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1.
Neuropharmacology ; : 108042, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147454

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressively neurodegenerative disorder, which seriously affects human health and cannot be stopped by current treatments. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for AD. Our recent studies reported the neuroprotective effects of a GLP-1/GIP/Glucagon receptor triagonist (Triagonist), a novel unimolecular anti-diabetic drug, in cognitive and pathological improvements of 3xTg-AD mice. However, the detailed electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms underlying neuroprotection remain unexplored. The present study investigated the underlying electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms further by using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Our results revealed that chronic Triagonist treatment effectively reduced working memory and reference memory errors of 3xTg-AD mice in a radial maze test. In addition, the Triagonist increased spontaneous excitatory synaptic activities, differentially modulated voltage- and chemically-gated Ca2+ flux, and reduced the over-excitation of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices of 3xTg-AD mice. In addition, chronic Triagonist treatment also up-regulated the expression levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that the Triagonist could improve memory formation, as well as synaptic transmission, Ca2+ balance, and neuronal excitability in 3xTg-AD mice. These neuroprotective effects of Triagonist may be involved in the up-regulation of synaptophysin and PSD-95. Therefore, the study suggests that multi-receptor agonists might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD.

2.
Curr Opin Chem Biol ; 55: 161-170, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179434

RESUMO

The integration of biocatalysis with chemocatalysis combines the excellent selectivity of the former with the robust reactivity of the latter and offers many advantages, such as lower cost, higher yield, enhanced selectivity, as well as less waste generation. In spite of the challenge of incompatibilities between different classes of catalysts, recent advances in synthetic chemistry and biology provide ample opportunities for multistep cascade transformations that combine biocatalysis and chemocatalysis. Herein, we review recent progress in merging biocatalysis with chemocatalysis, highlighting selected examples of photo-/electricity-driven biotransformations and recently developed strategies for addressing the catalyst incompatibility issue.

3.
Org Lett ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186890

RESUMO

A novel 6/6/5/6 tetracyclic polyketide named chartspiroton (1) was isolated from a medicinal plant endophytic Streptomyces in Dendrobium officinale. The complete structure assignment with absolute stereochemistry was elucidated through spectroscopic data, computational calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Chartspiroton features an unprecedented naphthoquinone derivative spiro-fused with a benzofuran lactone moiety. A plausible polyketide biosynthetic pathway for 1 suggested intriguing oxidative rearrangement steps to form the five-membered lactone ring.

4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 121-131, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062332

RESUMO

Flower senescence is classified into ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent manners and determines the flower longevity which is valuable for ornamental plants. However, the manner of petal senescence in tulip is still less defined. In this study, we characterized the physiological indexes in the process of petal senescence, as well as metabolic and ethylene responses in tulip cultivar 'American Dream', and further identified the role of ethylene biosynthesis genes TgACS by transgenic and transient assays. Primary metabolites profiling revealed that sugars, amino acids and organic acids preferentially accumulated in senescent petals. Additionally, senescence-associated genes were identified and significantly up-regulated, coupled with increased ROS contents, rapid water loss and accelerated cell membrane breakdown. Moreover, ethylene production was stimulated as evidenced by increasing in ACS activity and ethylene biosynthesis-related genes expression. Exogenous treatment of cutting flowers with 1-MCP or ethephon resulted in delayed or enhanced petal senescence, respectively. Transient down-regulation of TgACS by VIGS assay in tulip petals delayed senescence, while over-expressed TgACS1 in tobacco promoted leaf senescence. Taken together, this study provides evidences to certify ethylene roles and TgACS functions during flower senescence in tulip.

5.
Metab Eng ; 59: 87-97, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007615

RESUMO

The nonconventional yeast Issatchenkia orientalis can grow under highly acidic conditions and has been explored for production of various organic acids. However, its broader application is hampered by the lack of efficient genetic tools to enable sophisticated metabolic manipulations. We recently constructed an episomal plasmid based on the autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScARS) in I. orientalis and developed a CRISPR/Cas9 system for multiplexed gene deletions. Here we report three additional genetic tools including: (1) identification of a 0.8 kb centromere-like (CEN-L) sequence from the I. orientalis genome by using bioinformatics and functional screening; (2) discovery and characterization of a set of constitutive promoters and terminators under different culture conditions by using RNA-Seq analysis and a fluorescent reporter; and (3) development of a rapid and efficient in vivo DNA assembly method in I. orientalis, which exhibited ~100% fidelity when assembling a 7 kb-plasmid from seven DNA fragments ranging from 0.7 kb to 1.7 kb. As proof of concept, we used these genetic tools to rapidly construct a functional xylose utilization pathway in I. orientalis.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114155, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066059

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in intensive aquaculture environments are of great concern to food safety and public health. However, the level of ARGs and their potential propagation factors in an industrial recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) have not previously been comprehensive explored. In this study, the levels of 14 different ARG markers and 2 kinds of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were investigated in a RAS (including water, fish, feces, pellet feed meal, and biofilm samples) located northern China. qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, aac(6')-Ib, and floR were dominant ARGs, which average concentration levels were presented at 4.51-7.74 copies/L and 5.36-13.07 copies/g, respectively, suggesting that ARGs were prevalent in RAS with no recorded history of antibiotic use. Elevated level of ARGs was found in water of RAS even after the final UV treatment compared with its influent. In RAS, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes were the predominant phyla. Notably, elevated levels of potential opportunistic pathogens were observed along with abundant ARGs suggesting an increasing risk of capturing ARGs and MGEs for human pathogens. This study has revealed for the first time that reared fish, their feces, pellet feed meal as the introduction sources and the selection roles of treatment units co-driven the ARG profile, and the co-selection of water environmental factors and their consequently induced bacterial community shifts formed by their influence are the determining drivers for the ARG propagation in RAS.

7.
ACS Synth Biol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078771

RESUMO

In vivo biosensors are powerful tools for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology applications. However, the development of biosensors is hindered by the limited number of characterized transcriptional regulators. The versatile sensing abilities of microbes and genome sequences available hold great potential for developing novel biosensors via genome mining for new transcriptional regulators. Here we report the development and engineering of a new stilbene-responsive biosensor discovered by mining the Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 genome. The biosensor can distinguish resveratrol from its precursors, p-coumaric acid and trans-cinnamic acid. Remarkably, it can detect other biologically active stilbenes with resorcinol groups, and cannabidiolic acid with a ß-resorcylic acid functional group. When coupled to resveratrol biosynthesis enzymes, the biosensor can sense altered resveratrol production in cells, demonstrating a 667-fold enrichment in one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Our biosensor will be potentially applicable to metabolic engineering of microbial cell factories for production of stilbenes and cannabinoids.

8.
Curr Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate the effects of carvedilol on the expression of TLR4 and its downstream signaling pathway in liver tissue of rats with cholestatic liver fibrosis and provide experimental evidence for clinical treatment of liver fibrosis with carvedilol. METHODS: A total of fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (10 rats per group): sham operation (SHAM) control group, bile duct ligation (BDL) model group, low-dose carvedilol treatment group (0.1mg•kg-1•d-1), medium-dose carvedilol treatment group (1mg•kg-1•d-1), and high-dose carvedilol treatment group (10mg•kg-1•d-1). Rat hepatic fibrosis model was established by applying BDL. Forty-eight hours after the operation, carvedilol was administered twice a day. The blood and liver were simultaneously collected under the aseptic condition for further detection in two weeks after operation. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) and albumin (Alb) in serum were measured. HE and Masson staining were used to determine hepatic fibrosis degree. Hydroxyproline assay was employed to detect liver collagen synthesis. Western Blot was used to measure the expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65 and ß-arrestin2 protein. Quantitative analysis of TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA was performed by Realtime-PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the SHAM group, the BDL group showed obvious liver injury, increased levels of inflammatory factors, and continued progression of liver fibrosis. The above changes in the BDL group were alleviated in the carvedilol treatment groups. The improvement effects augmented as dosages increased. In addition, compared with the BDL group, the reduction of the expressions of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in liver tissue and the increase of the expression of ß-arrestin2 in the high-dose carvedilol group were more significant. CONCLUSIONS: Carvedilol can reduce the release of inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4 expression and inhibiting its downstream signaling pathway, thus playing a potential therapeutic role in cholestatic liver fibrosis.

9.
Talanta ; 210: 120678, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987183

RESUMO

A hybrid of metal-organic frameworks (Fe, Mn) and Au nanoparticles anchored carbon nanotubes (Au/MOFs(Fe, Mn)/CNTs) was fabricated by a facile one-step hydrothermal process. The Au/MOFs(Fe, Mn)/CNTs exhibit highly enhanced peroxidase-like activity, because of the increased active sites, the enhanced partial charge density and electron transfer among the Fermi level of MOFs, Au and CNTs, as well as the synergistic action of Fe and Mn. The hybrid nanomaterials with high catalytic velocity (Vmax = 17.65 × 10-7 M s-1) and affinity (Km = 0.33 mM) for substrates of H2O2 display a great detection performance in the range of 0.34-53.05 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.18 nM (S/N = 3). Based on the cascade reaction of the artificial peroxidase and glucose oxidase (GOx), the glucose was further better detected in a linear range of 0.005-0.3 µM with a LOD of 0.002 µM (S/N = 3). Notably, considering the regulated peroxidase-like activity by sulfadimethoxine (SDM) aptamer, the concentration of SDM ranging from 0.54 to 41.58 µg L-1 was also detected with a LOD of 0.35 µg L-1 (S/N = 3). The as-synthesized hybrid nanozymes hold promising applications as the multifunctional sensing platform in environmental and biologic target detection with the combination of corresponding enzyme or specific aptamer.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(7)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953335

RESUMO

Bacteria utilize diverse biochemical pathways for the degradation of the pyrimidine ring. The function of the pathways studied to date has been the release of nitrogen for assimilation. The most widespread of these pathways is the reductive pyrimidine catabolic pathway, which converts uracil into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and ß-alanine. Here, we report the characterization of a ß-alanine:pyruvate aminotransferase (PydD2) and an NAD+-dependent malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MSDH) from a reductive pyrimidine catabolism gene cluster in Bacillus megaterium Together, these enzymes convert ß-alanine into acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), a key intermediate in carbon and energy metabolism. We demonstrate the growth of B. megaterium in defined medium with uracil as its sole carbon and energy source. Homologs of PydD2 and MSDH are found in association with reductive pyrimidine pathway genes in many Gram-positive bacteria in the order Bacillales Our study provides a basis for further investigations of the utilization of pyrimidines as a carbon and energy source by bacteria.IMPORTANCE Pyrimidine has wide occurrence in natural environments, where bacteria use it as a nitrogen and carbon source for growth. Detailed biochemical pathways have been investigated with focus mainly on nitrogen assimilation in the past decades. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two important enzymes, PydD2 and MSDH, which constitute an extension for the reductive pyrimidine catabolic pathway. These two enzymes, prevalent in Bacillales based on our bioinformatics studies, allow stepwise conversion of ß-alanine, a previous "end product" of the reductive pyrimidine degradation pathway, to acetyl-CoA as carbon and energy source.

11.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(4): 479, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942048

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1588-1595, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994388

RESUMO

The discovery of new, safe, and effective pesticides is one of the main means for modern crop protection and parasitic disease control. During the search for new insecticidal secondary metabolites from endophytes in Stemona sessilifolia (a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history as an insecticide), 10 new insecticidal endostemonines A-J (1-10) were identified from an endophytic Streptomyces sp. BS-1. Their structures were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Endostemonines A-J represent the first reported naturally occurring pyrrole-2-carboxylic ester derivatives, which consisted of different fatty acid chains at the C-2 of pyrrole ring were produced by traditional Chinese medicine endophytic microbes. All new tested compounds exhibited strong lethal activity against Aphis gossypii (LC50 value range of 3.55-32.00 mg/L after 72 h). This research highlighted the discovery of pesticide natural products from insecticidal medicinal plant endophytes for the first time, paving a new pathway for the development of pest control.


Assuntos
Endófitos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Stemonaceae/microbiologia , Streptomyces/química , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Animais , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/toxicidade , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Metabolismo Secundário
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 3, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906943

RESUMO

Using an established CRISPR-Cas mediated genome editing technique for streptomycetes, we explored the combinatorial biosynthesis potential of the auroramycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces roseosporous. Auroramycin is a potent anti-MRSA polyene macrolactam. In addition, auroramycin has antifungal activities, which is unique among structurally similar polyene macrolactams, such as incednine and silvalactam. In this work, we employed different engineering strategies to target glycosylation and acylation biosynthetic machineries within its recently elucidated biosynthetic pathway. Auroramycin analogs with variations in C-, N- methylation, hydroxylation and extender units incorporation were produced and characterized. By comparing the bioactivity profiles of five of these analogs, we determined that unique disaccharide motif of auroramycin is essential for its antimicrobial bioactivity. We further demonstrated that C-methylation of the 3, 5-epi-lemonose unit, which is unique among structurally similar polyene macrolactams, is key to its antifungal activity.

14.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113460, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685328

RESUMO

Benzophenones (BPs), a group of widely used ultraviolet filters, have been frequently detected out in multiple environment matrices even in organism bodies. Although a variety of toxicological effects of BPs have been disclosed recently, it is barely to evaluate the potential ecological risk of BPs due to lack of reference criteria. Therefore, the determination of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values is necessary for assessing ecological risk of BPs and for protecting safety of aquatic organisms. The toxicological data of 14 BPs from both in vivo tests on aquatic organisms and in vitro tests on strains/cell lines were collected from previous reports, and two methods including assessment factor (AF) and species sensitivity distribution (SSD) were applied to calculate PNECs, respectively. Four groups of PNECs were obtained and compared, a final PNEC value was recommended for each BP based on reliable and conservative consideration. With these PNECs values, the risk quotients of 8 BPs from 35 ambient freshwater samples were calculated, the results demonstrated that 3 BPs including 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxyl-BP, 2-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl- BP, and 2-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl-5-sulfonic acid-BP exhibited high ecological risk, and the ecological risk posed by BPs in River Tiff in UK was great. It is anticipated that these results would provide useful reference for assessing and managing BP-type compounds, and for selecting toxicity data and methods to derive PNECs for emerging contaminants.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecologia , Água Doce , Medição de Risco , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 228: 117735, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757698

RESUMO

Rapid and accurate diagnosis of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is vital for patient treatment, control of infection and monitoring epidemiology. Penicillin binding proteins (PBP2a), as an important marker protein of MRSA, has been proposed as the screening test target for tolerant bacteria of MRSA. However, current technologies based on PBP2a activity or PBP2a immunoassays were suboptimal specificity and sensitivity. In this report, the selection and characterization of DNA aptamers that binds to PBP2a was described. The DNA aptamer is with high affinity and selectivity to binding with PBP2a. Furthermore, utilizing the switched mimicking peroxidase for gold nanoparticles loaded graphene oxide (GO/Au) nanomaterials based on the effect between GO/Au and DNA, a powerful strategy was set out for designing aptamer-based colorimetric biosensor for detection of PBP2a. In this strategy, the employment of biosensor based on GO/Au and PBP2a aptamer greatly improved the detection sensitivity and selectivity with limit of detection as low as 20 nM. Accordingly, the reversible nanozyme inhibition/activation approach may be universally applicable for the biomedical diagnosis.

16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(4): 387-390, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873222

RESUMO

Here, we report a rapid CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knock-in strategy that uses Cas9 ribonucleoprotein and 5'-modified double-stranded DNA donors with 50-base-pair homology arms and achieved unprecedented 65/40% knock-in rates for 0.7/2.5 kilobase inserts, respectively, in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. The identified 5'-end modification led to up to a fivefold increase in gene knock-in rates at various genomic loci in human cancer and stem cells.

17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(3): 1406-1422, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863586

RESUMO

Recent advances in gene editing have been enabled by programmable nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR-Cas9. However, several open questions remain regarding the molecular machinery in these systems, including fundamental search and binding behavior as well as role of off-target binding and specificity. In order to achieve efficient and specific cleavage at target sites, a high degree of target site discrimination must be demonstrated for gene editing applications. In this work, we studied the binding affinity and specificity for a series of TALE proteins under a variety of solution conditions using in vitro fluorescence methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Remarkably, we identified that TALEs demonstrate high sequence specificity only upon addition of small amounts of certain divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+). However, under purely monovalent salt conditions (K+, Na+), TALEs bind to specific and non-specific DNA with nearly equal affinity. Divalent cations preferentially bind to DNA over monovalent cations, which attenuates non-specific interactions between TALEs and DNA and further stabilizes specific interactions. Overall, these results uncover new mechanistic insights into the binding action of TALEs and further provide potential avenues for engineering and application of TALE- or TALEN-based systems for genome editing and regulation.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Cátions Bivalentes/química , DNA/química , Magnésio/química , Nucleases dos Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Edição de Genes , Potássio/química , Ligação Proteica , Sódio/química , Soluções/química , Nucleases dos Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(20): 586, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807567

RESUMO

Background: Acute variceal bleeding is one of the critical complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. Severe renal vasoconstriction in consequence of low peripheral vascular resistance triggers the reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and thus induces acute kidney injury (AKI)/hepato-renal syndrome (HRS). Terlipressin and octreotide have been used in the management of cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Also, terlipressin has been recommended as the international first-line pharmacological therapy for the treatment of HRS. In addition, the use of renal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become increasingly prevalent in research and clinical applications. However, the renal function-protective effect of terlipressin and octreotide and the value of fMRI in monitoring renal function remains unclear in patients with cirrhosis undergoing acute variceal bleeding. Methods: This is a multicenter, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants will be 1:1 assigned randomly into either terlipressin or octreotide groups. Sixty participants with clinically and/or pathologically diagnosed cirrhosis and active gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GVB) will be recruited in several sites in China. Participants will receive either the treatment of terlipressin or octreotide after assigned into each group. The primary end point for the trial is the renal function. The secondary end points are (I) renal perfusion; (II) renal blood oxygenation; (III) failure to control bleeding; (IV) intra-hospital rebleeding; (V) intra-hospital mortality; (VI) adverse events (AE); (VII) overall survival. Statistical analysis including multivariate Cox regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test, etc. will be conducted. Discussion: The study will provide new insight into the protection of renal function in the process of the treatment of variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Trial registration number: NCT04028323.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(24)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835866

RESUMO

As the fundamental element of the Internet of Things, the QR code has become increasingly crucial for connecting online and offline services. Concerning e-commerce and logistics, we mainly focus on how to identify QR codes quickly and accurately. An adaptive binarization approach is proposed to solve the problem of uneven illumination in warehouse automatic sorting systems. Guided by cognitive modeling, we adaptively select the block window of the QR code for robust binarization under uneven illumination. The proposed method can eliminate the impact of uneven illumination of QR codes effectively whilst meeting the real-time needs in the automatic warehouse sorting. Experimental results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed approach when benchmarked with several state-of-the-art methods.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5794, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857575

RESUMO

Genome-scale engineering is an indispensable tool to understand genome functions due to our limited knowledge of cellular networks. Unfortunately, most existing methods for genome-wide genotype-phenotype mapping are limited to a single mode of genomic alteration, i.e. overexpression, repression, or deletion. Here we report a multi-functional genome-wide CRISPR (MAGIC) system to precisely control the expression level of defined genes to desired levels throughout the whole genome. By combining the tri-functional CRISPR system and array-synthesized oligo pools, MAGIC is used to create, to the best of our knowledge, one of the most comprehensive and diversified genomic libraries in yeast ever reported. The power of MAGIC is demonstrated by the identification of previously uncharacterized genetic determinants of complex phenotypes, particularly those having synergistic interactions when perturbed to different expression levels. MAGIC represents a powerful synthetic biology tool to investigate fundamental biological questions as well as engineer complex phenotypes for biotechnological applications.

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