Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 142
Filtrar
1.
Elife ; 92020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436841

RESUMO

Previously we showed that YAP/TAZ promote not only proliferation but also differentiation of immature Schwann cells (SCs), thereby forming and maintaining the myelin sheath around peripheral axons (Grove et al., 2017). Here we show that YAP/TAZ are required for mature SCs to restore peripheral myelination, but not to proliferate, after nerve injury. We find that YAP/TAZ dramatically disappear from SCs of adult mice concurrent with axon degeneration after nerve injury. They reappear in SCs only if axons regenerate. YAP/TAZ ablation does not impair SC proliferation or transdifferentiation into growth promoting repair SCs. SCs lacking YAP/TAZ, however, fail to upregulate myelin-associated genes and completely fail to remyelinate regenerated axons. We also show that both YAP and TAZ are redundantly required for optimal remyelination. These findings suggest that axons regulate transcriptional activity of YAP/TAZ in adult SCs and that YAP/TAZ are essential for functional regeneration of peripheral nerve.

2.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery is associated with 20-30% weight recidivism. As a result, revisional bariatric operation is increasingly performed. Disparity in bariatric outcomes remains controversial and very little is known about revisional bariatric surgery outcomes in ethnic cohorts. METHODS: Revisional bariatric cases were identified from the 2015 and 2016 Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File. 1:1 case-control matching was performed and perioperative outcomes compared between racial cohorts. RESULTS: 24,197 cases were analyzed, including 20.78% Black patients. At baseline, there were differences in demographics and pre-existing conditions between racial cohorts. Matched analysis compared 7,286 Black and White patients. Operative duration (p = 0.008) and length of stay (p = 0.0003) were longer in Black patients. Readmission (6.8% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.009) was higher in Black patients. Bleeding (0.82% vs. 0.38%, p = 0.02) and surgical site infection (SSI) (2.6% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.01) were higher in White patients. CONCLUSION: Revisional bariatric surgery is safe. Apart from a higher rate of bleeding, SSI and readmission, outcomes were not mediated by race.

3.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filter use in bariatric surgery patients is a physician- and patient-dependent practice pattern with unclear safety and efficacy. Factors that mediate physicians' decisions for IVC filter placement preoperatively remain unclear. The role of race in decision-making also remains unclear. METHODS: From the 2015-2016 MBASQIP database, patient characteristics leading to IVC filter use and outcomes after IVC filter placement were compared between Black and White primary bariatric surgery patients. RESULTS: Prophylactic IVC filter was used in 0.66% of Black and White patients. IVC filter use was three-fold higher in Black patients, despite this cohort having a lower venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk profile than White counterparts. Black race was an independent predictor for IVC filter placement on multivariate analysis. After receiving an IVC filter, Black patients had higher rates of 30-day adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, Black race was independently associated with the likelihood of receiving a prophylactic IVC filter, despite lower rates of VTE risk factors and lack of recommendations for its use. Further research is needed to explore why this disparity in clinical practice exists.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193529

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of fracture, but it is not clear which diabetes and nondiabetes risk factors may be most important. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate risk factors for incident major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) of the hip, wrist, and humerus in African American (AA), Hispanic (HIS), and Caucasian (CA) subjects with DM. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 18 210 subjects with DM (7298 CA, 7009 AA and 3903 HIS) at least 40 years of age, being followed at a large healthcare system in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. RESULTS: In a global model in CA with DM, MOF were associated with dementia (HR 4.16; 95% CI, 2.13-8.12), OSA (HR 3.35; 95% CI, 1.78-6.29), COPD (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.51-3.92), and diabetic neuropathy (HR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.41-4.50). In AA, MOF were associated with prior MOF (HR 13.67; 95% CI, 5.48-34.1), dementia (HR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.07-8.98), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 45 (HR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11-3.79), thiazide use (HR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93), metformin use (HR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.97), and chronic steroid use (HR 5.03; 95% CI, 1.51-16.7). In HIS, liver disease (HR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.38-6.79) and insulin use (HR 2.93; 95% CI, 1.76-4.87) were associated with MOF. CONCLUSION: In patients with diabetes, the risk of fracture is related to both diabetes-specific variables and comorbid conditions, but these relationships vary by race/ethnicity.

5.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(6): 1677-1683, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is common in lung transplant patients and has historically been viewed as a contraindication to the procedure. Although this mindset is changing, the effect of prior or perioperative revascularization on lung transplant survival outcomes is not adequately established. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of all single and double lung transplant patients from 2012 to 2018 (n = 468). Patients were split into 4 groups: (1) patients who received a preoperative percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 34), (2) those who received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) before transplantation (n = 25), (3) those that received concomitant CABG during transplantation (n = 29), and (4) those who had lung transplantation with no need for revascularization (n = 380). Groups were compared for demographics, surgical procedure, and survival outcomes. RESULTS: The no-revascularization group was statistically younger than the rest (P = .001). The lung allocation score trended toward being higher in the concomitant coronary artery bypass group (P = .03). All groups were predominantly diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was greatest in the group not requiring revascularization (P = .001). Patients with previous CABG were more likely to receive a single lung transplant than a double one (21 versus 4; P = .054). Length of stay, posttransplant survival, and postoperative adverse events were similar among all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that preoperative or intraoperative revascularization does not negatively affect survival in lung transplant patients; lung recipients with coronary artery disease have comparable survival when adequately revascularized.

6.
Obes Surg ; 30(6): 2313-2324, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a risk factor for poor patient outcomes after organ transplantation (TXP). While metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is safe and effective in treating severe obesity, the role of MBS in transplant patients continues to evolve. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients in the 2017 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation Quality and Improvement Project (MBSAQIP) database. Propensity and case-control matching, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for 30-day post-operative outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 336 transplant patients were compared with 157,413 patients without transplant. Propensity and case-control matching reveal no significant differences in mortality (p > 0.2). However, case-control matching revealed longer operative time (104 min versus 76 min, p < 0.001), increased length of stay (2 days versus 1 day, p < 0.05), perioperative transfusions (2% versus 0.22%, p = 0.009), and leak rates (2.2% versus 0.55%, p = 0.02) in the transplant cohort. On multivariable regression analysis, prior transplantation was associated with higher rates of overall (OR 1.6, p = 0.007) and bariatric-related morbidity (OR 1.78, p = 0.004), leak (OR 3.47, p = 0.0027), and surgical site infection (OR 3.32, p = 0.004). Prior transplantation did not predict overall (p = 0.55) nor bariatric-related mortality (p = 0.99). CONCLUSION: MBS in prior solid organ transplantation patients is overall safe, but is associated with increased operative time and length of stay, as well as higher rates of some post-operative morbidity.

7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 57, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders can result from prolonged repetitive and/or forceful movements. Performance of an upper extremity high repetition high force task increases serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upper extremity sensorimotor declines in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Since one of the most efficacious treatments for musculoskeletal pain is exercise, this study investigated the effectiveness of treadmill running in preventing these responses. METHODS: Twenty-nine young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Nineteen were trained for 5 weeks to pull a lever bar at high force (15 min/day). Thirteen went on to perform a high repetition high force reaching and lever-pulling task for 10 weeks (10-wk HRHF; 2 h/day, 3 days/wk). From this group, five were randomly selected to undergo forced treadmill running exercise (TM) during the last 6 weeks of task performance (10-wk HRHF+TM, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk). Results were compared to 10 control rats and 6 rats that underwent 6 weeks of treadmill running following training only (TR-then-TM). Voluntary task and reflexive sensorimotor behavioral outcomes were assessed. Serum was assayed for inflammatory cytokines and corticosterone, reach limb median nerves for CD68+ macrophages and extraneural thickening, and reach limb flexor digitorum muscles and tendons for pathological changes. RESULTS: 10-wk HRHF rats had higher serum levels of IL-1α, IL-1ß and TNFα, than control rats. In the 10-wk HRHF+TM group, IL-1ß and TNFα were lower, whereas IL-10 and corticosterone were higher, compared to 10-wk HRHF only rats. Unexpectedly, several voluntary task performance outcomes (grasp force, reach success, and participation) worsened in rats that underwent treadmill running, compared to untreated 10-wk HRHF rats. Examination of forelimb tissues revealed lower cellularity within the flexor digitorum epitendon but higher numbers of CD68+ macrophages within and extraneural fibrosis around median nerves in 10-wk HRHF+TM than 10-wk HRHF rats. CONCLUSIONS: Treadmill running was associated with lower systemic inflammation and moderate tendinosis, yet higher median nerve inflammation/fibrosis and worse task performance and sensorimotor behaviors. Continued loading of the injured tissues in addition to stress-related factors associated with forced running/exercise likely contributed to our findings.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(525)2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915304

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major health problem without effective therapies. This study assessed the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on cardiopulmonary structure, function, and metabolism in a large mammalian model of pressure overload recapitulating features of diastolic dysfunction common to human HFpEF. Male domestic short-hair felines (n = 31, aged 2 months) underwent a sham procedure (n = 10) or loose aortic banding (n = 21), resulting in slow-progressive pressure overload. Two months after banding, animals were treated daily with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (b + SAHA, 10 mg/kg, n = 8), a Food and Drug Administration-approved pan-HDAC inhibitor, or vehicle (b + veh, n = 8) for 2 months. Echocardiography at 4 months after banding revealed that b + SAHA animals had significantly reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (P < 0.0001) and left atrium size (P < 0.0001) versus b + veh animals. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were significantly reduced in b + SAHA (P < 0.01) versus b + veh. SAHA increased myofibril relaxation ex vivo, which correlated with in vivo improvements of LV relaxation. Furthermore, SAHA treatment preserved lung structure, compliance, blood oxygenation, and reduced perivascular fluid cuffs around extra-alveolar vessels, suggesting attenuated alveolar capillary stress failure. Acetylation proteomics revealed that SAHA altered lysine acetylation of mitochondrial metabolic enzymes. These results suggest that acetylation defects in hypertrophic stress can be reversed by HDAC inhibitors, with implications for improving cardiac structure and function in patients.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 34(3): 1353-1365, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209608

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Robotic-assisted bariatric surgery is increasingly performed. There remains controversy about the overall benefit of robotic-assisted (RBS) compared to conventional laparoscopic (LBS) bariatric surgery. In this study, we used a large national risk-stratified bariatric clinical database to compare outcomes between robotic and laparoscopic gastric bypass (RNYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the 2015 and 2016 Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant Use Data File (PUF) was performed. Primary robotic and laparoscopic RYNGB and SG were analyzed. Descriptive analysis was performed of the unmatched cohorts, followed by 1:3 case-controlled matching. Cases and controls were matched by patient demographics and pre-operative comorbidities, and peri-operative outcomes compared. RESULTS: 77,991 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RnYGB) (7.5% robotic-assisted) and 189,503 SG (6.8% robotic-assisted) cases were identified. Operative length was significantly higher in both the robotic-assisted RnYGB and SG cohorts (p < 0.0001). Outcomes were similar between the robotic-assisted and laparoscopic RnYGB cohorts, except a lower mortality rate (p = 0.05), transfusion requirement (p = 0.005), aggregate bleeding (p = 0.04), and surgical site infections (SSI) (p = 0.006) in the robotic-assisted cohort. Outcomes were also similar between robotic-assisted and laparoscopic SG, except for a longer length of stay (p < 0.0001) and higher rates of conversion (p < 0.0001), 30-day intervention (p = 0.01), operative drain present (p < 0.0001), sepsis (p = 0.01), and organ space SSI (p = 0.0002) in the robotic cohort. Bleeding was lower in the robotic SG cohort and mortality was similar. CONCLUSION: Both robotic-assisted and laparoscopic RnYGB and SG are overall very safe. Robotic-assisted gastric bypass is associated with a lower mortality and morbidity; however, a clear benefit for robotic-assisted SG compared to laparoscopic SG was not seen. Given the longer operative and hospital duration, robotic SG is not cost-effective.

10.
Endocr Pract ; 26(1): 43-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461360

RESUMO

Objective: Consensus guidelines recommend that intensive care unit (ICU) patients with blood glucose (BG) levels >180 mg/dL receive continuous intravenous insulin (CII). The effectiveness of CII at controlling BG levels among patients who are eating relative to those who are eating nothing by mouth (nil per os; NPO) has not been described. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 260 adult patients (156 eating, 104 NPO) admitted to an ICU between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014, who received CII. Patients were excluded for a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome, admission to an obstetrics service, or receiving continuous enteral or parenteral nutrition. Results: Among 22 baseline characteristics, the proportion of patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment (GCTx) (17.3% eating, 37.5% NPO; P<.001) and APACHE II score (15.0 ± 7.5 eating, 17.9 ± 7.9 NPO; P = .004) were significantly different between eating and NPO patients. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of patient-day weighted mean BG overall (153 ± 8 mg/dL eating, 156 ± 7 mg/dL NPO; P = .73), or day-by-day BG (P = .37) adjusted for GCTx and APACHE score. Surprisingly, there was a significant difference in the distribution of BG values, with eating patients having a higher percentage of BG readings in the recommended range of 140 to 180 mg/dL. However, eating patients showed greater glucose variability (coefficient of variation 23.1 ± 1.0 eating, 21.2 ± 1.0 NPO; P = .034). Conclusion: Eating may not adversely affect BG levels of ICU patients receiving CII. Whether or not prandial insulin improves glycemic control in this setting should be studied. Abbreviations: BG = blood glucose; CII = continuous insulin infusion; CV = coefficient of variation; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; ICU = intensive care unit; NPO = nil per os; PDWMBG = patient day weighted mean blood glucose.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Adulto , Glicemia , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the rate of complications of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in cancer patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) compared with anticoagulation therapy alone. METHODS: This observational study used the National Inpatient Sample database to screen for any cancer patients who were admitted with a principal discharge diagnosis of proximal lower extremity or caval DVT between January 2005 and December 2013. Patients treated with CDT plus anticoagulation were compared with those treated with anticoagulation alone using propensity score matching for comorbidities and demographic characteristics. The primary end point was in-hospital mortality. Secondary end points were acute intracranial hemorrhage, inferior vena cava filter placement, acute renal failure, blood transfusion rates, length of stay, and hospital charges. RESULTS: We identified 31,124 cancer patients with lower extremity proximal or caval DVT, and 1290 (4%) patients were treated with CDT. Comparative outcomes as assessed in the two matched groups of 1297 patients showed that there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality of patients undergoing CDT plus anticoagulation compared with those treated with anticoagulation alone (2.6% vs 1.9%; P = .23). However, CDT was associated with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (1.3% vs 0.4%; P = .017), greater blood transfusion rates (18.6% vs 13.1 %; P < .001), and higher rates of procedure-related hematoma (2.4% vs 0.4%; P < .001). The length of stay (6.0 [4.0-10.0] days vs 4.0 [2.0-7.0] days; P < .001) and hospital charges ($81,535 [$50,968-$127,045] vs $22,320 [$11,482-$41,005]; P < .001) were also higher in the CDT group compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality of cancer patients who underwent CDT plus anticoagulation compared with anticoagulation alone. CDT was associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and resource utilization compared with anticoagulation alone. Further studies are needed to examine the effect of CDT on the development of PTS in this population.

12.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis can be associated with severe symptoms. Health care utilization for gastroparesis has increased in part due to an increase in hospital admissions. GOALS: To characterize patients admitted for gastroparesis-related symptoms and determine risk factors associated with 30-day readmissions. STUDY: The Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) for the year 2014 was used to identify patients admitted to hospitals using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 code for gastroparesis as primary diagnosis or as the secondary diagnosis with first diagnosis code of a gastroparesisrelated symptom. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with 30-day readmission. RESULTS: There were 5268 gastroparesis patients admitted with the average length of stay (LOS) of 5.4±6.6 days. Age averaged 48.9±18.1 years, 73.8% were female individuals, and 31% had diabetes. Inpatient mortality was 0.4%. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 6.2%. Longer LOS [odds ratio (OR)=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.9], younger age, drug abuse (OR=1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2), and marijuana use (OR=1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were associated with increased risk of 30-day readmission. Female gender (P=0.083), opioid use (P=0.057), and admission to larger hospital (P=0.070) showed a trend toward higher readmission rates. Older patients, and patients with hypertension and diabetes showed lower rates of readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) allows better understanding of gastroparesis admissions and readmissions. Average hospital stay was 5.4 days with 0.4% mortality rate. Overall 30-day readmission rate was 6.2%. Higher LOS, drug abuse, and marijuana use increased the 30-day readmission rate. Diabetes, hypertension, and older age were associated with lower readmissions.

13.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate estimation of esophageal hiatus surface area (HSA) prior to surgical repair of hiatal hernia is difficult. The ability to do so may assist with following progression of hiatal hernias, choosing the optimal surgical approach and post-surgical evaluation. We developed a method for measurement of HSA using multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans and sought to validate our method using intra-operative HSA measurements. METHODS: Patients with thoracic or abdominal CT scans who were scheduled to undergo hiatal hernia repair were identified. A radiologist performed MPR of each MDCT scan to obtain the measured HSA (mHSA). Estimated HSA (eHSA) was obtained using intra-operative measurements of crura length and distance between crural edges. The association between eHSA and the corresponding mHSA was assessed using Pearson correlation. The intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated to assess both intra-observer and inter-observer agreement for the MDCT-MPR technique. RESULTS: Of 30 subjects included, 16 (53.3%) were female and the median age was 68.5 years. All patients underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair. The median HSA was 8.1 cm2 based on intra-operative measurements and 9.9 cm2 based on CT measurements. The correlation coefficient for eHSA and corresponding mHSA was 0.83 (p < 0.001). The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.97 (p < 0.001) for intra-observer agreement and 0.97 (p < 0.001) for inter-observer agreement. CONCLUSION: We developed a MDCT-MPR technique that measures HSA in vivo. This technique is reproducible and can be used for pre-operative planning and post-operative follow-up of patients with symptomatic hiatal hernia.

14.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 15(12): 2075-2086, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbid obesity is considered a strong independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for obesity-related co-morbidities. Previous large database analyses have suggested that CKD does not independently increase the risk of adverse outcomes after bariatric surgery. The safety of elective bariatric surgery in this patient population remains unclear. To this end, we compared 30-day outcomes in this patient population after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. OBJECTIVES: To compare 30-day outcomes in CKD patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: Using the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation Quality Improvement Program database, we identified patients with CKD who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in 2015 or 2016. An unmatched cohort analysis, a propensity-matched analysis, and a case-control, matched-cohort analysis was performed of patients with and without CKD. RESULTS: Of the 302,092 patients included in this study, 2362 (.7%) had CKD, of whom 837 (35.4%) required dialysis. CKD patients were older with significantly higher rates of co-morbid conditions. Hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission, reoperation, readmission, bleeding, cardiopulmonary, infectious complications, and total morbidity were significantly higher in CKD patients. In propensity-matched and case-control matched analyses of 4006 patients and 2264 patients, respectively, poorer outcomes in CKD patients highlight it an independent risk factor for morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previously reported large database analysis, CKD and dependence on dialysis independently increases the risk of 30-day adverse outcomes after primary bariatric surgery. The benefits conferred by bariatric surgery should be carefully weighed against the increased risk of complications in this challenging population.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5729-5736, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369094

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with a 60% to 90% increased risk of fracture but few studies have been performed in African American and Hispanic subjects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to quantify the risk of incident major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) of the hip, wrist, and humerus in African Americans, Hispanics, and Caucasians with DM compared with those with hypertension (HTN). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 19,153 subjects with DM (7618 Caucasians, 7456 African Americans, and 4079 Hispanics) and 26,217 with HTN (15,138 Caucasians, 8301 African Americans, and 2778 Hispanics) aged ≥40 years, treated at a large health care system in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. All information about the subjects was obtained from electronic health records. RESULTS: The unadjusted MOF rates for each race/ethnicity were similar among those with DM and those with HTN (Caucasians, 1.85% vs 1.84%; African Americans, 1.07% vs 1.29%; and Hispanics, 1.69% vs 1.33%; P = NS for all). However, the MOF rates were higher for Caucasians and Hispanics with DM than for African Americans with DM (P < 0.01). In a multivariable model controlled for age, body mass index, sex, and previous MOF, DM was a statistically significant predictor of MOFs only for Caucasians and Hispanics [hazard ratio (HR), 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.48; P = 0.026] but not for African Americans (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.23; P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics had a DM-related fracture risk similar to that of Caucasians, but AAs did not have an additional fracture risk conferred by DM.

16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(12): 1153-1160, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine in-hospital mortality, post-surgical thromboembolic events, and health care costs associated with the placement of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) prior to bariatric surgery. BACKGROUND: The role of prophylactic IVCFs prior to bariatric surgery is controversial, and the nationwide clinical outcomes associated with this practice are unknown. METHODS: This observational study used the National Inpatient Sample database to identify obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January 2005 to September 2015. Using propensity score matching, outcomes associated with patients receiving prophylactic IVCFs prior to their bariatric surgery were compared with those among patients who did not receive IVCFs. RESULTS: A total of 258,480 patients underwent bariatric surgery, of whom 1,047 (0.41%) had prophylactic IVCFs implanted. Patients with prophylactic IVCFs compared with those without IVCFs had a significantly higher rate of the combined endpoint of in-hospital mortality or pulmonary embolism (1.4% vs. 0.4%; odds ratio: 3.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25 to 11.30; p = 0.019). Additionally, prophylactic IVCFs were associated with higher rates of lower extremity or caval deep vein thrombosis (1.8% vs. 0.3%; odds ratio: 6.33; 95% CI: 1.87 to 21.4; p < 0.01), length of stay (median 3 days vs. 2 days; p < 0.01), and hospital charges (median $63,000 vs. $37,000; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide observational study, prophylactic IVCF implantation prior to bariatric surgery was associated with worse clinical outcomes and increased health care resource utilization.

17.
Surg Oncol ; 29: 184-189, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use current American Thyroid Association (ATA) management guidelines to identify groups who might be at risk of overtreatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation after surgery for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). METHODS: PTC patients were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Characteristics of low-risk patients (defined as T1 without metastasis) were compared to those not low-risk. Predictors of receiving RAI for low-risk disease were determined using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 32,229 cases, 17,286 (53.6%) were low-risk. Low-risk patients, compared to others, were older (mean age 51.3 versus 48.5 years), and more often female (81.6% versus 71.7%), white (69.7% versus 62.0%), and insured (87.6% versus 85.6%)(all p-values < 0.001). Nearly 25% of low-risk patients received RAI. Predictors of overtreatment with RAI included age <45 years (OR: 1.393; 95% CI: 1.250-1.552), age 45-64 years (OR: 1.275; 95% CI: 1.152-1.412), male sex (OR: 1.191; 95% CI: 1.086-1.305), Hispanic (OR: 1.236; 95% CI: 1.110-1.376) and Asian (OR: 1.306; 95% CI: 1.159-1.473) race, and extensive lymphadenectomy (OR: 1.243; 95% CI: 1.119-1.381). CONCLUSION: Low-risk PTC patients were more likely to receive post-surgical RAI when not indicated under ATA guidelines if they were younger, male, Hispanic or Asian, or underwent extensive lymph node surgery. Identification of groups at risk for overtreatment can help impact practice patterns and improve the effective utilization of healthcare resources.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos do Iodo/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
18.
Surg Oncol ; 29: 190-195, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate how the interval between symptom onset and diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) of the extremity was associated with survival. METHODS: Patients treated for extremity STS years 2006-2015 were stratified by symptom duration: at least two, six or twelve months between symptom onset and diagnosis. Chi-square tests compared patient and tumor-related characteristics based on symptom duration. Survival analysis included Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: Of 113 patients included, mean age was 56.7 years, 52.2% were male, and 75.2% were white. Median tumor size was 75 mm, 48.7% were grade 3, and 38.1% were stage I. With symptom duration of either at least 6 or 12 months, a greater proportion of patients who experienced the specified symptom duration had lower grade tumors (p < 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively) and lower stage disease (p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively) than those who did not. Among all patients, survival estimates were similar between those who experienced a symptom duration of 2 (p = 0.12), 6 (p = 0.18) or 12 (p = 0.61) months and those who did not. CONCLUSION: Patients with extremity STS who tolerated a longer symptom duration had less advanced disease. Reasons for prolonged symptom duration and methods to address these factors warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Extremidades/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209611

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Revisional bariatric surgery is being increasingly performed and is associated with higher operative risks. Optimal techniques to minimize complications remain controversial. Here, we report a retrospective review of the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program (MBSAQIP) Participant User Files (PUF) database, comparing outcomes between revision RBS and LBS. METHODS: The 2015 and 2016 MBSAQIP PUF database was retrospectively reviewed. Revision cases were identified using the Revision/Conversion Flag. Selected cases were further stratified by surgical approach. Subgroup analysis of sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass cases was performed. Case-controlled matching (1:1) was performed of the RBS and LBS cohorts, including gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy cohorts separately. Cases and controls were match by demographics, ASA classification, and preoperative comorbidities. RESULTS: 26,404 revision cases were identified (93.3% LBS, 6.7% RBS). 85.6% were female and 67% white. Mean age and BMI were 48 years and 40.9 kg/m2. 1144 matched RBS and LBS cases were identified. RBS was associated with longer operative duration (p < 0.0001), LOS (p = 0.0002) and a higher rate of ICU admissions (1.3% vs 0.5%, p = 0.05). Aggregate bleeding and leak rates were higher in the RBS cohort. In both gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy cohorts, the robotic-assisted surgery remain associated with longer operative duration (p < 0.0001). In gastric bypass, rates of aggregate leak and bleeding were higher with robotic surgery, while transfusion was higher with laparoscopy. For sleeve gastrectomy cases, reoperation, readmission, intervention, sepsis, organ space SSI, and transfusion were higher with robotic surgery. CONCLUSION: In this matched cohort analysis of revision bariatric surgery, both approaches were overall safe. RBS was associated with longer operative duration and higher rates of some complications. Complications were higher in the robotic sleeve cohort. Robotic is likely less cost-effective with no clear patient safety benefit, particularly for sleeve gastrectomy cases.

20.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(11): 2090-2095, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to identify treatment disparities existing prior to publication of the 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines in order to identify patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) at risk for receiving inadequate treatment. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PTC from 2011 to 2013 were identified using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. High-risk disease was defined as T4, N1, or M1. Chi-square tests compared characteristics of patients with and without high-risk disease and characteristics of high-risk patients who did and did not receive radioactive iodine ablation (RAI). Likelihoods of having high-risk disease, of receiving RAI, and of cause-specific death were calculated using regression analyses. RESULTS: Sample included 32,229 individuals; 7894 (24.5%) had high-risk disease. Mean age was 50.0 years, 24,815 (77.0%) were female, and 21,318 (66.2%) were white. Odds of high-risk disease were greater among males (OR:2.04; 95% CI:1.92-2.16), Hispanics (OR:1.67; 95% CI:1.56-1.79) and Asians (OR:1.49; 95% CI:1.37-1.62), and uninsured (OR:1.24; 95% CI:1.07-1.43), and lower among patients ages 45-64 (OR:0.57; 95% CI:0.53-0.60), and ≥65 years (OR:0.54; 95% CI:0.50-0.59), and Blacks (OR:0.46; 95% CI:0.40-0.53). Most (69.3%) high-risk patients received RAI. Odds of receiving RAI were lower among patients age ≥65 years (OR:0.67; 95% CI:0.58-0.77), uninsured (OR:0.52; 95% CI:0.41-0.67), or with Medicaid (OR:0.58; 95% CI:0.50-0.69). RAI use reduced the risk of cause-specific mortality (HR:0.29; 95% CI:0.18-0.47). CONCLUSION: Knowledge of these treatment disparities will allow recognition of groups at risk for high-risk disease and receiving inadequate treatment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA