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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455080

RESUMO

Dmrt1 is an important transcriptional regulator that plays critical role in male gonadogenesis, testicular differentiation and development. In this study, Dmrt1 was cloned from blotched snakehead (Channa maculata), which is designated as CmDmrt1. CmDmrt1 encoded a putative protein with 293 amino acids and presented an extremely conserved DM domain. It was nearly expressed in the gonads, and the expression was more than 15 times higher in the testis than in the ovary. 1851 bp promoter sequence of CmDmrt1 was characterized and the methylation levels of the CpG sites were analyzed to detect sex-related differences. A significant negative correlation between CmDmrt1 expression and CpG methylation level of its promoter was found in the testis and ovary. During gonadal development, CmDmrt1 transcription displayed strong male-biased expression patterns, increased with the maturation of testis and reached the peak at 195 days after hatching (dah), which indicates a significant role of Dmrt1 in spermatogenesis. Steroid treatment could influence CmDmrt1 expression, and long-term 17ß-estradiol (E2) treatment could induce the male-to-female secondary sex reversal (SSR), which resulted in the differentiated testis transformed to ovary or ovotestis. Meanwhile, CmDmrt1 expression was down-regulated to fairly low level in the ovary of the SSR XY fish, which was similar to that in normal XX females ovary. Our research illustrates that Dmrt1 is linked to testis differentiation and spermatogenesis in blotched snakehead, providing information for functional studies on sex differentiation and gonadal development of C. maculata, and scientific basis for the production practice of all-male snakehead breeding.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149695, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438127

RESUMO

Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point towards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological conditions, sources, and processes in megacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
3.
PhytoKeys ; 183: 9-19, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720627

RESUMO

Haplodontiumaltunense X.R.Wang & S.Mamtimin, a new moss species of the family Bryaceae from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China is described and illustrated. Genetic analysis based on ITS sequences shows that this species is a member of the Bryaceae and in the same clade as Anomobryum. Particularly distinctive features of the new species include: double peristome; the exostome has raised and membranous chomata with united lamellae between two teeth proximally; the endostome is poorly developed and all the endostomial material tightly adherent to the exostome.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 751891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721480

RESUMO

Conifers are the world's major source of timber and pulpwood and have great economic and ecological value. Currently, little research on the application of CRISPR/Cas9, the commonly used genome-editing tool in angiosperms, has been reported in coniferous species. An efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system based on somatic embryogenesis (SEis) suitable for conifers could benefit both fundamental and applied research in these species. In this study, the SpCas9 gene was optimized based on codon bias in white spruce, and a spruce U6 promoter was cloned and function-validated for use in a conifer specific CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox, i.e., PgCas9/PaU6. With this toolbox, a genome-editing vector was constructed to target the DXS1 gene of white spruce. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the genome-editing vector was then transferred into embryogenic tissue of white spruce. Three resistant embryogenic tissues were obtained and used for regenerating plants via SEis. Albino somatic embryo (SE) plants with mutations in DXS1 were obtained in all of the three events, and the ratios of the homozygous and biallelic mutants in the 18 albino mutants detected were 22.2% in both cases. Green plants with mutations in DXS1 were also produced, and the ratios of the DXS1 mutants to the total green plants were 7.9, 28, and 13.5%, respectively, among the three events. Since 22.7% of the total 44 mutants were edited at both of the target sites 1 and 2, the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox in this research could be used for multi-sites genome editing. More than 2,000 SE plants were regenerated in vitro after genome editing, and part of them showed differences in plant development. Both chimerism and mosaicism were found in the SE plants of white spruce after genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox. The conifer-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system developed in this research could be valuable in gene function research and trait improvement.

5.
Virus Genes ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727338

RESUMO

NS1 (Non-structural protein 1) is a non-structural protein that can highly express when the avian influenza virus infects the host cells. NS1 can interact with various proteins to alter the intracellular distribution of host proteins and regulate the virulence and pathogenicity of the avian influenza virus. To further study the role of NS1 protein in replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus, Glutathione S-transferase (GST) Pull-down was used for screening more proteins interacting with NS1 in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. By mass spectrometry, a potential interacted protein is identified as α-actinin 4 and its interaction with NS1 has not been reported yet. The interaction between NS1 and α-actinin 4 in vitro was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments, and the results showed that the absorbance value of OD450nm in the experimental group was positively correlated with the concentration of NS1-GST protein compared to the negative control group. The co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence results further confirmed the interaction between NS1 and α-actinin 4 at the cellular level. The interaction between NS1 and α-actinin 4 provided a new target for pathogenic mechanism studying and drug screening.

6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical joints manifestations under musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) and hematological findings in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), which may provide a basis for improving the early diagnosis of PsA. METHODS: From September 2016 to February 2021, 328 patients with psoriasis visited the dermatological and rheumatic outpatient of the Beijing Friendship Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were enrolled according to a paired-design method. The PsA group included 164 patients diagnosed with PsA, and the control group included 164 patients diagnosed with psoriasis without PsA. Both groups of patients were evaluated by a rheumatoid immunologist, a dermatologist, and a sonographer. Demographic data, course of disease, severity of skin lesions, combined diseases, and previous treatment were all collected. All patients received MSUS and blood examinations. Lower extremity enthsis diseases were evaluated by Glasgow ultrasound enthesitis scoring system (GUESS). RESULTS: In the comparison of baseline clinical characteristics, the PsA group has longer course of psoriasis (P = 0.005), longer course of joints pain (P = 0.035), higher incidence of peripheral joints pain (P = 0.001), higher GUESS score (P < 0.001), and higher incidence of involved nails or toenails (P = 0.036) The most common joints involved were proximal interphalangeal joint (33.5%), knee (27.4%), and metacarpophalangeal joint (25.0%). Differences in clinical manifestations at different lower limb enthesitis on MSUS have also been proved. The positive incidences of rheumatoid factor (RF) (P = 0.002) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody (P < 0.001) in the PsA group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Binary Logistic regression showed that patients with anti-CCP antibody positive had a higher risk of active PsA compared to patients with negative antibodies in PsA group (OR: 0.626, 95%CI: 0.361-0.792, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the most common joints involved were proximal interphalangeal joint, knee, and metacarpophalangeal joint in patients with PsA, and the common types of diseased joints manifestations on MSUS were synovial thickening, fluid accumulation, bone destruction, increased blood flow signals, and attachment site inflammation. GUESS scoring systems can be used to identify PsA in patients with psoriasis. Psoriasis patients with RF and anti-CCP antibody positive were more likely to develop PsA, and anti-CCP antibody positive was a risk factor for active PsA. KEY POINTS: • GUESS scoring systems can be used to identify PsA in patients with psoriasis. • Psoriasis patients with RF and anti-CCP antibody positive were more likely to develop PsA, and anti-CCP antibody positive was a risk factor for active PsA.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118152, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740287

RESUMO

The operation of the equipment in industrial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) affects the underwater soundscape of aquaculture tanks where fishes live. This study evaluated the influence of commercial industrial RAS noise on the growth, physiology, and behavior of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). In this study, two experimental groups, the RAS noise group (115 dB re 1 µPa RMS) and the ambient group (69 dB re 1 µPa RMS), were studied. The water quality and feeding regime for each group were kept the same during the 60-day experiment. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the average daily feed intake of the fish between the two treatments, while the rate of weight gain of the ambient group (755.27 ± 65.62%) was significantly higher than that of the noise group (337.66 ± 88.01%). In addition, the RAS environmental noise also had an adverse effect on the anti-oxidation and immune systems of the fish based on results of analysis of blood, liver, and intestinal samples. Moreover, environmental noise affected the swimming behavior of the fish school. The mean angle and distance between the focal fish and its nearest neighbor fish in RAS noise group were 33.3° and 92.1 mm, respectively, which were larger than those of the ambient group with 24.4° and 89.5 mm, respectively. From the above results, RAS noise did influence the welfare of largemouth bass, and the soundscape in RAS hence should be managed in real production.


Assuntos
Bass , Animais , Aquicultura , Intestinos , Fígado/metabolismo , Oxirredução
8.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 687780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776923

RESUMO

Background: Assessing the relation between arthritis and cognitive impairment could expand the understanding of health consequences of arthritis. The aim was to prospectively examine the association between arthritis and cognitive functions among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Methods: Our analyses were based on data from the nationwide China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011-2016). Arthritis was ascertained by self-reported doctor diagnosis during the baseline survey. Cognitive functions were evaluated in three domains including episodic memory, mental status, and global cognition. Linear mixed models were employed to assess the association between baseline arthritis and cognition functions. Results: Of 7,529 Chinese adults, 49.79% were men, and mean age was 57.53 years. During a follow-up of 4 years, participants with baseline arthritis showed lower scores of episodic memory [ß = -0.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14, -0.03], mental status (ß = -0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05), and global cognition (ß = -0.22; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.11), compared to those without arthritis. In addition, participants with arthritis showed increased rates of decline in mental status and global cognition by 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09) units per year, respectively. Conclusion: Arthritis was associated with subsequent risk of poorer cognitive functions and slightly faster declines in cognitive functions among Chinese middle-aged and elderly adults. Our findings should be confirmed in future large prospective studies in Chinese and other populations.

9.
Neural Netw ; 145: 177-188, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763244

RESUMO

As a popular machine learning method, neural networks can be used to solve many complex tasks. Their strong generalization ability comes from the representation ability of the basic neuron models. The most popular neuron model is the McCulloch-Pitts (MP) neuron, which uses a simple transformation to process the input signal. A common trend is to use the MP neuron to design various neural networks. However, the optimization of the neuron structure is rarely considered. Inspired by the elastic collision model in physics, we propose a new neuron model that can represent more complex distributions. We term it the Inter-layer Collision (IC) neuron which divides the input space into multiple subspaces to represent different linear transformations. Through this operation, the IC neuron enhances the non-linear representation ability and emphasizes useful input features for a given task. We build the IC networks by integrating the IC neurons into the fully-connected, the convolutional, and the recurrent structures. The IC networks outperform the traditional neural networks in a wide range of tasks. Besides, we combine the IC neuron with deep learning models and show the superiority of the IC neuron. Our research proves that the IC neuron can be an effective basic unit to build network structures and make the network performance better.

10.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 35400-35413, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808975

RESUMO

We propose a simple yet effective strategy to map forward error correction (FEC) encoded symbols to subcarriers in bandwidth-limited intensity-modulation and direct-detection (IM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The design exploits the reliability diversity of OFDM subcarriers in bandwidth-limited systems and allocates FEC encoded systematic symbols and parity-check symbols to high-reliability and low-reliability subcarriers, respectively. In contrast to adaptively-loaded OFDM or systems using multiple sets of FECs with different code rates for different subcarriers, the proposed design does not induce additional complexity and avoids the round-trip delay between transceivers. We investigate the performance of the proposed design in quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) coded OFDM system under different decoding iterations. Experimental results of 120-Gb/s signals over 2 km and 100-Gb/s signals over 5 km show that the OFDM system using the proposed mapping strategy is superior to both OFDM and discrete-Fourier-transform spread (DFT-S) OFDM using conventional mappings without considering the subcarrier diversity or using pre-equalization, regardless of the received optical power, the FEC code rate, the length of the cyclic prefix, the transmission distance, the number of decoding iterations, and the degree distribution of the QC-LDPC optimized under either an infinite or a limited number of iterations. The proposed mapping is optimal when the systematic symbols and parity-check symbols are exactly loaded to high-reliability and low-reliability subcarriers respectively. The studies enable the proposed strategy promising for bandwidth-limited IM/DD OFDM systems such as low-latency data center interconnects.

13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 759577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804958

RESUMO

Distant metastasis is the principal cause of mortality for breast cancer patients. Targeting specific mutations that have been acquired during the evolution process of advanced breast cancer is a potential means of enhancing the clinical efficacy of treatment strategies. In metastatic breast cancer, ARID1A is the most prevalent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex, which regulates DNA repair, recombination, and gene transcription. The low expression of ARID1A is associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with luminal A or HER2-rich breast cancer. In addition, ARID1A plays a prominent role in maintaining luminal characteristics and has an advantage for identifying responses to treatment, including endocrine therapies, HDAC inhibitors and CDK4/6 inhibitors. The therapeutic vulnerabilities initiated by ARID1A alterations encourage us to explore new approaches to cope with ARID1A mutant-related drug resistance or metastasis. In this review, we describe the mutation profiles of ARID1A in metastatic breast cancer and the structure and function of ARID1A and the SWI/SNF complex as well as discuss the potential mechanisms of ARID1A-mediated endocrine resistance and therapeutic potential.

14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 706687, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805137

RESUMO

Drp1 is a central player in mitochondrial fission and is recruited to mitochondria by Mff and MIEFs (MIEF1 and MIEF2), but little is known about how its assembly state affects Drp1 mitochondrial recruitment and fission. Here, we used in vivo chemical crosslinking to explore the self-assembly state of Drp1 and how it regulates the association of Drp1 with MIEFs and Mff. We show that in intact mammalian cells Drp1 exists as a mixture of multiple self-assembly forms ranging from the minimal, probably tetrameric, self-assembly subunit to several higher order oligomers. Precluding mitochondria-bound Drp1 in Mff/MIEF1/2-deficient cells does not affect the oligomerization state of Drp1, while conversely forced recruitment of Drp1 to mitochondria by MIEFs or Mff facilitates Drp1 oligomerization. Mff preferentially binds to higher order oligomers of Drp1, whereas MIEFs bind to a wider-range of Drp1 assembly subunits, including both lower and higher oligomeric states. Mff only recruits active forms of Drp1, while MIEFs are less selective and recruit both active and inactive Drp1 as well as oligomerization- or GTPase-deficient Drp1 mutants to mitochondria. Moreover, all the fission-incompetent Drp1 mutants tested (except the monomeric mutant K668E) affect Drp1-driven mitochondrial dynamics via incorporation of the mutants into the native oligomers to form function-deficient Drp1 assemblies. We here confirm that MIEFs also serve as a platform facilitating the binding of Drp1 to Mff and loss of MIEFs severely impairs the interaction between Drp1 and Mff. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mff and MIEFs respond differently to the molecular assembly state of Drp1 and that the extent of Drp1 oligomerization regulates mitochondrial dynamics.

15.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807619

RESUMO

Design of biosensors capable of imaging ATP and glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria remains a challenge, despite their importance in elucidating their correlated pathophysiological events. Here, we report a new strategy that uses redox-activatable aptamer sensor design combined with nanoparticle-based targeting capability to achieve spatially controlled, AND-gated imaging of ATP and GSH in mitochondria. The DNA nanodevice was designed by the controlled assembly of the redox-responsive ATP aptamer probe on the nanoparticles and further decorated with mitochondria-targeting signals. We demonstrate that the system allows for mitochondria-specific, correlated imaging of ATP and GSH in living cells and in vivo. Furthermore, because the system can be lighted up only when meeting the "dual keys" (overexpressed ATP and GSH in mitochondria) simultaneously, the DNA nanodevice enables specific imaging of tumors in vivo with improved tumor-to-normal tissue ratio. This work illustrates the potential of the DNA nanodevices in the imaging of mitochondrial multivariate targets.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is no research evidence demonstrate which is the better partner strategy, endocrine therapy or chemotherapy, to combine with anti-HER2 therapy as the first line management of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HER2- positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We wished to ascertain if trastuzumab plus endocrine therapy is non-inferior to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted an open-label, non-inferiority, phase-3, randomized, controlled trial (NCT01950182) at nine hospitals in China. Patients with HR+HER2+ MBC were enrolled. Participants, stratified by previous adjuvant endocrine therapy and disease status (recurrent disease vs. de novo metastasis), were assigned randomly (1:1) to receive trastuzumab plus endocrine therapy (per investigator's choice of oestrogen-receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitor, with/without concurrent ovarian suppression) or chemotherapy (per investigator's choice of taxanes, capecitabine, or vinorelbine). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) with a non-inferiority upper margin of 1.35 for the hazard ratio. The intention-to-treat population was used in primary and safety analyses. RESULTS: A total of 392 patients were enrolled and assigned randomly to receive trastuzumab plus endocrine therapy (ET group, n=196) or trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (CT group, n=196). After a median follow-up of 30.2 months (IQR 15.0-44.7), the median PFS was 19.2 months (95%CI 16.7-21.7) in the ET group and 14.8 months (12.8-16.8) in the CT group (hazard ratio 0.88, 95%CI 0.71-1.09; pnon-inferiority <0.0001). A significantly higher prevalence of toxicity was observed in the CT group compared with the ET group. CONCLUSIONS: Trastuzumab plus endocrine therapy was non-inferior to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in patients with HR+HER2+ MBC.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747589

RESUMO

As two major types of pollutants of emerging concerns, microplastics (MPs) and antibiotics (ATs) coexist in aquatic environments, and their interactions are a source of increasing concern. Therefore, this work examines the interaction mechanisms of MPs and ATs, and the effect of MPs on ATs bioavailability and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) abundance in aquatic environments. First, the mechanisms for ATs adsorption on MPs are summarized, mainly including hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, and electrostatic interactions. But other possible mechanisms, such as halogen bonding, CH/π interaction, cation-π interaction, and negative charge-assisted hydrogen bonds, are newly proposed to explain the observed ATs adsorption. Additionally, environmental factors (such as pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic matters, minerals, and aging conditions) affecting ATs adsorption by MPs are specifically discussed. Moreover, MPs could change the bioaccumulation and toxicity of ATs to aquatic organisms, and the related mechanisms on the joint effect are reviewed and analyzed. Furthermore, MPs can enrich ARGs from the surrounding environment, and the effect of MPs on ARGs abundance is evaluated. Finally, research challenges and perspectives for MPs-ATs interactions and related environmental implications are presented. This review will facilitate a better understanding of the environmental fate and risk of both MPs and ATs.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151476, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742952

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities have inevitably impacted riverine ecosystems, yet their overall contribution to the assemblage of bacterial communities at a large river basin scale remains unclear. In this study, 16S amplicon sequencing was implemented to investigate the bacterial ecosystems in paired water and sediment of North River and West River basins in South China., which contains various anthropogenic environments (e.g., rural/urban area, mining area and livestock area). Subsequently, the links between bacterial community and various types of emerging pollutants in river water were analyzed. The results show that the bacterial assemblage of water and sediment had their own properties that the bacterial community of sediment were mainly affected by seasonal properties, while the bacterial community of water were affected by both seasons and anthropogenic activities. Therein, the aquatic bacterial compositions and abundances were driven by changes in temperature, dissolved oxygen and the emerging pollutants. The dominant phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes exhibited adaptability to the mining-affected regions, therein many clades (e.g., Beijerinckiaceae, Acetobacteraceae and Mycobacteriaceae) were also prevalent in the livestock-affected and densely-populated regions. In addition, these two phyla presented associations to the antibiotic resistance in water. The levels of antibiotics, relative antibiotic resistance gens (ARGs) and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals (NAPs) were closely related to bacterial community composition, diversity and functional diversity, indicating their drive in shifting bacterial communities. Collectively, this work provides a basis for understanding the contribution of anthropogenic activities in shifting bacterial community at a large river basin scale. Further, the results provide new insights for expansion of ecological assessment.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126279, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752889

RESUMO

The co-pyrolysis characteristics and product yield of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and polypropylene (PP) under different mixing ratios (10:0, 8:2, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 2:8 and 0:10) were studied by microwave oven. Then the effects of different graphite (GP) additions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) on the optimum mixing ratio of CV and PP were investigated. The composition of bio-oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The results indicated that the C8P2 (CV/PP = 8:2) group had the best pyrolysis characteristics. The maximum weight loss rate (Rm) and average weight loss rate (Rv) of the C8P2 with 30% GP addition achieved the peak value. In the absence of GP, compared with C10P0 group, the contents of nitrogen compounds in bio-oil of the C8P2 group decreased by 21.58%. After adding GP to the C8P2 group, the nitrogen compounds in bio-oil of 30% GP group was 1.93% lower than that in 0% GP group.

20.
Water Res ; 207: 117803, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741900

RESUMO

Antiviral drugs are among the most common and important classes of pharmaceuticals to treat viral infections, however their continuous emission and persistence in the receiving environment has attracted increasing attention about their potential ecological risks. Here we investigated the occurrence, fate and mass load of 9 antiviral drugs for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hepatitis B, in 7 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment processes in Guangdong, China. Totally, 8 target antiviral drugs were detected in the WWTPs influent wastewater, effluent wastewater and sludge, with maximal concentrations up to 7624 ng/L (telbivudine), 568 ng/L (telbivudine), and 2013 ng/g wet weight (telbivudine), respectively. The removal efficiency varied widely between different antiviral drugs, with the mean aqueous removal efficiency and total removal efficiency ranging from -6.2% (nevirapine) to 100% (lamivudine) and -1.2% (nevirapine) to 100% (lamivudine), respectively. Mass balance analysis showed that their elimination was mostly attributed to the biodegradation/biotransformation. The total back-estimated usage and emission of 9 target antiviral drugs were 77.8 t/y and 13.2 t/y in Guangdong province, China, respectively. Based on the sewage epidemiology approach, the consumption and emission of antiviral drugs in seven studied WWTPs were ranged at 2.31 mg/d/1000 people (nevirapine) to 4970 mg/d/1000 people (telbivudine), and 0 (lamivudine) to 900 mg/d/1000 people (telbivudine), respectively. Preliminary risk assessment showed that the antiviral drugs of zidovudine, ritonavir, lopinavir, and telbivudine in the receiving rivers could pose high ecological risks for aquatic environment. The findings from the present study illustrate the persistence of nevirapine in WWTPs, and provide essential evidence for further study into the development of wastewater treatment technologies.

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