Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 350
Filtrar
1.
Food Funct ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003387

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease, characterized by neuroinflammation and beta-amyloid protein plaques, is a memory-threatening neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. Here, the effect of bilberry anthocyanins (BA) on cognitive functions was evaluated using APP/PSEN1 transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice and their WT littermates. Our results revealed that BA appreciably improves learning and memory abilities and reverses defects to cognitive functions in APP/PSEN1 mice. Furthermore, BA reverses brain, liver and kidney damage caused by Alzheimer's disease, with no significant changes in oxidative stress and lipid metabolism-related indicators. In addition, BA decreases serum and brain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and increases fecal short-chain fatty acid content. Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis results showed that BA fully activates the microglia and astrocytes, downregulates the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, NF-Kß, IL-1ß, IL-6, COX-2, iNOS and CD33) and chemokine receptor CX3CR1, and upregulates the expression of microglia homeostatic factors (TREM2 and TYROBP) and Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4). Moreover, western blot analysis revealed that BA significantly upregulates the expression of synaptic and phagocytotic function-related proteins (CD68, synaptophysin and IRF7) in APP/PSEN1 mice. Altogether, we show for the first time that BA consumption reverses Alzheimer's disease-induced cognitive disfunction, decreases hippocampal neuroinflammatory responses, and induces phagocytosis of microglia to beta-amyloid protein plaques by regulating the CD33/TREM2/TYROBP signaling pathway in microglia.

2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(9): 1345-1348, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904046

RESUMO

An efficient signaling on-off mechanism was first proposed by integrating exciton-plasmon coupling and exciton energy transfer into cathodic PEC bioassays. This signaling on-off mechanism has endowed the cathodic PEC biosensor with powerful capability for ultrasensitive and specific detection of target DNA.

3.
Fitoterapia ; 141: 104476, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927012

RESUMO

Gentimilegenins A, B (1, 2), (6R, 8R)-6-hydroxy swerimuslactone A (3), (6R, 8S)-6-hydroxy swerimuslactone A (4), 4-hydroxy roburic acid methyl ester (5), (±) 3'-hydroxy gentioxepine (6), N-heptacosanoyl anthranilic acid (7a), N-nonacosanoyl anthranilic acid (7b), together with 40 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of HRESIMS, IR, 1D-, 2D-NMR and X-ray diffraction. The anti-inflammatory effects of selected compounds were also evaluated through the detection of their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(3): 269-276, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China's two-child policy has led to a trend of aging in pregnancy which was associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to identify the clinically cutoff maternal age for adverse obstetric outcomes in China. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective cohort study included data of childbearing women from 39 hospitals collected in urban China during 2011 to 2012. Logistic regression was used to assess the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of adverse outcomes in different age groups in comparison to women aged 20 to 24 years. The adjustments included the location of the hospital, educational level, and residence status. Clinically cutoff age was defined as the age above which the aOR continuously become both statistically (P < 0.05) and clinically (aOR > 2) significant. RESULTS: Overall, 108,059 women were recruited. In primiparae, clinically cutoff maternal ages for gestational diabetes (aOR: 2.136, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.856-2.458, P < 0.001), placenta previa (aOR: 2.400, 95% CI: 1.863-3.090, P < 0.001), cesarean section (aOR: 2.511, 95% CI: 2.341-2.694, P < 0.001), hypertensive disorder (aOR: 2.122, 95% CI: 1.753-2.569, P < 0.001), post-partum hemorrhage (aOR: 2.129, 95% CI: 1.334-3.397, P < 0.001), and low birth weight (aOR: 2.174, 95% CI: 1.615-2.927, P < 0.001) were 27, 31, 33, 37, 41, and 41 years, respectively. In multiparae, clinically cutoff ages for gestational diabetes (aOR: 2.977, 95%CI: 1.808-4.904, P < 0.001), hypertensive disorder (aOR: 2.555, 95% CI: 1.836-3.554, P < 0.001), cesarean section (aOR: 2.224, 95% CI: 1.952-2.534, P < 0.001), post-partum hemorrhage (aOR: 2.140, 95% CI: 1.472-3.110, P < 0.001), placenta previa (aOR: 2.272, 95% CI: 1.375-3.756, P < 0.001), macrosomia (aOR: 2.215, 95% CI: 1.552-3.161, P < 0.001), and neonatal asphyxia (aOR: 2.132, 95% CI: 1.461-3.110, P < 0.001) were 29, 31, 33, 35, 35, 41, and 41 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Early cutoff ages for gestational diabetes and cesarean section highlight a reasonable childbearing age in urban China. The various optimized cutoff ages for different adverse pregnancy outcomes should be carefully considered in childbearing women.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(3): 1192-1200, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922224

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal syndrome resulting from enhanced pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vessel resistance. Perivascular inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition are considered to be the crucial pathophysiologic bases of PAH. Formononetin (FMN), a natural phytoestrogen isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense), has a variety of proapoptotic, anti­inflammatory and anti­tumor activities. However, the therapeutic effectiveness of FMN for PAH remains unclear. In the present study, 60 mg/kg monocrotaline (MCT) was first used to induce PAH in rats, and then all rats were treated with different concentrations of FMN (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day). At the end of this study, the hemodynamics and pulmonary vascular morphology of rats were evaluated. Specifically, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) and MMP9 were measured using western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Collagen type I, collagen type III, fibronectin, monocyte chemotactic protein­1, tumor necrosis factor­α, interleukin­1ß, ERK and NF­κB were quantified using western blotting. The results demonstrated that FMN significantly alleviated the changes of hemodynamics and pulmonary vascular morphology, and decreased the MCT­induced upregulations of TGFß1, MMP2 and MMP9 expression levels. Meanwhile, the expression levels of collagen type I, collagen type III and fibronectin in rat lungs decreased after FMN treatment. Furthermore, the phosphorylated ERK and NF­κB also decreased after FMN treatment. Taken together, the present study indicated that FMN serves a therapeutic role in the MCT­induced PAH in rats via suppressing pulmonary vascular remodeling, which may be partially related to ERK and NF­κB signals.

6.
EMBO J ; : e102675, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943281

RESUMO

Site-specific recombinase-mediated genetic technology, such as inducible Cre-loxP recombination (CreER), is widely used for in vivo genetic manipulation with temporal control. The Cre-loxP technology improves our understanding on the in vivo function of specific genes in organ development, tissue regeneration, and disease progression. However, inducible CreER often remains inefficient in gene deletion. In order to improve the efficiency of gene manipulation, we generated a self-cleaved inducible CreER (sCreER) that switches inducible CreER into a constitutively active Cre by itself. We generated endocardial driver Npr3-sCreER and fibroblast driver Col1a2-sCreER, and compared them with conventional Npr3-CreER and Col1a2-CreER, respectively. For easy-to-recombine alleles such as R26-tdTomato, there was no significant difference in recombination efficiency between sCreER and the conventional CreER. However, for alleles that were relatively inert for recombination such as R26-Confetti, R26-LZLT, R26-GFP, or VEGFR2flox/flox alleles, sCreER showed a significantly higher efficiency in recombination compared with conventional CreER in endocardial cells or fibroblasts. Compared with conventional CreER, sCreER significantly enhances the efficiency of recombination to induce gene expression or gene deletion, allowing temporal yet effective in vivo genomic modification for studying gene function in specific cell lineages.

7.
Circulation ; 141(1): 67-79, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) are one of the main causes of familial hypercholesterolemia, which induces atherosclerosis and has a high lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an effective tool for gene editing to correct gene mutations and thus to ameliorate disease. METHODS: The goal of this work was to determine whether in vivo somatic cell gene editing through the CRISPR/Cas9 system delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV) could treat familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the Ldlr mutant in a mouse model. We generated a nonsense point mutation mouse line, LdlrE208X, based on a relevant familial hypercholesterolemia-related gene mutation. The AAV-CRISPR/Cas9 was designed to correct the point mutation in the Ldlr gene in hepatocytes and was delivered subcutaneously into LdlrE208X mice. RESULTS: We found that homogeneous LdlrE208X mice (n=6) exhibited severe atherosclerotic phenotypes after a high-fat diet regimen and that the Ldlr mutation was corrected in a subset of hepatocytes after AAV-CRISPR/Cas9 treatment, with LDLR protein expression partially restored (n=6). Compared with the control groups (n=6 each group), the AAV-CRISPR/Cas9 with targeted single guide RNA group (n=6) had significant reductions in total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol in the serum, whereas the aorta had smaller atherosclerotic plaques and a lower degree of macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows that in vivo AAV-CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Ldlr gene correction can partially rescue LDLR expression and effectively ameliorate atherosclerosis phenotypes in Ldlr mutants, providing a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

8.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4701, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596954

RESUMO

Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss. (PVJ) is described as pungent, bitter and slightly cold in Chinese medicine, and is associated with the large intestine, stomach and liver meridians. The preliminary experiments of our research team proved that PVJ total flavonoids have excellent inhibitory effects on liver cancer cells. The present experiment uses the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology and serum pharmacochemistry methods to analyze the chemical components in vitro and in vivo of PVJ antiliver tumors. A total of 14 chemical components were identified in the total flavonoids extract of PVJ, and it is mainly composed of flavonoids, flavonones, flavonols and phenolic acids. At the same time, seven prototypical components and seven metabolic components were detected in the drug-containing plasma. Hydrocaffeate and scutellarein are the phase I metabolites of caffeic acid and scutellarin, respectively. Sulfated apigenin, sulfated luteolin, sulfated kaempferol and methylated kaempferol are the II phase metabolites of apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, respectively. The experiment provides a reference for the research and development of antitumor drug candidates, and provides a basis for revealing the bioactive components of PVJ and the antitumor mechanism.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/sangue , Patrinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Animais , Flavonoides/química , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Pharmacology ; 105(1-2): 90-101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astragaloside IV has shown its promising effect on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore whether astragaloside IV is effective for ARDS treatment in a lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cell model and whether autophagy is involved in the therapeutic function of astragaloside IV. METHODS: MLE-12 cells were induced by LPS to construct an ARDS model in vitro. Cell viability was estimated by cell counting kit-8 and cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, Beclin-1 and autophagy-related (atg) 5 mRNA was evaluated by quantitative PCR, and the expression of ZO-1, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) I and, LC3B II protein by Western blot. RESULTS: LPS effectively inhibited cell viability and LC3B I expression and enhanced LC3B II, Beclin-1 and atg5 expressions in MLE-12 cells. In LPS-induced ARDS cell model, astragaloside IV up-regulated cell viability, SOD activity and ZO-1 and LC3B I expressions but down-regulated cell apoptosis, TNF-α, IL-6, LC3B II, Beclin-1 and atg5 expressions and LDH and MDA levels. 3-methyladenine promoted cell viability and ZO-1 expression, down-regulated Beclin-1 and atg5 expression, while Rapamycin (Rap) had an opposite effect. Astragaloside IV suppressed cell viability and ZO-1 expression after the Rap treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Astragaloside IV might suppress autophagy initiation directly or indirectly through suppressing the oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which further enhances the cell viability and tight junction and reduces apoptosis in LPS-stimulated pulmonary endothelial ARDS cell model, thus exerting its therapeutic function in ARDS.

10.
Cell Stem Cell ; 26(1): 81-96.e4, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883835

RESUMO

Rapid regeneration of smooth muscle after vascular injury is essential for maintaining arterial function. The existence and putative roles of resident vascular stem cells (VSCs) in artery repair are controversial, and vessel regeneration is thought to be mediated by proliferative expansion of pre-existing smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we performed cell fate mapping and single-cell RNA sequencing to identify Sca1+ VSCs in the adventitial layer of artery walls. After severe injury, Sca1+ VSCs migrate into the medial layer and generate de novo SMCs, which subsequently expand more efficiently compared with pre-existing smooth muscle. Genetic lineage tracing using dual recombinases distinguished a Sca1+PDGFRa+ VSC subpopulation that generates SMCs, and genetic ablation of Sca1+ VSCs or specific knockout of Yap1 in Sca1+ VSCs significantly impaired artery repair. These findings provide genetic evidence of a bona fide Sca1+ VSC population that produces SMCs and delineates their critical role in vessel repair.

11.
Food Chem ; 307: 125558, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644977

RESUMO

In this work, steam explosion (SE) was exploited as a green and facile process to deconstruct liquorice's structure and deglycosylate glycyrrhizic acid (GL) to improve conversion and diffusion efficacy of GL and its hydrolyzed products. Results showed SE induced auto-hydrolysis of GL into glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-mono-ß-D-glucuronide (GAMG) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), by which 30.71% of GL conversion, 5.24% and 21.47% of GAMG and GA formation were obtained. GL hydrolytic pathways were revealed by reaction kinetics and thermodynamics, which possessed complex consecutive and parallel reactions with endothermic, non-spontaneous and entropy-decreasing features. SE referred to cause cleavage of the ß-1,3 glycosidic bond in GL which was hydrolyzed to GA as a main product and GAMG and glucuronic acids as minor products. Diffusion of hydrolyzed products was accelerated by raising the diffusion coefficient and shortening the equilibrium time by over 90%. This work provides a sustainable and efficient route for product conversion and function enhancement of bioactive components.


Assuntos
Glycyrrhiza/química , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Vapor , Ácido Glicirretínico/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Hidrólise , Cinética , Termodinâmica
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5552, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804474

RESUMO

Adding small nanoparticles (NPs) into polymer melt can lead to a non-Einstein-like decrease in viscosity. However, the underlying mechanism remains a long-standing unsolved puzzle. Here, for an all-polymer nanocomposite formed by linear polystyrene (PS) chains and PS single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs), we perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations and experimental rheology measurements. We show that with a fixed (small) loading of the SCNP, viscosity reduction (VR) effect can be largely amplified with an increase in matrix chain length [Formula: see text], and that the system with longer polymer chains will have a larger VR. We demonstrate that such [Formula: see text]-dependent VR can be attributed to the friction reduction experienced by polymer segment blobs which have similar size and interact directly with these SCNPs. A theoretical model is proposed based on the tube model. We demonstrate that it can well describe the friction reduction experienced by melt polymers and the VR effect in these composite systems.

13.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(12): 906-911, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882044

RESUMO

A pair of new tirucallane triterpenoid epimers, picraquassins M and N (1> and 2), were isolated from the stems of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. Their structures were determined based on comprehensive spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analyses. In addition, their AChE inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity against five human tumour cell lines (SW480, MCF-7, HepG2, Hela, and PANC-1), and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria (Staphylococcus. aureus 209P and Escherichia coli ATCC0111) and two fungi (Candida albicans FIM709 and Aspergillus niger R330) were evaluated.

14.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840495

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been associated with neuropathology in fetuses and adults, imposing a serious health concern. Therefore, the development of a vaccine is a global health priority. Notably, neutralization tests have a significant value for vaccine development and virus diagnosis. The cytopathic effect (CPE)-based neutralization test (Nt-CPE) is a common neutralization method for ZIKV. However, this method has some drawbacks, such as being time-consuming and labor-intensive and having low-throughput, which precludes its application in the detection of large numbers of specimens. To improve this problem, we developed a neutralization test based on an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (Nt-ELISPOT) for ZIKV and performed the assay in a 96-well format. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), 11C11, with high affinity and reactivity to ZIKV was used to detect ZIKV-infected cells. To optimize this method, the infectious dose of ZIKV was set at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.0625, and a detection experiment was performed after incubating for 24 h. As a result, under these conditions, the Nt-ELISPOT had good consistency with the traditional Nt-CPE to measure neutralizing titers of sera and neutralizing antibodies. Additionally, three neutralizing antibodies against ZIKV were screened by this method. Overall, we successfully developed an efficient neutralization test for ZIKV that is high-throughput and rapid. This Nt-ELISPOT can potentially be applied to detecting neutralizing titers of large numbers of specimens in vaccine evaluation and neutralizing antibody screening for ZIKV.

15.
PeerJ ; 7: e8044, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772834

RESUMO

Background: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most important molecules that transfer signals across the plasma membrane, and play central roles in physiological systems. The molecular architecture of GPCRs allows them to bind to diverse chemicals, including environmental contaminants. Methods: To investigate the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) on GPCR signaling, GPCR and the protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit of Perinereis aibuhitensis were cloned. The expression patterns of these two genes during B(a)P exposure were determined with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The PKA content in P. aibuhitensis under B(a)P exposure was examined. Results: The full-length cDNAs of PaGPCR and the PaPKA catalytic subunit were 1,514 and 2,662 nucleotides, respectively, encoding 338 and 350 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence of PaGPCR shared a low level of similarity with the orphan GPCRs of polychaetes and echinoderms, whereas PaPKA shared a high level of identify with the PKA catalytic subunits of other invertebrates. B(a)P exposure time-dependently elevated the expression of PaGPCR and PaPKA. The expression of both PaGPCR and PaPKA was also dose-dependent, except at a dose of 10 µg/L B(a)P. The PKA content in concentration group was elevated on day 4, with time prolonging the PKA content was down-regulated to control level. Discussion: These results suggested that GPCR signaling in P. aibuhitensis was involved in the polychaete's response to environmental contaminants.

16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a modern refractory disease, and its etiology has been difficult to discern. Studies have shown that UC is closely associated with the gut microbiota. Garidisan is composed of wild poppy and Artemisia frigida Willd and is commonly used for the treatment of UC in Inner Mongolia, China. In clinical settings, Garidisan has been found to treat UC effectively, with low recurrence. Previous studies have shown that Garidisan has a good therapeutic effect on mice with UC, but the therapeutic mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effect of Garidisan on dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in a UC mouse model and explored the possible mechanism of the therapeutic effect of Garidisan on UC. METHODS: The UC mouse model was established by the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) circulating free water drinking method, and the luminal contents were sampled under sterile conditions. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3 + V4 region of the luminal contents of the control group, model group, and Garidisan group was conducted, and clustering of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and species annotation were performed. The differences in species composition and microbial community structure between individual groups of samples were analyzed using MetaStat, LefSe, rank sum test, and Bayesian causal network analysis. RESULTS: The UC mouse model was successfully established and the sequencing results were of adequate quality. There were significant differences in the diversity of luminal contents between the control group, model group, and Garidisan group, and the differences between groups were greater than those within any group. The therapeutic effect of Garidisan on UC is attributed to the direct effect on the Lachnospiraceae family of bacteria. CONCLUSION: Garidisan has a good regulatory effect on the gut microbiota, and Lachnospiraceae could be an important direct target of Garidisan for the treatment of UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
17.
J Exp Bot ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677347

RESUMO

Neighbor detection and allelochemical response are important mediators in plant-plant interactions. Despite increasing knowledge of plant allelochemicals in response to the presence of competitors involved in the neighbor-derived signaling chemicals, less is known about which signaling chemicals are responsible for the neighbor-induced allelochemical response. Here, we experimentally demonstrated (-)-loliolide, a carotenoid metabolite, as a signaling chemical in barnyardgrass-rice allelopathic interactions. The production of rice allelochemicals momilactone B and tricin was increased in the presence of five biotypes of barnyardgrass. (-)-Loliolide was found in all biotypes of barnyardgrass and their root exudates and rhizosphere soils. There were significant positive relationships between rice allelechemicals and (-)-loliolide concentrations across biotypes of barnyardgrass. Furthermore, (-)-loliolide elicited the production of momilactone B and tricin. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed regulation of (-)-loliolide on diterpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of momilactone B (CPS4, KSL4 and MAS) and tricin (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4) was up-regulated by (-)-loliolide. These findings suggest that (-)-loliolide as a signaling chemical participates in barnyardgrass-rice allelopathic interactions. Through the signaling chemical, allelopathic rice plants can detect competing barnyardgrass and respond by increasing allelochemical levels to provide an advantage for their own growth.

18.
J Comp Neurol ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674014

RESUMO

The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is the closest living relative of primates. Yet, little is known about the anatomical distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) structures in the hypothalamus of the tree shrew. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the distribution of TH-ir neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews via immunohistochemical techniques. TH-ir neurons were widely distributed throughout the hypothalamus of tree shrew. The majority of hypothalamic TH-ir neurons were found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), as was also observed in the human hypothalamus. In contrast, rare TH-ir neurons were localized in the PVN and SON of rats. Vasopressin (AVP) colocalized with TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON in a large number of neurons, but oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing hormone did not colocalize with TH. In addition, colocalization of TH with AVP was also observed in the other hypothalamic regions. Moreover, TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON of tree shrews expressed other dopaminergic markers (aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter, Type 2), further supporting that TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON were catecholaminergic. These findings provide a detailed description of TH-ir neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews and demonstrate species differences in the distribution of this enzyme, providing a neurobiological basis for the participation of TH-ir neurons in the regulation of various hypothalamic functions.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731809

RESUMO

Gout Party is a Chinese medicine prescription composed of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Aconiti Radix Cocta, Cremastrae Pseudobulbus Pleiones Pseudobulbus, Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix, and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which can relieve joint pain caused by gouty arthritis (GA) and rheumatoid, and has a therapeutic effect on acute gouty arthritis (AGA). However, little information is available on the molecular biological basis and therapeutic mechanism of Gout Party for the treatment of AGA. AGA model was established by injecting sodium urate, and colchicine served as a positive control drug. We established a metabolomic method based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) to analyze the plasma samples of model group rats and blank group rats. Multiple statistical analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), were used to examine metabolite profile changes in plasma samples. Finally, we identified 2-ketobutyric acid, 3-hexenedioic acid, but-2-enoic acid, and so on; 22 endogenous metabolites associated with AGA. After successful molding, we found that 2-ketobutyric acid, 3-hexenedioic acid, but-2-enoic acid, argininic acid, galactonic acid, lactic acid, equol 4'-O-glucuronide, deoxycholic acid glycine conjugate, glycocholic acid, sphinganine 1-phosphate, LPE (0:0/20:3), LPE (0:0/16:0), LPC (15:0) decreased significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), alanine, erythrulose, 3-dehydrocarnitine, m-methylhippuric acid, 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid, p-cresol sulfate, estriol 3-sulfate 16-glucuronide, 10-hydroxy-9-(phosphonooxy)octadecenoate, docosahexaenoic acid increased significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). After Gout Party treatment, 14 biomarkers had a tendency to normal conditions. These above biomarkers were mainly involved in fatty acid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Gout Party exerted therapeutic effects of treating AGA by improving energy metabolism disorder and amino acid metabolism dysfunction, and attenuating fatty acid metabolism abnormal and inflammation. The results of this experiment provided a reference for revealing the metabolic mechanism produced by Gout Party in the treatment of AGA, but the subsequent studies need to be further improved and supported by relevant cell experiments and clinical experiments.

20.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(6): 4984-4992, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702810

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life­threatening disease induced by the excessive proliferation and reduced apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Formononetin (FMN) is a natural isoflavone with numerous cardioprotective properties, which can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of tumor cells; however, whether FMN has a therapeutic effect on PAH remains unclear. In the present study, PAH was induced in rats with monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg); rats were then administered FMN (10, 30 or 60 mg/kg/day). At the end of the experiment, hemodynamic changes, right ventricular hypertrophy and lung morphological characteristics were evaluated. α­smooth muscle actin (α­SMA), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and TUNEL were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of PCNA, Bcl­2­associated X protein (Bax), Bcl­2 and, cleaved caspase­3, and activation of AKT and ERK were examined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that FMN significantly ameliorated the right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by MCT. FMN also attenuated MCT­induced increased expression of α­SMA and PCNA. The ratio of Bax/Bcl­2 and cleaved caspase­3 expression increased in rat lung tissue in response to FMN treatment. Furthermore, reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was also observed in FMN­treated rats. Therefore, FMN may provide protection against MCT­induced PAH by preventing pulmonary vascular remodeling, potentially by suppressing the PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways in rats.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA