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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130385, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403447

RESUMO

Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mainly contributes to Pb accumulation in the edible leaves of Chinese cabbage in North China. It was found that a low-Pb-accumulation (LPA) genotype of Chinese cabbage contained less Pb in leaves than high-Pb-accumulation (HPA) genotype exposed to PM2.5-Pb. However, there are no data on the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of foliar PM2.5-Pb uptake by Chinese cabbage. The present study investigated the retention of PM2.5-Pb in foliar apoplast and symplasm and the underlying molecular mechanisms of reduced Pb in LPA leaves. It appeared more Pb in apoplast and less Pb in symplasm of LPA leaves, whereas the pattern was opposite in HPA. There were 2646 and 3095 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in LPA and HPA leaves under PM2.5-Pb stress with clearly genotype-specific function, respectively. Furthermore, mRNA levels of XTH16 regulating cell wall thickening, PME2 and PME6 involved in cell wall remodification were significantly expressed in LPA, but not in HPA. Meanwhile, foliar PM2.5-Pb stress downregulated expression of ZIP1, YSL1, and CNGC3 responsible for Pb influx to cell, and upregulated expression of ABCG36 regulated Pb efflux from symplasm in LPA leaves. These results improve our understanding to the mechanisms underlying foliar Pb uptake from PM2.5-Pb at transcriptomic level.


Assuntos
Brassica , Transcriptoma , Chumbo , Genótipo , China , Material Particulado , Brassica/genética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159637, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280055

RESUMO

Nitrate accumulation is a common phenomenon in aquaculture that can lead to eutrophication of surrounding water bodies. This study used poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) as a carbon source and substrate and performed a microbial co-occurrence network ecological analysis to elucidate the denitrification processes in two packed-bed reactors with different salinities. The denitrification rate reached maximum values of 0.438 and 0.446 kg m-3 d-1 in reactor I (salinity 0 ‰) and reactor II (salinity 20 ‰), respectively. Although ammonia was formed in both systems based on dissimilation nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), the concentration was very low (2.47 ± 1.99 and 2.84 ± 1.79 mg L-1); moreover, the nitrite content was average (1.01 ± 0.87 and 0.96 ± 0.86 mg L-1). These results suggested that denitrification dominated in both reactors. PHBV generally presented a stable release of DOC, although a sharp increase was observed in the start-up period of reactor II. 16S rRNA results showed that reactor I had richer microbial diversity than reactor II. Among the top ten taxa, Betaproteobacteria was the dominant class in reactor I while Gammaproteobacteria was the dominant class in reactor II. In the stable period, Thauera and Denitromonas was the most abundant genera in reactor I and reactor II, respectively. In addition, the bacterial co-occurrence network showed that reactor I had a more complex node and edge network and faster start-up time compared to reactor II; however, reactor II had a more stable nitrogen removal capacity. Higher expression of NorB and NosZ genes in reactor II indicated higher efficient denitrification in seawater system. The SEM and FTIR showed bacterial development and materials surface erosion. These findings verified the denitrification performance and niche differences between freshwater and seawater environments.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Águas Residuárias , Nitratos/metabolismo , Desnitrificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Amônia/metabolismo , Elétrons , Poliésteres/metabolismo , Hidroxibutiratos/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Bactérias/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 301(Pt A): 120291, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436849

RESUMO

The study investigated the feasibility of co-production of nanocellulose crystal (CNC) and ethanol using the bleached pine kraft pulp (BPKP) as a substrate by enzymatic hydrolysis. An engineering strain Penicillum oxalicum cEES-XM was constructed to produce suitable cellulase used in enzymatic hydrolysis of BPKP for preparing CNC. The cellulase from Trichoderma reesei SCB18 was used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of residues and hydrolysates from enzymatic hydrolysis for producing ethanol. The result showed that the CNC yield reached 7.35 % (w/w) by hydrolysis at 10 % solid content, and the final ethanol concentration was 13.27 mg/mL in fermentation liquor. Using SEM, XRD, TGA, and DLS methods, the characteristics of CNC including, morphology, crystallinity, thermal stability and particle size distribution, were also examined. This work provided a reference for realizing high-efficient application of cellulose in the pulp.


Assuntos
Celulase , Celulase/metabolismo , Etanol , Celulose/química , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Compostos de Sódio , Ácido Hipocloroso
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130386, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444072

RESUMO

The regeneration of Fe(II) is the rate-limiting step in the Fenton/Fenton-like chain reactions that seriously hinder their scientific progress towards practical application. In this study, we proposed iron boride (FeB) for the first time as a new material to sustainably decompose H2O2 to generate hydroxyl radicals, which can non-selectively degrade a wide array of refractory organic pollutants. Fe(II) can be steadily released by the stepwise oxidation of FeB to stimulate Fenton reaction, meanwhile, B-B bonds as electron donors on the surface of FeB effectively promote the regeneration of Fe(II) from Fe(III) species and significantly accelerate the production of hydroxyl radicals. The low generation of toxic by-products and the high utilization rate of iron species validly avoid the secondary organic/metal pollution in the FeB/H2O2 system. Therefore, FeB mediated Fenton oxidation provides a novel strategy to realize a green and long-lasting environmental remediation.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130146, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244106

RESUMO

This study focuses on characterizing microplastics and non-microplastics released from surgical masks (SMs), N95 masks (N95), KN95 masks (KN95), and children's masks (CMs) after simulating sunlight aging. Based on micro-Raman spectrum analysis, it was found that the dominant particles released from masks were non-microplastics (66.76-98.85%). Unfortunately, CMs released the most microplastics, which is 8.92 times more than SMs. The predominant size range of microplastics was 30-500 µm, and the main polymer types were PP and PET. Compared with the whole SMs, the microplastic particles released from the cutting-SMs increased conspicuously, which is 12.15 times that of the whole SMs. The main components of non-microplastics include ß-carotene, microcrystalline cellulose 102, and eight types of minerals. Furthermore, non-microplastics were mainly fibrous and fragmented in appearance, similar to the morphology of microplastics. After 15 days of UVA-aging, the fibers of the face layers had cracks to varying degrees. It was estimated that these four types of masks can release at least 31.5 trillion microplastics annually in China. Overall, this study demonstrated that the masks could release a large quantity of microplastics and non-microplastics to the environment after sunlight aging, deserving urgent attention in the future study.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , Humanos , Luz Solar , Máscaras , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Plásticos
6.
J Inorg Biochem ; 238: 112050, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332411

RESUMO

The cyclometalated iridium(III) compounds have been intensively studied for health-related applications due to their outstanding luminescent properties and multiple anticancer modes of action. Herein, two iridium(III) compounds Ir-1 and Ir-3 containing glutathione S-transferase inhibitor (GSTi) were developed and studied together with two unfunctionalized compounds Ir-2 and Ir-4 as a comparison. Biological study indicated that GSTi-bearing complexes Ir-1 and Ir-3 exert a synergistic effect on the inhibition of cancer cells. The photophysical properties of Ir-1 âˆ¼ Ir-4 were investigated by UV/vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and rationalized with TD-DFT calculations. As expected, GSTi-bearing complexes Ir-1 and Ir-3 exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against both A549 and cisplatin-resistant A549/cis cancer cells, much higher than the unfunctionalized iridium compounds Ir-2 and Ir-4. Further study indicated that Ir-1 and Ir-3 mainly localize in the mitochondria of tumor cells, and exert their cytotoxicity via generating ROS and inhibiting GST activity. The flow cytometry investigations demonstrated that Ir-1 and Ir-3 can arrest the cell cycle in S phase and induce the cell death through apoptosis process. Overall, the complexation of GST inhibitors with cyclometalated iridium(III) agents provides an effective way for potentiating the cytotoxicity of iridium(III) anticancer agents and resensitizing the efficacy against cisplatin resistant cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Complexos de Coordenação , Compostos Organometálicos , Irídio/farmacologia , Irídio/química , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459604

RESUMO

Unsupervised person re-identification (re-ID) remains a challenging task. While extensive research has focused on the framework design and loss function, this paper shows that sampling strategy plays an equally important role. We analyze the reasons for the performance differences between various sampling strategies under the same framework and loss function. We suggest that deteriorated over-fitting is an important factor causing poor performance, and enhancing statistical stability can rectify this problem. Inspired by that, a simple yet effective approach is proposed, termed group sampling, which gathers samples from the same class into groups. The model is thereby trained using normalized group samples, which helps alleviate the negative impact of individual samples. Group sampling updates the pipeline of pseudo-label generation by guaranteeing that samples are more efficiently classified into the correct classes. It regulates the representation learning process, enhancing statistical stability for feature representation in a progressive fashion. Extensive experiments on Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID and MSMT17 show that group sampling achieves performance comparable to state-of-the-art methods and outperforms the current techniques under purely camera-agnostic settings. Code has been available at https://github.com/ucas-vg/GroupSampling.

8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 966818, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36465390

RESUMO

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors arising from perivascular epithelial cells. There was no standard treatment for unresectable PEComa before 2021. For a low incidence and a rarely curable disease, development of new therapy is essential. A 45-year-old female was diagnosed with malignant renal PEComa (likely with TFE3 rearrangement) that underwent rapid progression after 10 months of surgery. The patient then received the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) Apatinib, and the tumor remained stable for 15 months before another progression. The patient then received the MTOR inhibitor everolimus that alleviated her symptoms but the tumor went into remission again after another 15 months. This result suggests that antagonizing the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) pathway be a useful strategy for malignant PEComas, along with the MTOR pathway inhibition that had recently been approved for the rare tumor.

9.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1029670, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36465398

RESUMO

Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that mainly occurs in the sacrum and the clivus/skull base. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for chordoma, but the local recurrence rate is high with unsatisfactory prognosis. Compared with other common tumors, there is not much research and individualized treatment for chordoma, partly due to the rarity of the disease and the lack of appropriate disease models, which delay the discovery of therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in modern techniques have enabled gaining a better understanding of a number of rare diseases, including chordoma. Since the beginning of the 21st century, various chordoma cell lines and animal models have been reported, which have partially revealed the intrinsic mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression with the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. In this study, we performed a systematic overview of the chordoma models and related sequencing studies in a chronological manner, from the first patient-derived chordoma cell line (U-CH1) to diverse preclinical models such as the patient-derived organoid-based xenograft (PDX) and patient-derived organoid (PDO) models. The use of modern sequencing techniques has discovered mutations and expression signatures that are considered potential treatment targets, such as the expression of Brachyury and overactivated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Moreover, computational and bioinformatics techniques have made drug repositioning/repurposing and individualized high-throughput drug screening available. These advantages facilitate the research and development of comprehensive and personalized treatment strategies for indicated patients and will dramatically improve their prognoses in the near feature.

10.
Digit Biomark ; 6(3): 107-116, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466952

RESUMO

Introduction: Progressive cognitive decline is the cardinal behavioral symptom in most dementia-causing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. While most well-established measures for cognition might not fit tomorrow's decentralized remote clinical trials, digital cognitive assessments will gain importance. We present the evaluation of a novel digital speech biomarker for cognition (SB-C) following the Digital Medicine Society's V3 framework: verification, analytical validation, and clinical validation. Methods: Evaluation was done in two independent clinical samples: the Dutch DeepSpA (N = 69 subjective cognitive impairment [SCI], N = 52 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and N = 13 dementia) and the Scottish SPeAk datasets (N = 25, healthy controls). For validation, two anchor scores were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Results: Verification: The SB-C could be reliably extracted for both languages using an automatic speech processing pipeline. Analytical Validation: In both languages, the SB-C was strongly correlated with MMSE scores. Clinical Validation: The SB-C significantly differed between clinical groups (including MCI and dementia), was strongly correlated with the CDR, and could track the clinically meaningful decline. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the ki:e SB-C is an objective, scalable, and reliable indicator of cognitive decline, fit for purpose as a remote assessment in clinical early dementia trials.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467556

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China, with a high incidence and mortality rate. Glucose metabolism reprogramming is a major characteristic of tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that aerobic glycolysis is associated with tumor growth and insensitivity to chemotherapy. Cordycepin inhibits the growth of HCC cells, but the mechanism is yet to be elucidated. Herein, in vitro and in vivo methods were utilized to investigate the cordycepin-inhibited growth of HCC by regulating the metabolic pathway of aerobic glycolysis. In vitro analyses using colony formation and flow cytometry revealed that cordycepin inhibits HCC cells' proliferation and promotes apoptosis. In addition, cordycepin reduced the production of lactic acid and pyruvate, reduced the uptake of glucose, and decreased the extracellular acidification in HCC cells. Specifically, cordycepin inhibited the expression of HK2, LDHA, and PKM2 in aerobic glycolysis via the AMPK-Akt pathway. Taken together, these findings revealed that cordycepin reduces the tumor energy supply and decreases lactic acid production, thereby inhibiting the growth of HCC cells by regulating the metabolic pathway of aerobic glycolysis. These findings might provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying cordycepin-mediated inhibition of tumor growth as well as a new treatment for HCC.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7494, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36470859

RESUMO

Microphthalmia transcription factor (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is a rare type of kidney cancer, which is not well characterized. Here we show the comprehensive proteogenomic analysis of tRCC tumors and normal adjacent tissues to elucidate the molecular landscape of this disease. Our study reveals that defective DNA repair plays an important role in tRCC carcinogenesis and progression. Metabolic processes are markedly dysregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proteomic and phosphoproteome data identify mTOR signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target. Moreover, molecular subtyping and immune infiltration analysis characterize the inter-tumoral heterogeneity of tRCC. Multi-omic integration reveals the dysregulation of cellular processes affected by genomic alterations, including oxidative phosphorylation, autophagy, transcription factor activity, and proteasome function. This study represents a comprehensive proteogenomic analysis of tRCC, providing valuable insights into its biological mechanisms, disease diagnosis, and prognostication.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(22): 6082-6089, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471933

RESUMO

This study established the ultra-performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) fingerprint of Xinnaojian preparations. With epicatechin gallate as the internal reference substance, a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method for determining the content of nine components(gallic acid, epigallocatechin, catechin, caffeine, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, and catechin gallate) in Xinnaojian preparations was established. The content determined by the external standard method(ESM) and QAMS method was compared to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of QAMS method. The results showed that the standard curves of nine components had good linear relationship within the test concentration ranges. The average recoveries were 87.57%-107.4%, and the RSD was 1.5%-2.9%. Except epigallocatechin, the other components showed good repeatability under different experimental conditions. Epigallocatechin could meet the requirements in the same instrument and at the same wavelength. The results generally showed no significant difference between QAMS and ESM. The content of 9 components varied between the samples from different manufacturers, while it showed no significant difference between the samples from the same manufacturer. In summary, the UPLC fingerprint combined with QAMS method is feasible and accurate for determining the content of the nine components, which can be used for rapid quality evaluation of Xinnaojian preparations.

14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 175398, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455647

RESUMO

Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) drive extracellular matrix remodeling after inflammatory injury, leading to cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction. Recent studies described the role of epigenetics in cardiac fibrosis. Nevertheless, detailed reports on epigenetics regulating CFs pyroptosis and describing their implication in cardiac fibrosis are still unclear. Here, we found that DNMT3A reduces the expression of lncRNA Neat1 and promotes the NLRP3 axis leading to CFs pyroptosis, using cultured cells, animal models, and clinical samples to shed light on the underlying mechanism. We report that pyroptosis-related genes are increased explicitly in cardiac fibrosis tissue and LPS-treated CFs, while lncRNA Neat1 decreased. Mechanistically, we show that loss of DNMT3A or overexpression of lncRNA Neat1 in CFs after LPS treatment significantly enhances CFs pyroptosis and the production of pyroptosis-related markers in vitro. It has been demonstrated that DNMT3A can decrease lncRNA Neat1, promoting NLRP3 axis activation in CFs treated with LPS. In sum, this study is the first to identify that DNMT3A methylation decreases the expression of lncRNA Neat1 and promotes CFs pyroptosis and cardiac fibrosis, suggesting that DNMT3A and NEAT1 may function as an anti-fibrotic therapy target in cardiac fibrosis.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459191

RESUMO

Tumor hypoxia severely restrains the efficiency of irreversible O2-consumption photodynamic therapy. The deep hypoxia induced by photodynamic therapy can promote the level of hypoxia inducible factor 1α that participates in many tumor processes and eventually lead to poor therapeutic outcomes. Herein, a chemo-photodynamic antitumor strategy based on ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets loaded with a hypoxia-targeting platinum(IV) prodrug is reported. Under low-intensity visible light irradiation, such integrated nanosheets effectively generate reactive oxygen species together with DNA binding platinum species to achieve enhanced antiproliferation efficacy by downregulating HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions.

16.
Methods ; 208: 66-74, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single cell sequencing is a technology for high-throughput sequencing analysis of genome, transcriptome and epigenome at the single cell level. It can improve the shortcomings of traditional methods, reveal the gene structure and gene expression state of a single cell, and reflect the heterogeneity between cells. Among them, the clustering analysis of single-cell RNA data is a very important step, but the clustering of single-cell RNA data is faced with two difficulties, dropout events and dimension curse. At present, many methods are only driven by data, and do not make full use of the existing biological information. RESULTS: In this work, we propose scSSA, a clustering model based on semi-supervised autoencoder, fast independent component analysis (FastICA) and Gaussian mixture clustering. Firstly, the semi-supervised autoencoder imputes and denoises the scRNA-seq data, and then get the low-dimensional latent representation. Secondly, the low-dimensional representation is reduced the dimension and clustered by FastICA and Gaussian mixture model respectively. Finally, scSSA is compared with Seurat, CIDR and other methods on 10 public scRNA-seq datasets. CONCLUSION: The results show that scSSA has superior performance in cell clustering on 10 public datasets. In conclusion, scSSA can accurately identify the cell types and is generally applicable to all kinds of single cell datasets. scSSA has great application potential in the field of scRNA-seq data analysis. Details in the code have been uploaded to the website https://github.com/houtongshuai123/scSSA/.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Análise de Célula Única , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , RNA
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(47): 53314-53322, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382563

RESUMO

Since room temperature management consumes a large amount of building energy, thermochromic smart windows have been extensively used for temperature regulation and energy management. However, the development of the smart window is still limited by its simple thermochromic performance, unreasonable thermochromic temperature, and the lack of additional stimulation conditions. In this work, a dual-responsive hydrogel was developed by introducing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium chloride into the cross-linking network of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and polyacrylamide (PAM) for energy-saving and privacy protection. By controlling the temperature from low (<15 °C) to medium (15-28 °C) to high (>28 °C), the dual-responsive hydrogel achieved a reversible three-stage transition of opaque-transparent-translucent. The hydrogel exhibited a satisfactory solar modulation ability (Tlum = 80.3%, ΔTsol,15-18°C = 72.9%, ΔTsol,18-35°C = 42.7%) and effective IR and UV shielding at high (or low) temperatures. Moreover, compared with traditional windows, smart windows made of dual-responsive hydrogels could offer better thermal insulation and heat preservation. The electrochromic properties of the dual-responsive hydrogel presented a facile strategy to meet the needs of different situations. The dual-responsive hydrogel features energy-saving, privacy protection, three-stage optical modulation, and multistimulus responsiveness, making it an ideal smart window candidate.

18.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 174: 77-87, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403760

RESUMO

Advances in stem cell biology have facilitated cardiac regeneration, and many animal studies and several initial clinical trials have been conducted using human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs). Most preclinical and clinical studies have typically transplanted PSC-CMs via the following two distinct approaches: direct intramyocardial injection or epicardial delivery of engineered heart tissue. Both approaches present common disadvantages, including a mandatory thoracotomy and poor engraftment. Furthermore, a standard transplantation approach has yet to be established. In this study, we tested the feasibility of performing intracoronary administration of PSC-CMs based on a commonly used method of transplanting somatic stem cells. Six male cynomolgus monkeys underwent intracoronary administration of dispersed human PSC-CMs or PSC-CM aggregates, which are called cardiac spheroids, with multiple cell dosages. The recipient animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-transplantation for histological analysis. Intracoronary administration of dispersed human PSC-CMs in the cynomolgus monkeys did not lead to coronary embolism or graft survival. Although the transplanted cardiac spheroids became partially engrafted, they also induced scar formation due to cardiac ischemic injury. Cardiac engraftment and scar formation were reasonably consistent with the spheroid size or cell dosage. These findings indicate that intracoronary transplantation of PSC-CMs is an inefficient therapeutic approach.

19.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385569

RESUMO

Anthocyanin accumulations in the flowers can improve seed production of hybrid lines, produce higher commodity value in cotton fiber. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the anthocyanin pigmentation in cotton petal is poorly understood. Here, we showed that the red petal phenotype was introgressed from Gossypium bickii through recombination with the segment containing R3 bic region in A07 chromosome of G. hirsutum variety LR compared with the near-isogenic line of LW with white flower petals. The cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) was the major anthocyanin in red petals of cotton. A GhTT19 encoding a TT19-like GST was mapped to the R3 bic site associated with red petal via map-based cloning, but GhTT19 homolog gene from D genome was not expressed in G. hirsutum. Intriguingly, allelic variations in the promoters between GhTT19LW and GhTT19LR , rather than genic regions, were found as genetic causal of petal color variations. GhTT19-GFP was found localized in both endoplasmic reticulum and tonoplast for facilitating anthocyanin transport. An additional MYB binding element found only in the promoter of GhTT19LR , but not in that of GhTT19LW , enhanced its transactivation by the MYB activator GhPAP1. Transgenic analysis confirmed the function of GhTT19 in regulating red flower phenotype in cotton. The essential light signaling component GhHY5 bond to and activated the promoter of GhPAP1, and GhHY5-GhPAP1 module together regulated GhTT19 expression to mediate the light-activation of petal anthocyanin pigmentation in cotton. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms for anthocyanin accumulation and may lay a foundation for faster genetic improvement of cotton.

20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20214, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424387

RESUMO

Antiphase behaviour of monsoon systems in alternate hemispheres is well established at yearly and orbital scales in response to alternating sensible heating of continental landmasses. At intermediate timescales without a sensible heating mechanism both in-phase and antiphase behaviours of northern and southern hemisphere monsoon systems are recorded at different places and timescales. At present, there is no continuous, high resolution, precisely dated record of millennial-scale variability of the Indonesian-Australian monsoon during the last glacial period with which to test theories of paleomonsoon behaviour. Here, we present an extension of the Liang Luar, Flores, speleothem δ18O record of past changes in southern hemisphere summer monsoon intensity back to 55.7 kyr BP. Negative δ18O excursions (stronger monsoon) occur during Heinrich events whereas positive excursions (weaker monsoon) occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials-a first order antiphase relationship with northern hemisphere summer monsoon records. An association of negative δ18O excursions with speleothem growth phases in Liang Luar suggests that these stronger monsoons are related to higher rainfall amounts. However, the response to millennial-scale variability is inconsistent, including a particularly weak response to Heinrich event 3. We suggest that additional drivers such as underlying orbital-scale variability and drip hydrology influence the δ18O response.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Temperatura , Indonésia , Austrália , Estações do Ano
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