. WDR45 and WDR45B, along with WIPI1 and WIPI2, belong to a WD40 repeat-containing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P)-binding protein family. Their yeast homolog Atg18 forms a complex with Atg2 and is required for autophagosome formation in part by tethering isolation membranes (IMs) (autophagosome precursor) to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to supply lipid for IM expansion in the autophagy pathway. The exact functions of WDR45/45B are unclear. We show here that WDR45/45B are specifically required for neural autophagy. In Wdr45/45b-depleted cells, the size of autophagosomes is decreased, and this is rescued by overexpression of ATG2A, providing in vivo evidence for the lipid transfer activity of ATG2-WIPI complexes. WDR45/45B are dispensable for the closure of autophagosomes but essential for the progression of autophagosomes into autolysosomes. WDR45/45B interact with the tether protein EPG5 and target it to late endosomes/lysosomes to promote autophagosome maturation. In the absence of Wdr45/45b, formation of the fusion machinery, consisting of SNARE proteins and EPG5, is dampened. BPAN- and ID-related mutations of WDR45/45B fail to rescue the autophagy defects in Wdr45/45b-deficient cells, possibly due to their impaired binding to EPG5. Promoting autophagosome maturation by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation increases SNARE complex formation and facilitates the fusion of autophagosomes with late endosomes/lysosomes in Wdr45/45b double knockout (DKO) cells. Thus, our results uncover a novel function of WDR45/45B in autophagosome-lysosome fusion and provide molecular insights into the development of WDR45/WDR45B mutation-associated diseases.

13.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582968

RESUMO

Exposure to specific doses of hypoxia can trigger endogenous neuroprotective and neuroplastic mechanisms of the central nervous system. These molecular mechanisms, together referred to as hypoxic preconditioning (HPC), remain poorly understood. In the present study, we applied RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to study HPC in a whole-body HPC mouse model. The preconditioned (H4) and control (H0) groups showed 605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 263 were upregulated and 342 were downregulated. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated that these DEGs were enriched in several biological processes, including metabolic stress and angiogenesis. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis showed that the FOXO and Notch signaling pathways were involved in hypoxic tolerance and protection during HPC. Furthermore, 117 differential alternative splicing events (DASEs) were identified, with exon skipping being the dominant one (48.51%). Repeated exposure to systemic hypoxia promoted skipping of exon 7 in Edrf1 and exon 9 or 13 in Lrrc45. This study expands the understanding of the endogenous protective mechanisms of HPC and the DASEs that occur during HPC.

14.
Theriogenology ; 164: 1-11, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529806

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1), as the most toxic fumonisin, is a common Fusarium mycotoxin contaminant of feed stuff and food, posing a potential health hazard to animals and humans. FB1 has been reported to cause hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity and embryotoxicity; however, little information is available on whether FB1 has toxic effects on mammalian oocytes. Herein, we adopted porcine oocytes as models to explore the effects and potential mechanisms of FB1 on mammalian oocytes during in vitro maturation. Porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were exposed to 0, 20, 30 and 40 µM FB1 for 44 h during in vitro maturation, and the results reported that first polar body (PB1) extrusion was significantly inhibited when the FB1 concentration reached 30 (P < 0.01) or 40 µM (P < 0.001). Further cell cycle analysis revealed that meiotic progression was disrupted, with a larger proportion of the 30 µM FB1-treated oocytes being arrested at the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stage (P < 0.01). After being treated with 30 µM FB1 for 28 h, the percentage of oocytes with aberrant spindle assembly was observably increased (P < 0.01), and the distribution of actin filaments on the plasma membrane was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Furthermore, an observably higher rate of abnormal mitochondrial distribution (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (P < 0.05) were observed in FB1-exposed oocytes. In addition, ROS generation in FB1-treated oocytes was rapidly increased (P < 0.05), while the transcriptional levels of antioxidant-related genes (CAT, SOD2 and GSH-Px) were sharply decreased compared with those in the control group. Additionally, the incidence of early apoptosis in FB1-treated oocytes was also significantly increased (P < 0.05), suggesting that FB1 exposure induced oxidative stress and further triggered apoptosis in porcine oocytes. Thus, these results suggested that FB1 adversely affected oocyte maturation by disturbing cell cycle progression, destroying cytoskeletal dynamics and damaging mitochondrial function, which eventually induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in porcine oocytes.

15.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(2): 328-338, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432061

RESUMO

Innate immunity mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which can recognize pathogen molecular patterns, plays a critical role in type 1 diabetes development. TLR7 is a pattern recognition receptor that senses single-stranded RNAs from viruses and host tissue cells; however, its role in type 1 diabetes development remains unclear. In our study, we discovered that Tlr7-deficient (Tlr7-/-) nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of human type 1 diabetes, exhibited a significantly delayed onset and reduced incidence of type 1 diabetes compared with Tlr7-sufficient (Tlr7+/+) NOD mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that Tlr7 deficiency significantly altered B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production. Moreover, Tlr7-/- NOD B cells were found to suppress diabetogenic CD4+ T-cell responses and protect immunodeficient NOD mice from developing diabetes induced by diabetogenic T cells. In addition, we found that Tlr7 deficiency suppressed the antigen-presenting functions of B cells and inhibited cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell activation by downregulating the expression of both nonclassical and classical MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules on B cells. Our data suggest that TLR7 contributes to type 1 diabetes development by regulating B-cell functions and subsequent interactions with T cells. Therefore, therapeutically targeting TLR7 may prove beneficial for disease protection.

16.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 174-184, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510476

RESUMO

We conducted genome-wide association analyses of over 250,000 participants of European (EUR) and African (AFR) ancestry from the Million Veteran Program using electronic health record-validated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis and quantitative symptom phenotypes. Applying genome-wide multiple testing correction, we identified three significant loci in European case-control analyses and 15 loci in quantitative symptom analyses. Genomic structural equation modeling indicated tight coherence of a PTSD symptom factor that shares genetic variance with a distinct internalizing (mood-anxiety-neuroticism) factor. Partitioned heritability indicated enrichment in several cortical and subcortical regions, and imputed genetically regulated gene expression in these regions was used to identify potential drug repositioning candidates. These results validate the biological coherence of the PTSD syndrome, inform its relationship to comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders and provide new considerations for treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Estados Unidos , Veteranos
17.
Chromosoma ; 130(1): 27-40, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452566

RESUMO

We present a deformation energy model for predicting nucleosome positioning, in which a position-dependent structural parameter set derived from crystal structures of nucleosomes was used to calculate the DNA deformation energy. The model is successful in predicting nucleosome occupancy genome-wide in budding yeast, nucleosome free energy, and rotational positioning of nucleosomes. Our model also indicates that the genomic regions underlying the MNase-sensitive nucleosomes in budding yeast have high deformation energy and, consequently, low nucleosome-forming ability, while the MNase-sensitive non-histone particles are characterized by much lower DNA deformation energy and high nucleosome preference. In addition, we also revealed that remodelers, SNF2 and RSC8, are likely to act in chromatin remodeling by binding to broad nucleosome-depleted regions that are intrinsically favorable for nucleosome positioning. Our data support the important role of position-dependent physical properties of DNA in nucleosome positioning.

18.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(3): 1, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398366

RESUMO

Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MIR) injury, which occurs following acute myocardial infarction, can cause secondary damage to the heart. Tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) proteins, a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases, have been recognized as critical regulators in MIR injury. Zenglv Fumai Granule (ZFG) is a clinical prescription for the treatment of sick sinus syndrome, a disease that is associated with MIR injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ZFG on MIR injury and to determine whether ZFG exerts its effects via regulation of TRIM proteins. In order to establish an in vitro MIR model, human cardiomyocyte cell line AC16 was cultured under hypoxia for 5 h and then under normal conditions for 1 h. Following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment, these cells were cultured with different ZFG concentrations. ZFG notably inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The expression levels of four TRIM proteins, TRIM7, TRIM14, TRIM22 and TRIM28, were also detected. These four proteins were significantly upregulated in H/R-injured cardiomyocytes, whereas their expression was inhibited following ZFG treatment. Moreover, TRIM28 knockdown inhibited H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas TRIM28 overexpression promoted apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes. However, the effects of TRIM28 overexpression were limited by the action of ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPX)1 were significantly downregulated in H/R-injured cardiomyocytes. TRIM28 knockdown restored GPX1 protein levels but had no effect on mRNA expression levels. Co-immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination assays demonstrated that TRIM28 negatively regulated GPX1 via ubiquitination. In sum, the present study revealed that ZFG attenuated H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by regulating the TRIM28/GPX1/ROS pathway. ZFG and TRIM28 offer potential therapeutic options for the treatment of MIR injury.

19.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515767

RESUMO

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plants. It is stored as inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the vacuoles of land plants but as inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) in chlorophyte algae. Although it is recognized that the SPX-Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) and VPE proteins are responsible for Pi influx and efflux, respectively, across the tonoplast in land plants, the mechanisms that underlie polyP homeostasis and the transition of phosphorus storage forms during the evolution of green plants remain unclear. In this study, we showed that CrPTC1, encoding a protein with both SPX and SLC (permease solute carrier 13) domains for Pi transport, and CrVTC4, encoding a protein with both SPX and vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) domains for polyP synthesis, are required for vacuolar polyP accumulation in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SPX-SLC, SPX-VTC, and SPX-MFS proteins were present in the common ancestor of green plants (Viridiplantae). The SPX-SLC and SPX-VTC proteins are conserved among species that store phosphorus as vacuolar polyP and absent from genomes of plants that store phosphorus as vacuolar Pi. By contrast, SPX-MFS genes are present in the genomes of streptophytes that store phosphorus as Pi in the vacuoles. These results suggest that loss of SPX-SLC and SPX-VTC genes and functional conservation of SPX-MFS proteins during the evolution of streptophytes accompanied the change from ancestral polyP storage to Pi storage.

20.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003128, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both lifestyle and genetic factors confer risk for cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the interactions between these 2 groups of risk factors were not comprehensively understood due to previous poor estimation of genetic risk. Here we set out to develop enhanced polygenic risk scores (PRS) and systematically investigate multiplicative and additive interactions between PRS and lifestyle for coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol. METHODS: Our study included 276 096 unrelated White British participants from the UK Biobank. We investigated several PRS methods (P+T, LDpred, PRS continuous shrinkage, and AnnoPred) and showed that AnnoPred achieved consistently improved prediction accuracy for all 6 diseases/traits. With enhanced PRS and combined lifestyle status categorized by smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet, we investigated both multiplicative and additive interactions between PRS and lifestyle using regression models. RESULTS: We observed that healthy lifestyle reduced disease incidence by similar multiplicative magnitude across different PRS groups. The absolute risk reduction from lifestyle adherence was, however, significantly greater in individuals with higher PRS. Specifically, for type 2 diabetes, the absolute risk reduction from lifestyle adherence was 12.4% (95% CI, 10.0%-14.9%) in the top 1% PRS versus 2.8% (95% CI, 2.3%-3.3%) in the bottom PRS decile, leading to a ratio of >4.4. We also observed a significant interaction effect between PRS and lifestyle on triglyceride level. CONCLUSIONS: By leveraging functional annotations, AnnoPred outperforms state-of-the-art methods on quantifying genetic risk through PRS. Our analyses based on enhanced PRS suggest that individuals with high genetic risk may derive similar relative but greater absolute benefit from lifestyle adherence.

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