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1.
Diabetes Metab ; : 101420, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640827

RESUMO

AIM: . - We aimed to examine risks of major cardiovascular events (MACEs), renal outcomes, and all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with different diabetic kidney disease (DKD) subtypes. METHODS: . - A total of 36,509 participants with T2DM recruited from 20 community sites across mainland China were followed up during 2011-2016. DKD subtypes were categorized based on albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, UACR ≥ 30 mg/g) and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) as Alb-/eGFR-, Alb+/eGFR-, Alb-/eGFR+, and Alb+/eGFR+. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of developing clinical outcomes in DKD subtypes. RESULTS: . - More than half (53.5%) of participants with diabetes and reduced eGFR had normal UACR levels (Alb-/eGFR+), termed as non-albuminuria DKD. These patients had a modest increase in the risks of MACEs (hazard ratio, HR 1.42 [95%CI 1.08;1.88]) and mortality (HR 1.42 [1.04;1.92]) compared with patients without DKD, whereas CKD progression was not significantly increased (HR 0.97 [0.60;1.57]). Participants with albuminuria (Alb+/eGFR- or Alb+/eGFR+) had higher risks of clinical outcomes. Subgroup analysis revealed that the associations between non-albuminuria DKD and risks of MACEs and mortality were more evident in those aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: . - Non-albuminuria DKD accounts for more than half of DKD cases with low eGFR in Chinese diabetes patients. Diabetes patients with albuminuria are at higher risks of developing clinical outcomes and warrant early intervention, as well as patients with non-albuminuria DKD with age < 65 years.

2.
Hypertension ; 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (BP) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment in this population are unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between BP levels and clinical outcomes and provide evidence on potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering therapy in people with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study included 12 523 chronic kidney disease participants without antihypertensive therapy in mainland China. Participants were followed up during 2011 to 2016 for cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalized or treated heart failure, and cardiovascular death) and renal events (≥20% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, end-stage kidney disease, and renal death). RESULTS: Overall, 652 cardiovascular events and 1268 renal events occurred during 43 970 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive and linear relationship between systolic BP and risks of cardiovascular and renal events down to 90 mm Hg, as well as between diastolic BP and risks of renal events down to 50 mm Hg. A J-shaped trend was noted between diastolic BP and risks of cardiovascular events, but a linear relationship was revealed in participants <60 years (P for interaction <0.001). A significant increase in the risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes was observed at systolic BP ≥130 mm Hg (versus 90-119 mm Hg) and at diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg (versus 50-69 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: In people with chronic kidney disease, a higher systolic BP/diastolic BP level (≥130/90 mm Hg) is significantly associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular and renal events, indicating potential thresholds to initiate BP-lowering treatment.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1069992, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578548

RESUMO

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been considered as the primary target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, there are still residual cardiovascular risks in some patients even if LDL-C achieves the target level. Emerging evidence suggestes that elevated triglyceride (TG) level or triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) cholesterol (TRL-C) is one of the important components of the residual cardiovascular risks. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to be one of the effective drugs for reducing TG. However, its efficacy in reducing the risk of ASCVD is inconsistent in large randomized clinical trials. There is lack of consensus among Experts regarding the application of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases including heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and sudden death. Hence, the current consensus will comprehensively and scientifically present the detailed knowledge about the omega-3 fatty acids from a variety of aspects to provide a reference for its management of omega-3 fatty acids application in the Chinese population.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1054159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569882

RESUMO

Background: It is generally believed that complement system is strongly associated with the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, complement system contains a variety of complement components, and the relationship between complement components and the risk and severity of NAFLD is inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association of complement components with the risk and severity of NAFLD. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ZhiWang Chinese databases from inception to May 2022 for observational studies reporting the risk of NAFLD with complement components. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled estimates of the effect due to heterogeneity. Results: We identified 18 studies with a total of 18560 included subjects. According to recent studies, levels of complement component 3 (C3) (mean difference (MD): 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.60), complement component 4 (C4) (MD: 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07), complement component 5(C5) (MD: 34.03, 95% CI 30.80-37.27), complement factor B (CFB) (MD: 0.22, 95% CI 0.13-0.31) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) (standard mean difference (SMD): 5.17, 95% CI 2.57-7.77) in patients with NAFLD were significantly higher than those in the control group. However, no statistical significance was obtained in complement factor D (CFD) levels between NAFLD and non-NAFLD (MD=156.51, 95% CI -59.38-372.40). Moreover, the levels of C3, C5, CFB, and ASP in patients with moderate and severe NAFLD were significantly higher than those in patients with mild NAFLD. Except for C4 and CFD, the included studies did not explore the changes in the severity of NAFLD according to the concentration of C4 and CFD. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrates that an increase in complement components including C3, C5, CFB, and ASP is associated with an increased risk and severity of NAFLD, indicating that they may be good biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/], identifier CRD42022348650.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Biomarcadores , Fator B do Complemento , Fatores Imunológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia
5.
CRISPR J ; 5(6): 746-768, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512351

RESUMO

The recently established prime editor (PE) system is regarded as next-generation gene-editing technology. This methodology can install any base-to-base change as well as insertions and deletions without the requirement for double-stranded break formation or donor DNA templates; thus, it offers more targeting flexibility and greater editing precision than conventional CRISPR-Cas systems or base editors. In this study, we introduce the basic principles of PE and then review its most recent progress in terms of editing versatility, specificity, and efficiency in mammals. Next, we summarize key considerations regarding the selection of PE variants, prime editing guide RNA (pegRNA) design rules, and the efficiency and accuracy evaluation of PE. Finally, we highlight and discuss how PE can assist in a wide range of biological studies and how it can be applied to make precise genomic corrections in animal models, which paves the way for curing human diseases.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Animais , Humanos , Edição de Genes/métodos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma/genética , Mamíferos/genética
6.
Front Med ; 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385596

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare congenital disease with genetic alterations in chromosome 15. Although genetic disorders and DNA methylation abnormalities involved in PWS have been investigated to a significant degree, other anomalies such as those in erythrocytes may occur and these have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we uncovered slight anemia in children with PWS that was associated with increased red blood cell (RBC) distribution width (RDW) and contrarily reduced hematocrit (HCT) values. Intriguingly, the increased ratio in RDW to HCT allowed sufficient differentiation between the PWS patients from the healthy controls and, importantly, with individuals exhibiting conventional obesity. Further morphologic examinations revealed a significant deformity in erythrocytes and mild hemolysis in PWS patients. Comprehensive mechanistic investigations unveiled compromised membrane skeletal assembly and membrane lipid composition, and revealed a reduced F-actin/G-actin ratio in PWS patients. We ascribed these phenotypic changes in erythrocytes to the observed genetic defects, including DNA methylation abnormalities. Our collective data allowed us to uncover RBC deformation in children with PWS, and this may constitute an auxiliary indicator of PWS in early childhood.

7.
Front Med ; 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370249

RESUMO

The dysfunction of Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) caused by mutations in solute carrier family12, member 3 gene (SLC12A3) primarily causes Gitelman syndrome (GS). In identifying the pathogenicity of R158Q and G212S variants of SLC12A3, we evaluated the pathogenicity by bioinformatic, expression, and localization analysis of two variants from a patient in our cohort. The prediction of mutant protein showed that p.R158Q and p.G212S could alter protein's three-dimensional structure. Western blot showed a decrease of mutant Ncc. Immunofluorescence of the two mutations revealed a diffuse positive staining below the plasma membrane. Meanwhile, we conducted a compound heterozygous model-Ncc R156Q/G210S mice corresponding to human NCC R158Q/G212S. NccR156Q/G210S mice clearly exhibited typical GS features, including hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and increased fractional excretion of K+ and Mg2+ with a normal blood pressure level, which made NccR156Q/G210S mice an optimal mouse model for further study of GS. A dramatic decrease and abnormal localization of the mutant Ncc in distal convoluted tubules contributed to the phenotype. The hydrochlorothiazide test showed a loss of function of mutant Ncc in NccR156Q/G210S mice. These findings indicated that R158Q and G212S variants of SLC12A3 were pathogenic variants of GS.

8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(11): 2242-2255, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Elevation of energy expenditure through an increase of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is regarded as one of the most promising ways to prevent obesity development. The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus is a critical area for control of BAT thermogenesis. However, the intracellular signaling cascades in the POA for regulation of BAT thermogenesis are poorly understood. METHODS: Phosphorylation proteomics (phosphoproteomics) and bioinformatics approaches were used to disclose numerous hypothalamic signaling pathways involved in the regulation of BAT thermogenesis. Conditional manipulation of the p38α gene in mouse POA was performed by stereotaxic injection of adeno-associated virus 9 vector to explore the role of p38α in BAT thermogenesis. RESULTS: Multiple hypothalamic signaling pathways were triggered by cold exposure, especially the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The p38α activation, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), in the hypothalamus was significantly decreased during cold exposure. p38α deficiency in the POA dramatically elevated energy expenditure owing to a marked increase in BAT thermogenesis, resulting in significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass. Overexpression of p38α in the POA led to a dramatic increase in weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that p38α in the POA exacerbates obesity development, at least in part owing to a decrease in BAT thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom , Área Pré-Óptica , Camundongos , Animais , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Aumento de Peso
9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fruit intake is beneficial to several chronic diseases, but controversial in diabetes. We aimed to investigate prospectively the associations of whole fresh fruit intake with risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in subjects with different glucose regulation capacities. METHODS: The present study included 79,922 non-diabetic participants aged ≥ 40 years from an ongoing nationwide prospective cohort in China. Baseline fruit intake information was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Plasma HbA1c, fasting and 2 h post-loading glucose levels were measured at both baseline and follow-up examinations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes among participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and prediabetes, after adjusted for multiple confounders. Restricted cubic spline analysis was applied for dose-response relation. RESULTS: During a median 3.8-year follow-up, 5886 (7.36%) participants developed diabetes. Overall, we identified a linear and dose-dependent inverse association between dietary whole fresh fruit intake and risk of incident T2D. Each 100 g/d higher fruit intake was associated with 2.8% lower risk of diabetes (HR 0.972, 95%CI [0.949-0.996], P = 0.0217), majorly benefiting NGT subjects with 15.2% lower risk (HR 0.848, 95%CI [0.766-0.940], P = 0.0017), while not significant in prediabetes (HR 0.981, 95%CI 0.957-4.005, P = 0.1268). Similarly, the inverse association was present in normoglycemia individuals with a 48.6% lower risk of diabetes when consuming fruits > 7 times/week comparing to those < 1 time/week (HR 0.514, 95% CI [0.368-0.948]), but not in prediabetes (HR 0.883, 95% CI [0.762-1.023]). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher frequency and amount of fresh fruit intake may protect against incident T2D, especially in NGT, but not in prediabetes, highlighting the dietary recommendation of higher fresh fruit consumption to prevent T2D in normoglycemia population.

10.
J Diabetes ; 14(11): 739-748, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the impact of education on diabetes risk is scarce in developing countries. We aimed to explore the association between education and diabetes within a large population in China and to identify the possible mediators between them. METHODS: Information on educational level and lifestyle factors was collected through questionnaires. Diabetes was diagnosed from self-report and biochemical measurements. A structural equation model was constructed to quantify the mediation effect of each mediator. RESULTS: Compared with their least educated counterparts, men with college education had a higher risk of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.27), while college-educated women were less likely to have diabetes (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.82). Obesity was the strongest mediator in both genders (proportion of mediation: 11.6% in men and 23.9% in women), and its association with education was positive in men (ß[SE] 0.0387 [0.0037]) and negative in women (ß[SE] -0.0824 [0.0030]). Taken together, all behavioral factors explained 12.4% of the excess risk of diabetes in men and 33.3% in women. CONCLUSIONS: In a general Chinese population, the association between education level and diabetes was positive in men but negative in women. Obesity was the major mediator underlying the education disparities of diabetes risk, with a stronger mediation effect among women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Escolaridade , Obesidade/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia
11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 53: 101629, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060516

RESUMO

Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) often leads to alterations in lipid profile, which may negatively impact humans health. Whether lipids in turn affect the natural history of SCH is unknown. We aimed to assess the association between longitudinal changes in serum lipid levels and the natural history of SCH. Methods: This retrospective cohort study using data from the REACTION study included 581 patients with SCH who were enrolled between July 1, 2011, and December 19, 2014, with a median follow-up of three [IQR, 2·86-3·21] years. Patients with missing data or conditions that can affect thyroid function were excluded. Changes in serum lipid levels were calculated from serum lipid measurements 3 years apart and classified in two ways: 1) the first, second, and third tertiles of the difference between baseline and follow-up and 2) the percent change from baseline, namely, serum lipid decrease ≥ 25%, minor change, and serum lipid increase ≥ 25%. The natural history of SCH includes regression to euthyroidism, SCH persistence, or progression to overt hypothyroidism (OH). Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Validation was performed on data from a health management cohort study conducted from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016, with a median follow-up of two [IQR, 1·92-2·08] years. After using the same inclusion and exclusion criteria as the REACTION cohort study, 412 patients with SCH were eligible for the validation analysis. Findings: There were 132 (22·7%) men and 449 (77·3%) women in the study, with a median age of 56 [IQR,49-62] years. During follow-up, 270 (46·5%), 266 (45·8%), and 27 (4·6%) patients had regression to euthyroidism, persistent SCH, and progression to OH, respectively. Both grouping manners showed a significant association between changes in lipid levels and the natural history of SCH. A total cholesterol (TC)-level increase was independently associated with a greater risk of progression to OH (OR for ≥ 25% TC increase vs. minor change: 5·40; 95% CI 1·46-21·65), whereas TC-level declines increased the likelihood of regressing to euthyroidism (OR for ≥ 25% TC decrease vs. minor change: 3·45; 95% CI 1·09-12·43). Similarly, the likelihood of regression according to changes in triglyceride (TG) levels exhibited a consistent trend with that according to TC-level changes. A similar pattern of association was observed in the validation cohort. Interpretation: Changes in serum lipid levels in SCH are associated with future progression or regression risk, suggesting that the changes in serum lipid levels may affect the natural history of SCH. Clinicians should pay attention to the long-term control of serum lipids levels in populations with SCH, which may benefit thyroid function. Funding: This work was supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1309800), the National Natural Science Foundation (81430020, 82070818), and the "Outstanding University Driven by Talents" Program and Academic Promotion Program of Shandong First Medical University (2019LJ007).

12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(9): e008774, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies demonstrate a J-shaped association between blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the findings are plagued by confounding from other traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). Our aims were to examine the associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels with CVD in individuals without major CVRFs and whether there were thresholds for the association. METHODS: In the 4C study (China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort), 36 042 CVRF-free participants without CVD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or smoking were identified during 2011 to 2012. Among CVRF-free participants, 17 476 CVRF-preferable individuals with better glycemic (fasting glucose, <110 mg/dL; 2-hour post-load glucose, <140 mg/dL) and lipid profile (total cholesterol, <200 mg/dL; LDL [low-density lipoprotein] cholesterol, <130 mg/dL) were selected. The total person-years of follow-up for CVRF-free subjects and CVRF-preferable subjects were 130 147 and 63 573 person-years, respectively. Information on the development of major CVDs was collected during 2014 to 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to estimate the risks for incident CVD by SBP and DBP groups, respectively. RESULTS: We found that both baseline SBP and DBP presented significantly linear associations with CVD risks in CVRF-free and CVRF-preferable participants. There is significant increase in the CVD risk among CVRF-free participants with baseline SBP level of 110 to 119 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.19-2.71]), 120 to 129 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.36-3.03]), and 130 to 139 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.40-3.28]) compared with SBP <110 mm Hg. Significant increases were also observed for DBP level of 80 to 89 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.03-1.97]) compared with DBP <70 mm Hg. Similar results were observed in CVRF-preferable participants. CONCLUSIONS: SBP and DBP with levels currently considered normal were significantly and linearly associated with incident CVD without thresholds above 110/70 mm Hg among Chinese adults without major CVRFs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Glucose , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Liver Int ; 42(12): 2683-2695, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity and excessive sitting time contributed to ectopic fat accumulation, especially in the liver. Previous studies have illustrated the harm of sedentary behaviour and the benefits of physical activity on fatty liver disease. We aimed to explore the association between the behaviour patterns and the risk of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) using isotemporal substitution model to examine the effect of replacing one behaviour to another while keeping the total time and other behaviours fixed among Chinese middle-aged and elderly population. METHODS: This study included 161 147 participants aged ≥40 years old from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure self-reported time for sleeping, sitting, walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). MAFLD was defined by evidence of fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 in addition to one of the following three patterns, namely overweight/obesity, presence of diabetes, or evidence of metabolic dysregulation. Isotemporal substitution models using logistic regression models to evaluate the association of replacement of different behaviour patterns with each other and the risk of MAFLD. RESULTS: Substitution of 60 minutes per day of sleeping, walking or total MVPA for sitting was associated with a 2%-8% reduction of MAFLD risk in overall participants. In employed individuals, replacing sitting time with occupational MVPA or nonoccupational MVPA both could bring benefits to liver steatosis. Stratified analysis found that replacing 60 minutes of sitting time with an equivalent time of other behaviour pattern could reduce approximately 8% of the risk among MAFLD participants with metabolic abnormalities. Such a relationship might be explained by the important mediated role of metabolic elements, such as waist circumference, body mass index, triglycerides and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, replacing sitting with MVPA showed a stronger association among participants who got enough sleep (sleep duration ≥7 hours per day). CONCLUSION: Replacing sitting with other behaviour patterns could reduce the prevalence of MAFLD, and such substitution effect was much remarkably in individuals with abnormal metabolic status. Observably, obese individuals were more likely to benefit from appropriate changes in behaviour patterns. Moreover, the analysis of sleep duration stratification appealed that the adequacy of individual sleep duration also had a significant impact on the substitution effect. It is worth noting that adjusting the time allocation of behaviour patterns might have a beneficial impact on liver-metabolic health, and these findings might help us better recognize the importance of reasonable arrangement of behaviour patterns according to the individual's situation.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Comportamento Sedentário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 874608, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923617

RESUMO

Background: Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia, is caused mainly by loss-of-function mutation of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. To date, more than 200 mutations in the LPL gene have been reported, while only a limited number of mutations have been evaluated for pathogenesis. Objective: This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein lipase deficiency in two pedigrees with type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia. Methods: We conducted a systematic clinical and genetic analysis of two pedigrees with type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia. Postheparin plasma of all the members was used for the LPL activity analysis. In vitro studies were performed in HEK-293T cells that were transiently transfected with wild-type or variant LPL plasmids. Furthermore, the production and activity of LPL were analyzed in cell lysates or culture medium. Results: Proband 1 developed acute pancreatitis in youth, and her serum triglycerides (TGs) continued to be at an ultrahigh level, despite the application of various lipid-lowering drugs. Proband 2 was diagnosed with type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia at 9 months of age, and his serum TG levels were mildly elevated with treatment. Two novel compound heterozygous variants of LPL (c.3G>C, p. M1? and c.835_836delCT, p. L279Vfs*3, c.188C>T, p. Ser63Phe and c.662T>C, p. Ile221Thr) were identified in the two probands. The postheparin LPL activity of probands 1 and 2 showed decreases of 72.22 ± 9.46% (p<0.01) and 54.60 ± 9.03% (p<0.01), respectively, compared with the control. In vitro studies showed a substantial reduction in the expression or enzyme activity of LPL in the LPL variants. Conclusions: Two novel compound heterozygous variants of LPL induced defects in the expression and function of LPL and caused type I hyperlipoproteinemia. The functional characterization of these variants was in keeping with the postulated LPL mutant activity.


Assuntos
Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Pancreatite/genética , Linhagem
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(9): 100727, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998626

RESUMO

Although previous studies suggest that amino acids (AAs) and microbiota-related metabolites (MRMs) are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the results remain unclear among normoglycemic populations. We test 28 serum AAs and 22 MRMs in 3,414 subjects with incident diabetes and matched normoglycemic controls from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study. In fully adjusted logistic regression models, per SD increment of branched-chain AAs, aromatic AAs, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, homoserine, 2-aminoadipic acid, histidine, methionine, and proline are positively associated with incident T2DM. In the MRM panel, serum carnitines, N-acetyltryptophan, and uric acid are positively associated with incident T2DM. Causal mediation analyses indicate 34 significant causal mediation linkages, with 88.2% through obesity and lipids. Variances explained in the serum metabolites are modestly limited in the comprehensive catalog of risk factor-metabolite-diabetes associations. These findings reveal that systematic AAs and MRMs change profile before T2DM onset and support a potential role of metabolic alterations in the pathogenesis of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbiota , Ácido 2-Aminoadípico , Adulto , Alanina , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Asparagina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Ácido Glutâmico , Histidina , Homosserina , Humanos , Lipídeos , Metionina , Prolina , Ácido Úrico
16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 923981, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958421

RESUMO

Backgrounds: Whether longitudinal changes in metabolic status influence the effect of kidney stones on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclarified. We investigated the modification effect of status changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the association of kidney stones with risk of incident CVD events. Methods: We performed a prospective association and interaction study in a nationwide cohort including 129,172 participants aged ≥ 40 years without CVDs at baseline and followed up for an average of 3.8 years. Kidney stones information was collected by using a questionnaire and validated by medical records. The repeated biochemical measurements were performed to ascertain the metabolic status at both baseline and follow-up. Results: 4,017 incident total CVDs, 1,413 coronary heart diseases (CHDs) and 2,682 strokes were documented and ascertained during follow-up. Kidney stones presence was significantly associated with 44%, 70% and 31% higher risk of CVDs, CHDs and stroke, respectively. The stratified analysis showed significant associations were found in the incident and sustained MetS patients, while no significant associations were found in the non-MetS at both baseline and follow-up subjects or the MetS remission ones, especially in women. For the change status of each single component of the MetS, though the trends were not always the same, the associations with CVD were consistently significant in those with sustained metabolic disorders, except for the sustained high blood glucose group, while the associations were consistently significant in those with incident metabolic disorders except for the incident blood pressure group. We also found a significant association of kidney stone and CVD or CHD risk in the remain normal glucose or triglycerides groups; while the associations were consistently significant in those with incident metabolic disorders except for the incident blood pressure group. We also found a significant association of kidney stone and CVD or CHD risk in the remain normal glucose or triglycerides groups. Conclusions: A history of kidney stones in women with newly developed MetS or long-standing MetS associated with increased risk of CVD. The mechanisms link kidney stones and CVD risk in the metabolic and non-metabolic pathways were warranted for further studies.

17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 927067, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928888

RESUMO

Aim: To determine the effect of decade-based body weight gain from 20 to 50 years of age on later life diabetes risk. Methods: 35,611 non-diabetic participants aged ≥ 50 years from a well-defined nationwide cohort were followed up for average of 3.6 years, with cardiovascular diseases and cancers at baseline were excluded. Body weight at 20, 30, 40, and 50 years was reported. The overall 30 years and each 10-year weight gain were calculated from the early and middle life. Cox regression models were used to estimate risks of incident diabetes. Results: After 127,745.26 person-years of follow-up, 2,789 incident diabetes were identified (incidence rate, 2.18%) in 25,289 women (mean weight gain 20-50 years, 7.60 kg) and 10,322 men (7.93 kg). Each 10-kg weight gain over the 30 years was significantly associated with a 39.7% increased risk of incident diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.47); weight gain from 20-30 years showed a more prominent effect on the risk of developing diabetes before 60 years than that of after 60 years (Hazard ratio, HR = 1.084, 95% CI [1.049-1.121], P <0.0001 vs. 1.015 [0.975-1.056], P = 0.4643; PInteraction=0.0293). It showed a stable effect of the three 10-year intervals weight gain on risk of diabetes after 60 years (HR=1.055, 1.038, 1.043, respectively, all P < 0.0036). Conclusions: The early life weight gain showed a more prominent effect on developing diabetes before 60 years than after 60 years; however, each-decade weight gain from 20 to 50 years showed a similar effect on risk developing diabetes after 60 years.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 51: 101577, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35898319

RESUMO

Background: Increased body mass index (BMI) and metabolic abnormalities are controversial prognostic factors of lung cancer. However, the relationship between metabolic overweight/obesity phenotypes and hospital readmission in patients with lung cancer is rarely reported. Methods: We established a retrospective cohort using the United States (US) Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). We included adult patients diagnosed with lung cancer from January 1, 2018 to November 30, 2018 and excluded patients combined with other cancers, pregnancy, died during hospitalization, low body weight, and those with missing data. The cohort was observed for hospital readmission until December 31, 2018. We defined and distinguished four metabolic overweight/obesity phenotypes: metabolically healthy with normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy with normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy with overweight or obesity (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy with overweight or obesity (MUO). The relationship between metabolic overweight/obesity phenotypes and 30-day readmission risk was assessed by multivariable Cox regression analysis. Findings: Of the 115,393 patients included from the NRD 2018 (MHNW [58214, 50.4%], MUNW [44980, 39.0%], MHO [5044, 4.4%], and MUO [7155, 6.2%]), patients with the phenotype MUNW (6531, 14.5%), MHO (771, 15.3%), and MUO (1155, 16.1%) had a higher readmission rate compared to those with MHNW (7901, 13.6%). Compared with patients with the MHNW phenotype, those with the MUNW (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14), MHO (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.24), and MUO (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.20-1.36) phenotypes had a higher risk of readmission, especially in men, those without surgical intervention, or those aged >60 years. In women, similar results with respect to readmission were observed in people aged >60 years (MUNW [HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13], MHO [HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35], and MUO [HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.16-1.41]). We also found increased costs for 30-day readmission in patients with MHO (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07-1.29) and MUO (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20). Interpretation: Increased BMI and metabolic abnormalities are independently associated with higher readmission risks in patients with lung cancer, whereas increased BMI also increases the readmission costs. Follow-up and intervention method targeting increased BMI and metabolic abnormalities should be considered for patients with lung cancer. Funding: The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1309800).

19.
Injury ; 53(10): 3494-3501, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of proximal avulsion of the five main ligaments and to revise the diagonal tension/compression concept in tibial plateau fractures. METHODS: Computed tomographic images of 1263 cases of tibial plateau fractures were retrospectively analyzed by the OTA/AO classification and four-column nine-segment classification. The correlation between proximal avulsion of five ligaments and the injury mechanism was analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 1263 tibial plateau fractures in 1253 patients were included. A total of 92 cases (7.3%) associated with proximal avulsions were identified among the 1263 tibial plateau fracture cases obtained from our institution's database. The 92 avulsions occurred in 82 patients, among whom 10 patients had two different avulsions in a single knee. The incidence of proximal avulsion fracture of the medial and lateral collateral ligament was 3.6% (45/1263) and 2.1% (26/1263), respectively. The incidence of avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament and avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament was much lower at 0.2% (2/1263) and 0.1% (1/1263), respectively. Proximal avulsion of the patellar ligament occurred in 18 cases (incidence rate = 1.4%). Several combinations of injuries, composed of distal tibial plateau fractures and proximal avulsion of ligaments, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients with tibial plateau fracture, the incidence of proximal avulsion of the five ligaments was 7.3% (92/1263). The four-column and nine-segment classification is an exhaustive method for recording injuries in these ligaments. The revised diagonal injury concept is useful for understanding the injury mechanism and choosing the appropriate surgical strategy.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Fraturas da Tíbia , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/complicações , Traumatismos do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8956636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832491

RESUMO

Mutations of filamin B (FLNB) gene can lead to a spectrum of autosomal skeletal malformations including spondylocarpotarsal syndrome (SCT), Larsen syndrome (LRS), type I atelosteogenesis (AO1), type III atelosteogenesis (AO3), and boomerang dysplasia (BD). Among them, LRS is milder while BD causes a more severe phenotype. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the differences in clinical phenotypes of different FLNB variants has not been fully determined. Here, we presented two patients suffering from autosomal dominant LRS and autosomal recessive vitamin D-dependent rickets type IA (VDDR-IA). Whole-exome sequencing revealed two novel missense variants in FLNB, c.4846A>G (p.T1616A) and c.7022T>G (p.I2341R), which are located in repeat 15 and 22 of filamin B, respectively. The expression of FLNBI2341R in the muscle tissue from our LRS patient was remarkably increased. And in vitro studies showed that both variants led to a lack of filopodia and accumulation of the mutants in the perinuclear region in HEK293 cells. We also found that c.4846A>G (p.T1616A) and c.7022T>G (p.I2341R) regulated endochondral osteogenesis in different ways. c.4846A>G (p.T1616A) activated AKT pathways through inhibiting SHIP2, suppressed the Smad3 pathway, and impaired the expression of Runx2 in both Saos-2 and ATDC5 cells. c.7022T>G (p.I2341R) activated both AKT and Smad3 pathways and increased the expression of Runx2 in Saos-2 cells, while in ATDC5 cells it activated AKT pathways through inhibiting SHIP2, suppressed the Smad3 pathway, and reduced the expression of Runx2. Our study demonstrated the pathogenic mechanisms of two novel FLNB variants in two different clinical settings and proved that FLNB variants could not only directly cause skeletal malformations but also worsen skeletal symptoms in the setting of other skeletal diseases. Besides, FLNB variants differentially affect skeletal development which contributes to clinical heterogeneity of FLNB-related disorders.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Filaminas , Osteocondrodisplasias , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Nanismo/metabolismo , Facies , Filaminas/genética , Filaminas/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
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