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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125482, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518838

RESUMO

To understand the effect of lipid degradation on Maillard formation of meaty flavors, initial reaction intermediates in model systems of glucose-glutathione with hexanal, (E)-2-heptenal, or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were identified by HPLC-MS and by NMR. Besides Amadori compounds, hemiacetals and thiazolidines via addition of sulfhydryl to carbonyl or to the conjugated olefinic bond were found. Concentrations of all intermediates increased with reaction time while degradation of the intermediates with a glutathione moiety helped formation of thiazolidines with cysteinylglycine. The unsaturated aldehydes (E)-2-heptenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal exhibited high reactivity against glucose for glutathione, yielding higher levels of intermediate compounds than from glucose. Heating prepared intermediates reversibly released the original aldehydes, which caused various compounds formed by retro-aldol, oxidation, etc. to react with H2S and NH3. Among them, formation pathways including 3-nonen-2-one, 2-hexanoylfuran, and six dialkylthiophenes (e.g., 2-ethyl-5-(1-methylbutyl)thiophene) were proposed for the first time.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(21)2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684069

RESUMO

Sea level change is a key indicator of climate change, and the prediction of sea level rise is one of most important scientific issues. In this paper, the gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) data from satellite altimetry are used to analyze the sea level variations around Shandong Peninsula from 1993 to 2016. Based on the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (CEEMD) method and Radial Basis Function (RBF) network, the paper proposes an improved sea level multi-scale prediction approach, namely, CEEMD-RBF combined model. Firstly, the multi-scale frequency oscillatory modes (intrinsic mode functions (IMFs)) representing different oceanic processes are extracted by CEEMD from the highest frequency to the lowest frequency oscillating mode. Secondly, RBF network is used to establish prediction models for various IMF components to predict their future trends, and each IMF is used as an input factor of the RBF network separately. Finally, the prediction results of each IMF component with RBF network are reconstructed to obtain the final predictions of sea level anomalies. The results shows that CEEMD is particularly suitable for analyzing nonlinear and non-stationary time series and RBF network is applicable for regional sea level prediction at different scales.

3.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(8): e776-e780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the critical regulator of the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of granulocytes. Recently, it has been shown that G-CSF can adversely affect bone health in both animal models and patients. Here, the authors aimed to investigate whether G-CSF could inhibit the growth of osteoblasts and osteocytes by regulating nitric oxide. METHODS: The C57BL/6 mice were divided into the control group, G-CSF treatment group and recovery group (G-CSF+L-NAME). The morphology of femurs was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules in femurs was detected by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. To examine if neutrophil-secreted factors can induce apoptosis in osteoblasts, Gr1-positive (Gr1+) neutrophils from the bone marrow of wild-type mice were sorted and co-cultured with MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts for 2 days. RESULTS: The number of osteoblasts and newly embedding osteocytes significantly decreased and markers related to osteoblasts and osteocytes were downregulated in the G-CSF treatment compared to the control group. Moreover, G-CSF treatment did not change proliferation markers but induced apoptosis in osteoblast-lineage cells. The combined treatment of mice with G-CSF and a nitric oxide inhibitor partially restored the number of osteoblasts and osteocyte parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The G-CSF can inhibit osteoblasts and osteocytes by upregulating nitric oxide.

4.
Cancer Res ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690668

RESUMO

The tumorigenic role and underlying mechanisms of lipid accumulation, commonly observed in many cancers, remains insufficiently understood. In this study we identified an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3)-enoyl-CoA hydratase short-chain 1 (ECHS1) pathway that induces lipid accumulation and promotes cell proliferation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Decreased expression of ECHS1, which is responsible for inactivation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and activation of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, positively associated with ccRCC progression and predicted poor patient survival. Mechanistically, ECHS1 downregulation induced FA and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) accumulation which inhibited AMPK-promoted expression of GATA3, a transcriptional activator of ECHS1. BCAA accumulation induced activation of mTORC1, de novo FA synthesis, and promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, GATA3 expression phenocopied ECHS1 in predicting ccRCC progression and patient survival. The AMPK-GATA3-ECHS1 pathway may offer new therapeutic approaches and prognostic assessment for ccRCC in the clinic.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 830, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685796

RESUMO

Cancer is, fundamentally, a disorder of cell growth and proliferation, which requires adequate supplies of energy and nutrients. In this study, we report that the haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor ASPP2, a p53 activator, negatively regulates the mevalonate pathway to mediate its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Gene expression profile analysis revealed that the expression of key enzymes in the mevalonate pathway were increased when ASPP2 was downregulated. HCC cells gained higher cholesterol levels and enhanced tumor-initiating capability in response to the depletion of ASPP2. Simvastatin, a mevalonate pathway inhibitor, efficiently abrogated ASPP2 depletion-induced anchorage-independent cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapy drugs in vitro, and tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. Mechanistically, ASPP2 interacts with SREBP-2 in the nucleus and restricts the transcriptional activity of SREBP-2 on its target genes, which include key enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway. Moreover, clinical data revealed better prognosis in patients with high levels of ASPP2 and low levels of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGCR. Our findings provide functional and mechanistic insights into the critical role of ASPP2 in the regulation of the mevalonate pathway and the importance of this pathway in tumor initiation and tumor growth, which may provide a new therapeutic opportunity for HCC.

6.
Hum Cell ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571148

RESUMO

It has been reported that lncRNA NBR2 regulates cancer metabolism. We investigated the role of NBR2 in colorectal cancer. We found that NBR2 was downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues than in adjacent healthy tissues. Decreased expression levels of NBR2 in tumor tissues were observed with the increase of clinical stages. MiRNA-21 was upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues than in adjacent healthy tissues, and was significantly and inversely correlated with NBR2. NBR2 overexpression downregulated miRNA-21 in colorectal cancer cells, while miRNA-21 overexpression failed to significantly affect NBR2 expression. NBR2 overexpression suppressed migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. MiRNA-21 overexpression played an opposite role and attenuated the effects of NBR2 overexpression. NBR2 overexpression did not significantly alter cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, lncRNA NBR2 inhibited colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion possibly by downregulating miRNA-21.

7.
Analyst ; 144(22): 6681-6688, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599280

RESUMO

The anticancer mechanism of NO is difficult to study owing to its short lifetime and high reactivity. Thus, a theranostic anticancer NO donor assembled with NO on-demand release abilities, accurate lysosome location capabilities and signal feedback behavior was developed. Profiting from the theranostic properties, the specific mechanism was comprehensively studied. Spectral and cell imaging studies revealed that the as prepared NO donors could release NO in solution or within cancer cells. Fluorescence co-dyeing experiments demonstrated that Mo-Nap-NO entered lysosomes specifically and disrupted them after being triggered by light. Upon irradiation with 460 nm visible light, both the donors demonstrated considerable in vitro anticancer effects. A further mechanistic study showed that after entering the lysosome and being triggered by 460 nm irradiation, NO ruptured the lysosome, resulting in the release of cathepsin D into the cytosol, which activated the caspase3 mediated apoptosis pathway.

8.
Yi Chuan ; 41(10): 950-961, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624057

RESUMO

SOX2 (sex determining region Y-box2) is one of the critical pluripotent factors that play a crucial role in the first lineage differentiation and maintenance of pluripotency in inner cell mass during early embryonic development. However, there are few researches about the regulation of the SOX2 promoter, especially in Sus scrofa. To analyzed the activity of SOX2 promoter in early porcine embryos, we determined the control system and established the microinjection system for assessing SOX2 promoter activity by analyzing the embryonic development and the expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) after micro-injected different EGFP plasmids at different times after activation of the oocytes. Then, we analyzed the structure of 5000 bp upstream of the SOX2 translation initiation site and found there were four transcription factor binding site clusters. Next, we designed and constructed promoter-containing plasmids to analyze the function of each cluster. To detect the activity of different promoters, we assessed the mCherry expression in protein levels and mRNA levels by analyzing the mCherry fluorescence intensity and qRT-PCR after injecting plasmids into embryos. These results showed that the activity of the shorted promoter, with the region from 2254 bp to 2442 bp upstream of translation initiation site deleted, decreased to 17.8% at 4-cell and 8-cell stages compared with the full-length promoter. This region included two NF-AT transcription factor binding sites, which indicated that the NF-AT binding site is a key region to regulate the activity of the SOX2 promoter. The results provide important data for determination the mechanism of porcine SOX2 regulation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC , Plasmídeos , Suínos
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1913619, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626318

RESUMO

Importance: The role of induction chemotherapy (IC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains controversial. Objectives: To update meta-analyses on the association of survival outcomes with IC and AC regimens in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC and assess whether the current evidence is conclusive by a trial sequential analysis (TSA) approach. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles published from inception until June 1, 2019. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that assessed the efficacy of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy among previously untreated patients and patients with nondistant metastatic NPC. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted by 2 investigators from each trial independently and synthesized by the 2 investigators. All trial results were combined and analyzed by a fixed- or random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS). Results: A total of 8036 patients (median age, 46.5 years; 5872 [73.1%] male) from 28 randomized clinical trials were included in the analysis. Pooled analyses revealed that concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was significantly associated with improved OS, PFS, DMFS, and LRFS compared with radiotherapy across all subgroups. The TSA confirmed the treatment outcomes of CCRT compared with radiotherapy. The additional IC regimen was associated with an improvement in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.95), PFS (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.64-0.84), DMFS (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78), and LRFS (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85). These findings were consistent in subgroup analyses of multicenter trials with sample sizes greater than 250, years of survival rate of 5 or greater, median follow-up longer than 5 years, or low risk of bias. However, the additional AC regimen was not associated with a survival benefit in OS (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.78-1.23), PFS (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70-1.07), DMFS (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.64-1.10), or LRFS (HR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.59-1.09). The TSA provided sound evidence on the additional benefit of IC but not AC. Conclusions and Relevance: These data suggest a significant association of survival outcomes with CCRT in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. The addition of IC instead of AC could achieve survival benefits. The potential therapeutic gain of AC should be explored in the future.

10.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 32(9): 792-797, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effects of total hip arthroplasty(THA) with non-osteotomy and subtrochanteric osteotomy in the treatment of Crowe type IV hip dysplasia (DDH) in adults. METHODS: Data of 35 Crowe type IV DDH patients who underwent THA were analyzed retrospectively, the patients were divided into two groups:15 cases of non-osteotomy and 20 cases of subtrochanteric osteotomy. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass index between two groups (P>0.05). The operative time, bleeding volume, hospitalization duration, Harris hip score and the limb length discrepancy (LLD) were evaluated. RESULTS: All of the patients were followed up for 12 to 48 months, no prosthesis loosening or infection occurred by the end of follow-up. In non-osteotomy group, 1 case had occurred by sciatic nerve injury and 1 case developed cutaneous branch injury of the femoral nerve, both of which were spontaneously recovered completely without treatment after 3 months. One case of dislocation occurred in subtrochanteric osteotomy group, after closed reduction, dislocation did not recur; three cases had proximal femoral crack fractures and received steel plate fixation; no reoperation was needed. There was significant difference in operation duration, bleeding volume, and hospitalization days between two groups(P<0.05). The Harris score at last follow-up was significantly increased compared with preoperative score in two groups(P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups(P>0.05). The postoperative discrepancy of bilateral lower limbs had significant difference(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: THA with no femoral shortening osteotomy can achieve good clinical results in patients with unilateral Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of hip. Comparing with subtrochanteric osteotomy, the procedure of no femoral shortening osteotomy is easier technically. For unilateral high dislocation DDH patients with limb lengthening <=4 cm and good tissue conditions, THA without femoral osteotomy may be considered.

11.
Nat Plants ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636399

RESUMO

Soil-borne fungal pathogens that cause crop disease are major threats to agriculture worldwide. Here, we identified a secretory polysaccharide deacetylase (PDA1) from the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the most notorious plant pathogen of the Verticillium genus, that facilitates virulence through direct deacetylation of chitin oligomers whose N-acetyl group contributes to host lysine motif (LysM)-containing receptor perception for ligand-triggered immunity. Polysaccharide deacetylases are widely present in fungi, bacteria, insects and marine invertebrates and have been reported to possess diverse functions in developmental processes rather than virulence. A phylogenetics analysis of more than 5,000 fungal proteins with conserved polysaccharide deacetylase domains showed that the V. dahliae PDA1-containing subtree includes a large number of proteins from the Verticillium genus as well as the Fusarium genus, another group of characterized soil-borne fungal pathogens, suggesting that soil-borne fungal pathogens have adopted chitin deacetylation as a major virulence strategy. We showed that a Fusarium PDA1 is required for virulence in cotton plants. This study reveals a substantial virulence function role of polysaccharide deacetylases in pathogenic fungi and demonstrates a subtle mechanism whereby deacetylation of chitin oligomers converts them to ligand-inactive chitosan, representing a common strategy of preventing chitin-triggered host immunity by soil-borne fungal pathogens.

12.
Int J Legal Med ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637457

RESUMO

Forensic diatom test has been considered as a significant tool for diagnosis of drowning. Most of the studies in this field discussed the methodology of extracting, enriching and detecting diatoms from different tissues and drowning media. There are few studies on the basic principle of diatom test which was based on the theory developed by forensic scientists many years ago. This study was designed to analyze the length and width of diatoms in different organs and drowning medium samples of drowning cases. This study is designed to find evidence of diatoms penetrating the alveoli-capillary barrier. Samples from 100 drowning cases were analyzed using the methodology we developed: the Microwave Digestion-Vacuum Filtration-Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy method (MD-VF-Auto SEM method). The results showed that the length and width of diatoms in the liver and kidney tissues are smaller than that of the lung tissues and water samples. Our studies also found that the pennate diatoms are easier to penetrate through the alveoli-capillary barrier, travel in the blood stream and finally deposit in the distant tissues including liver and kidney. These findings provided evidences to support the process of diatoms penetrating the alveoli-capillary barrier.

13.
Asian J Surg ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of bile leakage (BL) on the long-term prognosis in patients with primary liver cancers after hepatectomy remains unclear. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients with primary liver cancers who underwent curative hepatectomy were enrolled. 75 patients encountered BL, including 34 long-time BL (LTBL) and 41 short-time BL (STBL) according to 4-weeks demarcation. Variables associated with BL were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. 75 patients without BL were enrolled into the Non-BL group using a one-to-one propensity score matched analysis before assessing the impact of BL on the long-term prognosis. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum and drain fluid were detected and compared. RESULTS: The tumor size, type of liver cancer, operation time, blood loss and blood transfusion were independent risk factors for BL. The long-term survival showed no difference between the patients with and without BL (p > 0.05), while the LTBL was a significant predictor of poor long-term prognosis (p < 0.001). Compared with the patients without BL, the patients with BL had a higher level of IL-6 from postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD 60, and a higher level of CRP from POD 7 to POD 60. By POD 60, the levels of IL-6 and CRP hadn't restored to the normal level in the LTBL group. CONCLUSIONS: The LTBL has a negative impact on the long-term prognosis of patients with primary liver cancers after hepatectomy, in which the inflammatory responses may play a pivotal role.

14.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 344, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, which will give rise to failure of ketogenesis in liver during illness or fasting. It is a very rare disease with only a few patients reported worldwide, most of which had a good prognosis after proper therapies. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 9-month-old boy with mHS deficiency presenting with unusually severe and persistent acidosis after diarrhea and reduced oral food intake. The metabolic acidosis persisted even after supplementation with sugar and alkaline solution. Blood purification and assisted respiration alleviated symptoms, but a second onset induced by respiratory infection several days later led to multiple organ failure and death. Urine organic acid analysis during the acute episode revealed a complex pattern of ketogenic dicarboxylic and 3-hydroxydicarboxylic aciduria with prominent elevation of glutaric acid and adipic acid, which seem to be specific to mHS deficiency. Plasma acylcarnitine analysis revealed elevated 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine and acetylcarnitine. This is the first report of elevated 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine in mHS deficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel compound heterozygous mutation in HMGCS2 (c.100C > T and c.1465delA). CONCLUSION: This severe case suggests the need for patients with mHS deficiency to avoid recurrent illness because it can induce severe metabolic crisis, possibly leading to death. Such patients may also require special treatment, such as blood purification. Urine organic acid profile during the acute episode may give a hint to the disease.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113345, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610508

RESUMO

Despite substantial mitigation of particulate matter (PM) pollution during the past decade in Beijing, the response of aerosol chemistry to clean air action and meteorology remains less understood. Here we characterized the changes in aerosol composition as responses to emission reductions by using two-year long-term measurements in 2011/2012 and 2017/2018, and WRF-Chem model. Our results showed substantial decreases for all aerosol species except nitrate from 2011/2012 to 2017/2018. Chloride exhibited the largest decrease by 65-89% followed by organics (37-70%), mainly due to reductions in coal combustion emissions in winter and agriculture burning in June. Primary and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed comparable decreases by 61-70% in fall and winter, and 34-63% in spring and summer, suggesting that reductions in primary emissions might also suppress SOA formation. The changes in nitrate were negligible and even showed increases due to less reductions in NOx emissions and increased formation potential from N2O5 heterogeneous reactions. As a result, nitrate exceeded sulfate and became the major secondary inorganic aerosol species in PM with the contribution increasing from 14-21% to 22-32%. Further analysis indicated that the reductions in aerosol species from 2011/2012 to 2017/2018 were mainly caused by the decreases of severely polluted events (PM1 > 100 µg m-3). WRF-Chem simulations suggested that the decreases in OA and sulfate in fall and winter were mainly resulted from emission reductions (27-36% and 25-43%) and favorable meteorology (4-10% and 19-30%), while they were dominantly contributed by emission changes in spring and summer. Comparatively, the changes in nitrate were mainly associated with meteorological variations while the contributions of emissions changes were relatively small. Our results highlight different chemical responses of aerosol species to emission changes and meteorology, suggesting that future mitigation of air pollution in China needs species-targeted control policy.

16.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650447

RESUMO

Background Esophageal cancer is a very common malignant tumor in China, especially esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but there is currently no effective treatment for patients after first-line chemotherapy failure. Apatinib has shown promising outcomes in treatment with various solid tumors. Objectives To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of apatinib combined with S-1 in the treatment of advanced ESCC patients after first-line chemotherapy failure. Methods In this prospective study, fifteen patients with advanced ESCC who failed first-line chemotherapy were enrolled from Nov 2016 to Apr 2019. Patients received the combination therapy with apatinib (250-500 mg, once daily) plus S-1 (40-60 mg based on body surface area, twice daily). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR) and objective response rate (ORR). Adverse events (AEs) were recorded to evaluate the safety. Results A total of 12 patients were included in the efficacy analysis. The median PFS was 6.23 months, and the median OS was 8.83 months. Two (16.67%) patients achieved partial remission, 9 patients (75.00%) achieved stable disease and 1 (8.33%) patient achieved progressive disease. DCR and ORR was 91.67%and 16.67%, respectively. Most frequent AEs were hypertension, myelosuppression, weakness, hemorrhage, hand-foot syndrome, total bilirubin elevation, sick, proteinuria, oral ulcer, loss of appetite, and transaminase elevation. The most AEs were in grade I~II. Conclusion The combination therapy of apatinib plus S-1 was effective and well tolerated in the treatment of advanced ESCC patients after first-line chemotherapy failure. The combination therapy has the potential to be a potent therapeutic option for advanced ESCC patients after first-line chemotherapy failure.

17.
Protein J ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625059

RESUMO

Cystatin C, also known as γ-trace or post-γ-globulin, is a cysteine protease inhibitor from the cystatin superfamily. It is usually used as a marker of the glomerular filtration rate owing to its low molecular weight and constant secretion. The recently available methods for cystatin C preparation have low outputs. Hence, a productive preparation system is urgently required. In this study, a 6 × His-tag coupled with a thrombin cleavage site was fused to the C-terminus of cystatin C, and the protein was well expressed in Escherichia coli after optimization. Then, two different systems were used to obtain no-tag cystatin C: a traditional nickel (Ni)-column system and a subtly Ni magnetic bead system. The column system was more commonly used, and the magnetic bead system was more convenient. Cystatin C (purity > 97%) was successfully obtained, and the yields in both the systems were higher than those in previous studies. Further, the proper folding status and bioactivity of recombinant cystatin C were confirmed using the papain inhibition assay, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591291

RESUMO

(1) Background: In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity has grown rapidly worldwide, thus causing many diseases, including male hypogonadism. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate compound, has been reported to protect the reproductive system. This research investigated the protective effect of SFN against obesity-induced impairment in the male reproductive system and explored the potential mechanism involved in mice. (2) Methods: One hundred thirty mice were divided into 5 groups (Control, DIO (diet-induced obesity), DIO + SFN 5 mg/kg, DIO + SFN 10 mg/kg, and DIO + SFN 20 mg/kg). The effects of SFN on the male reproductive system were determined based on the sperm count and motility, relative testes and epididymis weights, hormone levels, and pathological analyses. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), H2O2, catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) levels. Protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin1, and P62 were determined by western blotting. (3) Results: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity significantly decreased relative testes and epididymis weights, sperm count and motility, and testosterone levels but increased leptin and estradiol levels. SFN supplementation ameliorated these effects. Additionally, SFN administration inhibited the obesity-induced MDA accumulation and increased the SOD level. Western blot indicated that SFN had an important role in the downregulation of Keap1. Moreover, SFN treatment attenuated obesity-induced autophagy, as detected by LC3 and Beclin1. (4) Conclusions: SFN ameliorated the reproductive toxicity associated with obesity by inhibiting oxidative stress mediated by the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway and recovery of normal autophagy.

19.
Oncol Res ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558182

RESUMO

Hand-foot syndrome(HFS) is the main side effect of capecitabine and affects the compression zones of the body such as the palms and soles, causing numbness, paresthesias, skin swelling or erythema, scaling, chapping, hard nodule-like blisters and severe pain. Loss of fingerprints is also observed in some cases. Severe cases of HFS are common in the review of clinical reports. However, loss of fingerprints has not received significant attention. Two reported cases of loss of fingerprints in NEJM and BMJ have drawn attention to this side effect of capecitabine. Loss of fingerprints has a serious impact on patients' daily life, especially on personal identification. This report describes a patient who lost her fingerprints during the early stage of chemotherapy. Our aim is to draw the medical profession's attention to this problem. Consent from the patient's family and approval by the ethics committee of our hospital have been obtained.

20.
Plant J ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559658

RESUMO

Despite of important functions of strigolactones (SLs) and karrikins (KARs) in plant development, plant-parasite and plant-fungi interactions, their roles in soybean-rhizobia interaction remain elusive. SL/KAR signaling genes GmMAX2a, GmD14s, and GmKAIs are activated by rhizobia infection. GmMAX2a restored atmax2 root hair defects and soybean root hairs were changed in GmMAX2a overexpression (GmMAX2a-OE) or knockdown (GmMAX2a-KD) mutants. GmMAX2a-KD gave fewer, whereas GmMAX2a-OE produced more nodules than GUS hairy roots. Mutation of GmMAX2a in its KD or OE transgenic hairy roots affected the rhizobia infection-induced increases in early nodulation gene expression. Both mutant hairy roots also displayed the altered auxin, jasmonate and abscisic acid levels, as further verified by transcriptomic analyses of their synthetic genes. Overexpression of an auxin synthetic gene GmYUC2a also affected SL and KAR signaling genes. GmMAX2a physically interacted with SL/KAR receptors GmD14s, GmKAIs, and GmD14Ls with different binding affinities, depending on variations in the critical amino acids, forming active D14/KAI-SCFMAX2 complexes. The knockdown mutant roots of the nodule-specifically expressing GmKAIs and GmD14Ls gave fewer nodules, with altered expression of several early nodulation genes. The expression levels of GmKAIs, and GmD14Ls were markedly changed in GmMAX2a mutant roots, so did their target repressor genes GmD53s and GmSMAX1s. Thus, SL and KAR signaling were involved in soybean-rhizobia interaction and nodulation partly through interactions with hormones, and this may explain the different effects of MXA2 orthologs on legume determinate and indeterminate nodulation. The study provides fresh insights into the roles of GmMAX2-mediated SL/KAR signaling in soybean root hair and nodule formation.

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