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1.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364729

RESUMO

Menopause is a period during which women undergo dramatic hormonal changes. These changes lead to physical and mental discomfort, are greatly afflictive, and critically affect women's lives. However, the current safe and effective management measures for women undergoing menopause are insufficient. Several probiotic functions of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been recognized, including alleviation of lactose intolerance, protection of digestive tract health, activation of the immune system, protection against infections, improvement of nutrient uptake, and improvement of the microbiota. In this review, we highlight the currently available knowledge of the potential protective effects of LAB on preventing or mitigating menopausal symptoms, particularly in terms of maintaining balance in the vaginal microbiota, reducing bone loss, and regulating the nervous system and lipid metabolism. Given the increasing number of women entering menopause and the emphasis on the management of menopausal symptoms, LAB are likely to soon become an indispensable part of clinical/daily care for menopausal women. Herein, we do not intend to provide a comprehensive analysis of each menopausal disorder or to specifically judge the reliability and safety of complementary therapies; rather, we aim to highlight the potential roles of LAB in individualized treatment strategies for the clinical management of menopause.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Lactobacillales , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Menopausa/fisiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364939

RESUMO

There is mounting evidence that the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) is critical in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that probiotic therapy restoring gut microecology may slow down disease progression. In this study, we examined the disease-alleviating effects of Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1067, orally administered for 5 weeks in a PD mouse model. Our study shows that supplementation with the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067 protected dopaminergic neurons and suppressed glial cell hyperactivation and neuroinflammation in PD mice. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the central nervous system was enhanced and oxidative stress was alleviated. Moreover, B. breve CCFM1067 protected the blood-brain and intestinal barriers from damage in the MPTP-induced mouse model. The results of fecal microbiota analysis showed that B. breve CCFM1067 intervention could act on the MPTP-induced microecological imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, suppressing the number of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella) while increasing the number of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia) in PD mice. In addition, the increase in short chain fatty acids (acetic and butyric acids) may explain the anti-inflammatory action of B. breve CCFM1067 in the gut or brain of the MPTP-induced PD mouse model. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067, which can prevent or treat PD by modulating the gut-brain axis, can be utilized as a possible new oral supplement for PD therapy.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Food Funct ; 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411976

RESUMO

In 2013, Limosilactobacillus fermentum was regarded as a "generally recognized as safe" organism by the US Food and Drug Administration, and emerging evidence showed that it can exert beneficial health effects on humans. In this study, five L. fermentum strains from different phylogroups of a phylogenetic tree containing 224 L. fermentum strains were chosen, and their protective effects against loperamide-induced constipation in mice were studied. Animal experiments showed that L. fermentum YN54 significantly alleviated weight loss, increased fecal moisture, accelerated intestinal peristalsis, and increased the small intestinal transit rate in mice with constipation by regulating gastrointestinal peptides and increasing the amount of intestinal short-chain fatty acids. However, the other four L. fermentum strains (XJ61, CECT5716, WX115, and GD121) did not relieve constipation in mice treated with loperamide. A comparative genomic analysis of these strains was conducted and "L. fermentum YN54 only" genes were functionally annotated and validated with the other three L. fermentum strains (FJ12, GX51, and ZH1010) that had different functional genes. Finally, the genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acid hydrase, polysaccharides, and cell membranes were identified to be associated with the probiotic effect of L. fermentum on mice with constipation through preliminary experiments in this study.

4.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 5: 2178-2189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387600

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium, especially Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in C57BL/6J mice. However, the response of intestinal microbes to FOS is influenced by host genotypes. Therefore, we compared the intestinal microbiota of four commonly used mice before and after FOS intervention, including C57BL/6J, BALB/c, Institute Cancer Research (ICR), and Kunming (KM) mice. The intestinal microbiota of the four genotypes exhibited similarities in composition but differences in relative abundance. Bifidobacterium was significantly increased to different degrees in the four genotypes of mice after FOS intervention, and Akkermansia and Bacteroides were also significantly increased in BALB/c and KM mice. Lactobacillus and Alistipes levels were unchanged or decreased. Within the genus Bifidobacterium, B. pseudolongum was the dominant species in the four genotypes of mice and proliferated significantly after FOS intervention, with dramatic proliferation in C57BL/6J mice (9.49%). Furthermore, eight strains of B. pseudolongum were screened from the feces of mice with four genotypes, and there was a great difference in the ability and manner of utilizing FOS among the strains. The strains from C57BL/6J mice exhibited the strongest utilization of 1-kestose (GF2), whereas other strains could utilize both GF2 and nistose (GF3) weakly. The gut microbial analysis of mice with different genotypes complemented our previous studies. The results provided the background strains of the different mouse genotypes and suggested a correlation between the utilization ability and the response of the strains to FOS. Further studies on the utilization ability of strains and competition in the intestine will contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal microbial response to diet.

5.
J Genet Genomics ; 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356718

RESUMO

The immune regulatory effects of probiotics have been widely recognized to be strain-specific. However it is unknown if there is a species- or genus-dependent manner. In this study, we use an in vitro mesenteric lymph node (MLN) model to systematically evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of gut-derived potential probiotics. The results exhibite an obvious species or genus consensus immune response pattern. RNA-seq shows that T cell-dependent B cell activation and antibody responses may be inherent to this model. Of the five tested genera, Akkermansia spp. and Clostridium butyrium directly activate the immune response in vitro, as indicated by the secretion of interleukin-10. Bifidobacterium spp. and Bacteroides spp. activate immune response with the help of stimuli (anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies). Lactobacillus spp. blunt the immune response with or without stimuli. Further investigations show that the cell surface protein of A. muciniphila AH39, which may serve as a T cell receptor cognate antigen, might evoke an in vitro immune activation. In vivo, oral administration of A. muciniphila AH39 influences the proportion of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in MLNs and the spleen under homeostasis in both specific pathogen-free and germ-free mice. All these findings indicate the distinct effects of different genera or species of potential gut-derived probiotics on intestinal and systemic immunity.

6.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360081

RESUMO

The influence of surface substance production on the freeze-drying survival of Lactobacillus casei and methods to control the surface substances during fermentation were studied. The bacteria were treated with hypertonicity combined with ultrasound, and the survival rate was determined. The optimal conditions for removing surface substance without harming the bacteria were 81 w/18 min. The surface substances provided a protective effect on the lyophilization of the bacteria without protectants. However, in the presence of protectants, excessive surface substances reduced the protective effect of the optimum protectant alginate to 39.69 ± 1.27%. Finally, the amount of surface substances and lyophilized survival rate of collected bacteria were determined by adding EDTA during fermentation and regulating fermentation conditions, such as the carbon source, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and pH. The highest survival rate was 85.79 ± 3.29%, which was achieved when the amount of surface substances was (2.82 ± 0.55) × 10-11 mg/CFU. Therefore, the production of surface substances by the bacteria could be reduced by modifying the fermentation stage, which has significance in the improvement of the lyophilization survival rate of L. casei and the number of live bacteria per unit mass of L. casei in the lyophilized preparation.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362285

RESUMO

Amino acids, which are important compatible solutes, play a significant role in probiotic lyophilization. However, studies on the functions of Bifidobacterium during freeze-drying are limited. Therefore, in this study, we compared the freeze-drying survival rate of Bifidobacterium longum CCFM 1029 cultivated in different media containing different kinds of compatible solutes. We found that the addition of 21 g/L proline to the culture media substantially improved the freeze-drying survival rate of B. longum CCFM 1029 from 18.61 ± 0.42% to 38.74 ± 1.58%. Interestingly, this change has only been observed when the osmotic pressure of the external culture environment is increased. Under these conditions, we found that proline accumulation in this strain increased significantly. This change also helped the strain to maintain its membrane integrity and the activity of some key enzymes during freeze-drying. Overall, these results show that the addition of proline can help the strain resist a tough environment during lyophilization. The findings of this study provide preliminary data for producers of probiotics who wish to achieve higher freeze-drying survival rates during industrial production.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Probióticos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Prolina/metabolismo , Liofilização , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362307

RESUMO

Postbiotics are rich in a variety of bioactive components, which may have beneficial effects in inhibiting hepatic lipid accumulation. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of postbiotics (POST) prepared from Lactobacillus paracasei on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our results showed that when mice ingested a high-fat diet (HFD) and POST simultaneously, weight gain was slowed, epididymal white fat hypertrophy and insulin resistance were suppressed, serum biochemical indicators related to blood lipid metabolism were improved, and hepatic steatosis and liver inflammation decreased. Bacterial sequencing showed that POST modulated the gut microbiota in HFD mice, increasing the relative abundance of Akkermansia and reducing the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group, Ruminiclostridium and Bilophila. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between lipid metabolism parameters and gut microbes. Functional prediction results showed that the regulation of gut microbiota was associated with the improvement of metabolic status. The metabolomic analysis of the liver revealed that POST-regulated liver metabolic pathways, such as glycerophospholipid and ether lipid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, some parts of amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. In addition, POST regulated the gene expression in hepatocytes at the mRNA level, thereby regulating lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that POST plays a protective role against NAFLD and may exert its efficacy by modulating the gut microbiota and liver metabolism, and these findings may be applied to related functional foods.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus paracasei , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Camundongos , Animais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 5: 2053-2060, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345432

RESUMO

Functional proteins with the ability to isomerise free linoleic acid (LA) to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are termed linoleic acid isomerases (LAI). BBI is a novel LAI from Bifidobacterium breve with unique advantages in the production of a single CLA isomer; however, its complex membrane-bound form hampers over-expression of the protein in its natural host. To overcome this challenge, heterologous expression of BBI in Pichia pastoris was studied. Further, to investigate the influence of His-tags on the heterologous expression of BBI, three P. pastoris recombinant strains carrying either a C-terminal His-tag, an N-terminal His-tag, or none were constructed. The expression of recombinant proteins was analysed by dot and western blotting, and the enzyme activity was determined by GC-MS. The results show that the three P. pastoris recombinant strains successfully expressed the recombinant protein and had LAI activity. Compared with those BBIs without a His-tag or carrying a His-tag on the C-terminus, the BBI carrying an N-terminal His-tag had reduced expression and enzyme activity and that was also explained by the protein modelling analysis. Moreover, this study highlights the advantages of using P. pastoris for BBI expression to achieve efficient production of c9, t11-CLA monomers; the highest conversion rate of the substrate LA was over 80%, resulting in the production of 0.81 mg of c9, t11-CLA per mg of crude enzyme.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20214, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424387

RESUMO

Antiphase behaviour of monsoon systems in alternate hemispheres is well established at yearly and orbital scales in response to alternating sensible heating of continental landmasses. At intermediate timescales without a sensible heating mechanism both in-phase and antiphase behaviours of northern and southern hemisphere monsoon systems are recorded at different places and timescales. At present, there is no continuous, high resolution, precisely dated record of millennial-scale variability of the Indonesian-Australian monsoon during the last glacial period with which to test theories of paleomonsoon behaviour. Here, we present an extension of the Liang Luar, Flores, speleothem δ18O record of past changes in southern hemisphere summer monsoon intensity back to 55.7 kyr BP. Negative δ18O excursions (stronger monsoon) occur during Heinrich events whereas positive excursions (weaker monsoon) occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials-a first order antiphase relationship with northern hemisphere summer monsoon records. An association of negative δ18O excursions with speleothem growth phases in Liang Luar suggests that these stronger monsoons are related to higher rainfall amounts. However, the response to millennial-scale variability is inconsistent, including a particularly weak response to Heinrich event 3. We suggest that additional drivers such as underlying orbital-scale variability and drip hydrology influence the δ18O response.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Temperatura , Indonésia , Austrália , Estações do Ano
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(46): 14665-14678, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377740

RESUMO

This study focused on the effects of Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1078 on the intestinal barrier and systemic inflammation of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Female rats were divided into three groups with daily intragastric administration of either saline (control group and model group) or B. breve CCFM1078 (CCFM1078 group, 3 × 109cfu/rat per day) for 5 weeks. In the Model and CCFM1078 groups, arthritis was induced by subcutaneous collagen injection. We found that B. breve CCFM1078 can repair the intestinal barrier, reduce LPS translocation, regulate gut microbiota composition, and increase short-chain fatty acids in the intestine. Then, it can reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines release, adjust immune dysfunction, and inhibit TLR4-MyD88-dependent pathways and downstream inflammatory pathways to alleviate joint inflammation in CIA rats. These findings suggest that B. breve CCFM1078 may alleviate joint inflammation by adjusting the profile of gut microbiota and enhancing the intestinal barrier.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Bifidobacterium breve , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ratos , Feminino , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Intestinos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235833

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicine, licorice is often used in functional foods for its health benefits. However, the role of gut microbiota in the efficacy of licorice has not yet been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the involvement of intestinal flora may be a key link in licorice ethanol extract (LEE)-induced health benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LEE improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and whether the gut microbiota plays a key role in LEE treatment. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for liver fat accumulation and then treated with LEE. The same experiments were later performed using pseudo-sterile mice to verify the importance of gut flora. Supplementation with LEE improved the obesity profile, lipid profile and liver fat accumulation in HFD mice. In addition, LEE treatment improved intestinal flora dysbiosis caused by HFD in mice, as evidenced by a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and an increase in the abundance of known anti-obesity-related bacteria. However, LEE failed to exhibit a therapeutic effect in pseudo-sterile mice. The results of the cellular assay showed that glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the main conversion product of glycyrrhizin (GL), was more effective in reducing fat accumulation and intracellular TG content in hepatocytes compared to GL. In conclusion, our data suggest that LEE attenuates obesity and hepatic fat accumulation in HFD mice, which may be associated with modulating the composition of gut microbiota and the conversion of LLE by the intestinal flora.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ácido Glicirretínico , Glycyrrhiza , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirretínico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1013664, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203603

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by behavioral and cognitive impairments and its increasing prevalence imposes a healthcare burden on society. To date, most intervention studies have only focused on a single AD-related factor and have yielded modest cognitive improvements. Here, we show that environmental enrichment (EE) training combined with Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1025 intervention significantly alleviated amyloid-ß (Aß)-induced cognitive impairment and inhibited neuroinflammation in mice. Moreover, we found that EE combined with B. breve CCFM1025 treatment restored AD-associated gut microbiota dysbiosis and reversed microbial metabolites changes. By integrating behavioral and neurological data with metabolomic profiles, we corroborated the microbiota-metabolite-brain interactions, with acetate and tryptophan metabolism as potential drivers. Taken together, our results provide a promising multidomain intervention strategy to prevent cognitive decline and delay the progression of AD through a combination of dietary microbiome-based approaches and lifestyle interventions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Bifidobacterium breve , Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Triptofano
14.
Foods ; 11(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230211

RESUMO

Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a "generally recognized as safe" organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from the human gut and food remain unknown. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of 224 L. fermentum strains isolated from food and human gut (164 L. fermentum strains isolated from human gut was sequenced in our lab) was performed to access genetic diversity and explore genomic features associated with environment. A total of 20,505 gene families were contained by 224 L. fermentum strains and these strains separated mainly into six clades in phylogenetic tree connected with their origin. Food source L. fermentum strains carried more carbohydrate active enzyme genes (belonging to glycosyltransferase family 2, glycoside hydrolase family 43_11, and glycoside hydrolase family 68) compared with that of human gut and L. fermentum derived from food showed higher ability to degrade xylulose and ribose. Moreover, the number of genes encoding otr(A), tetA(46), lmrB, poxtA, and efrB were more abundant in food source L. fermentum, which was consistent with the number of CRISPR spacers and prophages in L. fermentum of food source. This study provides new insight into the adaption of L. fermentum to the food and intestinal tract of humans, suggesting that the genomic evolution of L. fermentum was to some extent driven by environmental stress.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232948

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a common mycotoxin in the food industry, and is found in apple products in particular. Consumption of food or feed contaminated with PAT can cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans and animals. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM1287 is a probiotic strain that effectively degrades PAT in PBS and food systems. In this study, it was found that the concentration of PAT (50 mg/L) in MRS medium decreased by 85.09% during the first stages of CCFM1287 growth, and this change was consistent with the first-order degradation kinetic model. Meanwhile, the regulation of oxidative stress by L. plantarum CCFM1287 in response to PAT exposure and metabolic changes that occur during PAT degradation were investigated. The degree of intracellular damage was attenuated after 16 h of exposure compared to 8 h. Meanwhile, metabolomic data showed that 30 and 29 significantly different metabolites were screened intracellularly in the strain after 8 h and 16 h of PAT stress at 50 mg/L, respectively. The results of pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the purine metabolic pathway was significantly enriched at both 8 h and 16 h. However, as is consistent with the performance of the antioxidant system, the changes in Lactiplantibacillus diminished with increasing time of PAT exposure. Therefore, this study helps to further explain the mechanism of PAT degradation by L. plantarum CCFM1287.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Probióticos , Animais , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Malus/metabolismo , Patulina/metabolismo , Patulina/toxicidade , Purinas
16.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296261

RESUMO

The cell membrane of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum is a key structure for cell survival. In this study, we aimed to improve the lyophilization resistance of L. plantarum by regulating the cell membrane structure. Unsaturated fatty acids or cell membrane-regulating substances were added during culturing to determine their effect on the composition of cell membrane fatty acids and the survival rate of the cells after freeze-drying. The results showed that Tween 80, ß-carotene and melatonin increased the lyophilization survival rate of L. plantarum by 9.44, 14.53, and 18.34%, respectively. After adding a lyophilization protective agent at a concentration of 21.49% at a 1:1 ratio, a combination of Tween 80, melatonin, and ß-carotene was added to regulate the cell membrane, which increased the lyophilization survival rate by 32.08-86.05%. This study proposes new research directions and ideas for improving the survival rate of probiotics for industrial production.

17.
Food Funct ; 13(21): 11153-11168, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205751

RESUMO

Glucan is the most widely distributed glycan. Many probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) encoded corresponding hydrolytic enzymes, which could use these glucans as energy substances. Brown alga is rich in glucan and has high edible and medicinal value, but research on its regulation to probiotics is not detailed enough. In this study, we determined a novel neutral α type gluco-oligosaccharide from the brown alga Laminaria japonica with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 2-8 and a structure that mainly consists of α-(1→4)-linked glycosidic bonds called Laminaria japonica gluco-oligosaccharide (LJGO). Fermentation in vitro and gene-phenotype correlation analyses revealed that LJGO selectively stimulated the growth of the LAB strain encoding a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system in a GH13 gene cluster, with apparent differences among 14 tested species. Comparative genomics further revealed that this transport system is species-specific, implying a potential contribution to species evolution. Transcriptomic analysis based on LAB strains cultured on LJGO and 1H-NMR findings of LJGO residues after strain utilization showed that the GH13 gene cluster contains functional LAB genes involved in LJGO utilization. Further verification by gene knockout studies is needed to expand our findings.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Laminaria , Laminaria/química , Oligossacarídeos , Glucanos , Polissacarídeos
18.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1026216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313696

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence (AI) models with magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in predicting pathological complete response(pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Furthermore, assessed the methodological quality of the models. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of science for studies published before 21 June 2022, without any language restrictions. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) and Radiomics Quality Score (RQS) tools were used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. We calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity using random-effects models, I2 values were used to measure heterogeneity, and subgroup analyses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Results: We selected 21 papers for inclusion in the meta-analysis from 1562 retrieved publications, with a total of 1873 people in the validation groups. The meta-analysis showed that AI models based on MRI predicted pCR to nCRT in patients with rectal cancer: a pooled area under the curve (AUC) 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.93), sensitivity of 0.82(95% CI,0.71-0.90), pooled specificity 0.86(95% CI,0.80-0.91). In the subgroup analysis, the pooled AUC of the deep learning(DL) model was 0.97, the pooled AUC of the radiomics model was 0.85; the pooled AUC of the combined model with clinical factors was 0.92, and the pooled AUC of the radiomics model alone was 0.87. The mean RQS score of the included studies was 10.95, accounting for 30.4% of the total score. Conclusions: Radiomics is a promising noninvasive method with high value in predicting pathological response to nCRT in patients with rectal cancer. DL models have higher predictive accuracy than radiomics models, and combined models incorporating clinical factors have higher diagnostic accuracy than radiomics models alone. In the future, prospective, large-scale, multicenter investigations using radiomics approaches will strengthen the diagnostic power of pCR. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42021285630.

19.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145079

RESUMO

Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder. Accumulating evidence highlights the link between imbalances in the gut microbiome and constipation. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiome and microbial metabolites affect gut movement remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the alteration in the gut microbiota in patients with CC and the effectiveness of probiotics in treating gut motility disorder. We highlight the mechanisms that explain how the gut microbiome and its metabolism are linked to gut movement and how intestinal microecological interventions may counteract these changes based on the enteric nervous system, the central nervous system, the immune function, and the ability to modify intestinal secretion and the hormonal milieu. In particular, microbiota-based approaches that modulate the levels of short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan catabolites or that target the 5-hydroxytryptamine and Toll-like receptor pathways may hold therapeutic promise. Finally, we discuss the existing limitations of microecological management in treating constipation and suggest feasible directions for future research.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Serotonina , Receptores Toll-Like , Triptofano
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 296: 119930, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088024

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave heating on gel properties of low-acetyl gellan and to explore the potential mechanism of gelation behavior under microwave irradiation. Microwave heating dramatically enhanced the gel strength, hardness of low-acetyl gellan. Microwave-heated gels still formed strong network structures with 30 mM Ca2+ addition, but water bath-induced gels exhibited distinct pseudoplastic fluid behavior. Rheological analysis demonstrated that microwave heating increased the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) values of gels compared to water bath-induced gels. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (Lf-NMR) analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that microwave heating promoted the hydration behavior of gellan, which contributed to the continuous regions in the gel network and further restricted the water mobility. These findings significantly increase our understanding of the mechanism by which microwaves improve gellan gel properties, thus facilitating the development of gel-related foods with tailored properties.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Água , Géis/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Reologia
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