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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945309

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and DNA methylation levels of seven genes in the inflammatory response pathway with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis (CP) among the Uighur population of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. Methods: A total of 444 eligible subjects (279 CP patients and 165 healthy controls) were enrolled in the study. Genomic DNA was obtained from gingival tissue for genotyping eight SNPs and performing methylation measurements of seven genes. Results: SNP rs2070745 in the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) gene achieved statistical significance in the standard allelic association analysis for CP (p = 0.02). The frequency of the rs2070745 minor allele G was higher in the cases than in controls (0.367 vs. 0.291). Additionally, rs2070745 was significantly associated with CP under the dominant genetic model (p = 0.03). Using logistic regression analysis, rs2070745 was found to be consistently associated with CP under the additive dominant model, and this association remained significant after covariates were taken into account [odds ratio (OR) = 1.49 (1.09-2.05), p = 0.014; OR = 1.58 (1.04-2.40), p = 0.031, respectively]. No significant gene-gene interactions were identified. Although we did not find a polymorphism in interleukin 6 (IL6) associated with CP in our study, the methylation level of a CpG island region located within the promoter region of IL6 was significantly less in CP patients compared with controls (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphism rs2070745 in FPR1 and the methylation level of the promoter region of IL6 might be associated with CP in the Uighur population of China.

2.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2100042, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949800

RESUMO

Exosomes derived from non-tumor cells hold great potential as drug delivery vehicles because of their good biosafety and natural transference of bioactive cargo between cells. However, compared to tumor-derived exosomes, efficient delivery is limited by their weak interactions with tumor cells. It is essential to engineer exosomes that improve tumor cellular internalization efficiency. A simple and effective strategy to enhance tumor cell uptake by engineering the exosome membrane lipids can be established by drawing on the role of lipids in tumor exosomes interacting with tumor cells. Amphiphilic phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules are inserted into the membrane lipid layer of reticulocyte-derived exosomes (Exos) by simple incubation to construct PC-engineered exosomes (PC-Exos). It is demonstrated that PC-Exos showed significantly enhanced tumor cell internalization and uptake rate compared to native Exos, up to a twofold increase. After therapeutic agent loading, PC-Exos remarkably promotes intracellular drug or RNA accumulation in cancer cells, thus showing enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity. This work demonstrates the crucial role of engineering exosomal lipids in modulating cancer cellular uptake, which may shed light on the design of high-efficiency exosome-based drug delivery carriers.

3.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952659

RESUMO

Altered gut virome and expanded abundance of certain viruses were found in HIV-1-infected individuals. It remains largely unknown how plasma virus composition changes during HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We performed viral metagenomic analysis on viral particles enriched from human plasma from 101 men who have sex with men (MSM) with or without HIV-1 infection and whether or not on ART and compared the differences in the plasma virome. An increased plasma viral abundance of main eukaryotic viruses was observed during HIV-1 infection in MSM, especially in AIDS patients (CD4+ T cell counts of <200). Anellovirus, pegivirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) were the most abundant blood-borne viruses detected among MSM and HIV-1-infected individuals, and anellovirus and pegivirus were closely related to HIV-1 infection. High diversity of anelloviruses was found mostly in HIV-1-infected MSM, and their abundance was positively correlated with the HIV-1 viral load, but negatively correlated with both CD4+ T cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratio; in contrast, the abundance of pegivirus showed opposite correlations. ART usage could restore the plasma virome toward that of HIV-1-negative individuals. These data showed an expansion in abundance of certain viruses during HIV-1 infection, indicating the higher risk of shedding some blood-borne viruses in these individuals. These investigations indicate that both anellovirus and pegivirus may play certain roles in HIV disease progression.IMPORTANCE Though an increasing number of studies have indicated the existence of an interaction between the virome and human health or disease, the specific role of these plasma viral components remains largely unsolved. We provide evidence here that an altered plasma virome profile is associated with different immune status of HIV-1 infection. Specific resident viruses, such as anellovirus and pegivirus, may directly or indirectly participate in the disease progression of HIV-1 infection. These results can help to determine their clinical relevance and design potential therapies.

4.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of combined independent risk factors in assessing the risk of hip fractures in elderly women. METHODS: Ninety elderly females who sustained hip fractures (including femoral neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures) and 110 female outpatients without a hip fracture were included in our cross-sectional study from 24 November 2017 to 20 May 2019. The age of subjects in the present study was ≥65 years, with the mean age of 78.73 ± 7.77 and 78.09 ± 5.03 years for women with and without elderly hip fractures, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD), Beta-carboxy terminal telopeptide (ß-CTX), N-terminal/mid region (N-MID), and 25(OH)D levels were analyzed. A novel evaluation model was established to evaluate combined indicators in assessing hip fractures in elderly women. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, taller height (155.68 ± 6.40 vs 150.97 ± 6.23, P < 0.01), higher levels of ß-CTX (525.91 ± 307.38 vs 330.94 ± 289.71, P < 0.01), and lower levels of total hip BMD (0.662 ± 0.117 vs 0.699 ± 0.111, P = 0.022), femoral neck BMD (0.598 ± 0.106 vs 0.637 ± 0.100, P = 0.009), and 25(OH)D (15.67 ± 7.23 vs 29.53 ± 10.57, P < 0.01) were found in the facture group. After adjustment for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D (adjusted OR 0.837 [95% CI 0.790-0.886]; P < 0.01), femoral neck BMD (adjusted OR 0.009 [95% CI 0.000-0.969]; P = 0.048) and height (adjusted OR 1.207 [95% CI 1.116-1.306]; P < 0.01) remained risk factors for hip fractures in elderly women. Then a model including independent risk factors was established. A DeLong test showed the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) (Area under the curve [AUC]) of 25(OH)D was significantly greater than that for femoral neck BMD (P < 0.01) and height (P < 0.01). The AUC of model including 25(OH)D and height was significantly greater than that of other combinations (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: 25(OH)D, femoral neck BMD and height were associated with the occurrence of hip fractures in elderly women even after adjustment for confounding factors, and a model including 25(OH)D and height could provide better associated power than other combinations in the assessment of elderly hip fractures.

5.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(5): e13404, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938620

RESUMO

T cell stimulatory and inhibitory molecules are critical for the regulation of immune responses. In this study, we identify a novel T cell co-inhibitory molecule TAPBPL, whose amino acid sequence shares homology with known B7 family members. TAPBPL protein is expressed on resting and activated T cells, B cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as on some tumor tissues. The putative TAPBPL receptor is expressed on activated CD4 and CD8 T cells. A soluble recombinant human TAPBPL-IgG Fc (hTAPBPL-Ig) fusion protein inhibits the proliferation, activation, and cytokine production of both mouse and human T cells in vitro. In vivo administration of hTAPBPL-Ig protein attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Furthermore, an anti-TAPBPL monoclonal antibody neutralizes the inhibitory activity of hTAPBPL-Ig on T cells, enhances antitumor immunity, and inhibits tumor growth in animal models. Our results suggest that therapeutic intervention of the TAPBPL inhibitory pathway may represent a new strategy to modulate T cell-mediated immunity for the treatment of cancer, infections, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection.

6.
Sleep Med ; 82: 165-171, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances are common in preschoolers, and profoundly affected by parenting. Grandparents are increasingly involved in childcare and have attracted worldwide attention for their potential impacts on child well-being. However, no studies have explored child sleep health within the context of grandparental care. We aimed to explore the association between grandparents as primary caregivers and children's sleep disturbances. METHODS: Participants included 20,324 preschoolers from the Shanghai Children's Health, Education and Lifestyle Evaluation-Preschool (SCHEDULE-P) in Shanghai, China. They were initially assessed in November 2016 and were reassessed in April 2018 and April 2019. Children's primary caregivers were collected at each survey. Sleep disturbances were assessed by the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). RESULTS: At baseline, 84.4% of children had global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Compared with parents, random-effects model indicated that grandparents as primary caregivers increased the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for children's global sleep disturbances by 30% (OR [95%CI]: 1.30 [1.21, 1.40]). To the specific domains of CSHQ, two-way repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant "caregiver transition" group × wave interaction in the behavioral sleep disturbances, such as "Bedtime Resistance" (p < 0.001). At each survey, children with grandparents as primary caregivers demonstrated significant higher behavioral sleep disturbances than their counterparts with parental care. CONCLUSIONS: Grandparental care is associated with increased sleep disturbances, particularly behavioral sleep disturbances, in preschoolers. Future studies should explore the underlying mechanisms and whether sleep programs targeting grandparents can decrease children's sleep disturbances.

7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces HIV infection among heterosexual men. There are concerns MMC might prompt higher-risk sexual behaviours because of lower self-perceived risk of HIV infection. We reviewed the published literature to examine associations between MMC and both condom use and number of sex partners among heterosexual men. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before Nov 15, 2020. Interventional and observational studies were included if they contained original quantitative data describing the association between MMC and condom use or number of sex partners among heterosexual men. We excluded data from men whose circumcisions were ritual or religious and data from men who have sex with men. We extracted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the associations between MMC and condomless sex and MMC and multiple sex partners directly from the publications if available, selecting adjusted ORs when provided; when necessary, we calculated ORs and 95% CIs using original study data provided in the publication. We used the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model to calculate pooled ORs and 95% CIs. FINDINGS: Our search yielded 3035 results, of which 471 were duplicates and 2537 did not meet the inclusion criteria. From the remaining 27 eligible studies, we identified 99 292 men from 31 independent population samples. 24 studies were done in Africa. We found no statistically significant associations between MMC and condomless sex (OR 0·91, 95% CI 0·80-1·05; k=30; I2=88·7%) or multiple sex partners (1·02, 0·88-1·18; k=27; I2=90·1%). No associations between MMC and condomless sex or multiple sexual partners were found in any subgroup analyses by study design, income of country, age, recruitment setting, circumcision assessment, circumcision prevalence, and risk of publication bias. INTERPRETATION: The promotion of circumcision as an HIV preventive measure does not appear to increase higher-risk sexual behaviours in heterosexual men. Ongoing sexual health education should be maintained as a vital component of effective MMC programmes. FUNDING: National Science and Technology Major Project of China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission Basic Research Program.

8.
J Infect ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Shenzhen is suffering severe HIV epidemic. No systematic surveillance on high risk populations, HIV genetic diversity, transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and molecular transmission clusters (MTCs) have been reported yet. In this study, we described them based on newly diagnosed HIV positive cases from 2011 to 2018 in Shenzhen city, China. METHODS: Plasma samples of newly reported HIV positive cases in Shenzhen, China were collected from 2011 to 2018. The HIV pol gene was amplified and sequenced for subtyping, genetic characterization, TDR and phylogenetic analysis. Demographic and risk characteristics associated with transmitted drug resistance-associated mutations (TDRAMs) and MTCs were explored by using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: 10378 HIV pol sequences were successfully obtained from newly diagnosed patients with available background information. The most prevalent HIV-1 subtype was CRF07_BC (40.92%). CRF07_BC, CRF55_01B and URFs increased across years. Total TDR was 6.02% during 2011 to 2018. CRF01_AE, CRF08_BC, CRF55_01B and subtype B were more likely to be associated with TDRAMs than CRF07_BC. 4460 (42.98%) patients were infected with strains included in MTCs. Patients younger than 30 and over 50 years were more likely to cluster. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance and molecular transmission clusters in Shenzhen should raise a high alert. Interventions targeting on patients with strains locating in MTCs should be considered to improve prevention effect in Shenzhen.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The clinical safety, efficacy and feasibility of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) compared with open appendectomy (OA) in pregnancy are still controversial. Herein, we are aiming to compare the clinical outcomes of LA and OA in patients with acute appendicitis during their pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing laparoscopic and OA in pregnancy identifying using PubMed, Web of science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Ovid and Scopus. Two independent reviewers extracted data on surgical complication, fetal loss, preterm delivery, hospital stay, Apgar score in both groups. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with total of 6497 patients (4464 in open and 2031 in laparoscopic group) were included. LA was associated with lower rate of wound infection [odds risk (OR)=3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-5.56, P<0.0001] overall complications (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.47-3.14, P<0.0001) and shorter hospitalization (mean difference=0.72, 95% CI: 0.43-1.02, P<0.00001) compared with open group. LA was in a lower risk for 5-minute Apgar score (mean difference=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.17, P=0.01) group than open group. No difference was found regarding preterm delivery between 2 groups. LA was associated with higher fetal loss (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.41-0.79, P=0.0007) compared with open surgery. However, laparoscopy was not associated with increased fetal loss after 2010 (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.44-1.24, P=0.26) compared with open group. CONCLUSIONS: LA in pregnancy seems to be feasible with acceptable outcome, especially in patients with early and mid-trimester period, with sophisticated hands and experienced centers.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925089

RESUMO

Deeply understanding the virus-host interaction is a prerequisite for developing effective anti-viral strategies. Traditionally, the transporter associated with antigen processing type 1 (TAP1) is critical for antigen presentation to regulate adaptive immunity. However, its role in controlling viral infections through modulating innate immune signaling is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we reported that TAP1, as a product of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), had broadly antiviral activity against various viruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), adenoviruses (AdV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and influenza virus (PR8) etc. This antiviral activity by TAP1 was further confirmed by series of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments. Our further investigation revealed that TAP1 significantly promoted the interferon (IFN)-ß production through activating the TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1) and the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signaling transduction. Our work highlighted the broadly anti-viral function of TAP1 by modulating innate immunity, which is independent of its well-known function of antigen presentation. This study will provide insights into developing novel vaccination and immunotherapy strategies against emerging infectious diseases.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 621-630, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798585

RESUMO

Spherical nanocelluloses, also known as cellulose nanospheres (CNS), have controllable morphology and have shown advantages as green template material, emulsion stabilizer. Herein, CNS were prepared via a new two-step method, first pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using ZnCl2·3H2O and then acid hydrolysis of regenerated cellulose (RC) via p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH). The shape, size, crystallinity of MCC were changed, and nubbly RC with smallest size (942 nm) was obtained after 2 h pretreatment by ZnCl2·3H2O. CNS with high 61.3% yield were produced after acid hydrolysis (67 wt% p-TsOH) of RC at 80 °C, 6 h. The analysis of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that CNS had an average diameter of 347 nm. CNS were present in precipitate after high-speed centrifugation, due to the high Zeta potential of -12 mV and large size. The structure of CNS was tested by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), CNS had high crystallinity (cellulose II) of 61%. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicated that CNS had high thermal stability (Tonset 303.3 °C, Tmax 332 °C). CNS showed poor re-dispersibility in water/ethanol/THF, 1 wt% CNS could be dissolved in ZnCl2·3H2O. 7.37% rod-like CNC were obtained after 6 h hydrolysis. FTIR proved that p-TsOH was recovered by re-crystallization. This study provided a novel, sustainable two-step method for the preparation of spherical CNS.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809347

RESUMO

Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has a wide range for applications in mobile robotics. Lightweight and inexpensive vision sensors have been widely used for localization in GPS-denied or weak GPS environments. Mobile robots not only estimate their pose, but also correct their position according to the environment, so a proper mathematical model is required to obtain the state of robots in their circumstances. Usually, filter-based SLAM/VO regards the model as a Gaussian distribution in the mapping thread, which deals with the complicated relationship between mean and covariance. The covariance in SLAM or VO represents the uncertainty of map points. Therefore, the methods, such as probability theory and information theory play a significant role in estimating the uncertainty. In this paper, we combine information theory with classical visual odometry (SVO) and take Jensen-Shannon divergence (JS divergence) instead of Kullback-Leibler divergence (KL divergence) to estimate the uncertainty of depth. A more suitable methodology for SVO is that explores to improve the accuracy and robustness of mobile devices in unknown environments. Meanwhile, this paper aims to efficiently utilize small portability for location and provide a priori knowledge of the latter application scenario. Therefore, combined with SVO, JS divergence is implemented, which has been realized. It not only has the property of accurate distinction of outliers, but also converges the inliers quickly. Simultaneously, the results show, under the same computational simulation, that SVO combined with JS divergence can more accurately locate its state in the environment than the combination with KL divergence.

13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2502-2511, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884821

RESUMO

The use of heavy metal passivators to prevent vegetables from absorbing heavy metals is an important measure to control heavy metal-polluted vegetable fields and to ensure the safe production of vegetables. A pot experiment of planting three times in succession was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus megaterium N3 (N3), rice husk biochar (BC), sheep manure organic fertilizer (SM), strain N3 combined with biochar (BC+N3), and strain N3 combined with sheep manure (SM+N3) on Cd uptake and the functional stability of lettuce using a heavy metal passivator only at the first planting. The comprehensive applicability of the passivation materials was evaluated by the dynamic weighted comprehensive function. The results showed that when lettuce was planted for the first time, compared with the control, all the heavy metal passivators could significantly reduce (61.2%-81%) the Cd content in the edible part of the lettuce. However, in the third cultivation of lettuce, only SM+N3 could significantly reduce the Cd uptake by lettuce, which indicated that SM+N3 had the best functional stability. The dynamic weighted comprehensive function was used to evaluate the Cd content in the edible part of fresh lettuce, available Cd content in the soil, yield, and remediation cost. The results showed that the comprehensive applicability of SM+N3 was the best, followed by that of SM, BC+N3, and BC, and the comprehensive evaluation effect of strain N3 was the worst. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical support for remediation of heavy metal-contaminated vegetable fields.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Alface , Metais Pesados/análise , Ovinos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
J Food Sci ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908630

RESUMO

Natural compounds have been increasingly investigated as substances enhancing the effect of drugs and reducing drug-related adverse reactions. The objective of this study was to determine how a combination of cisplatin (DDP) with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) affected malignancy features of cervical cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the proliferation of HeLa cells treated with 5 µg/ml DDP, 400 µg/ml C3G, or a combination of both (5 µg/ml DDP and 400 µg/ml C3G) was inhibited by 17.43%, 34.98%, and 63.38%, respectively. The IC50 values for DDP and the DDP/C3G combination treatments in HeLa cells were 18.53 and 6.435 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that treatment with DDP, C3G, or the combination induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells. Furthermore, after treatment, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 levels decreased; Bax, cleaved caspase-3, p53, and TIMP-1 were activated; and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was modulated. These anticancer effects were enhanced in cells treated with the combination of DDP and C3G compared to those treated with DDP or C3G alone. Our study indicates that C3G increases the antitumor activity of DDP, suggesting a potential strategy to reduce adverse effects associated with chemotherapy in cervical cancer. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Natural biologically active food ingredients are suggested to have a potential to enhance the effect of chemotherapy in cancer. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because it revealed, for the first time, that C3G could increase the antitumor activity of DDP, suggesting a potential strategy to reduce adverse effects associated with chemotherapy in cervical cancer.

15.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908841

RESUMO

Recent evidence shows that circumcision is associated with lower HIV prevalence among MSM. We assessed the acceptability of circumcision for preventing HIV and that of Shang Ring circumcision (SRC) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. 538 adult MSM were recruited from six cities in China between January and March 2019. Participants were surveyed by an online, self-administered questionnaire. The acceptability of circumcision was assessed before and after the potential protective effect of circumcision against HIV was informed, and subsequently men's willingness to undergo SRC was assessed. The level of circumcision was 16.4%. Of 450 uncircumcised MSM, their willingness to be circumcised in the following six months increased significantly from 32.2% to 55.6% after the information session. Three quarters of men who were willing to undergo circumcision accepted SRC. MSM who perceived that circumcision could maintain genital hygiene were more likely to accept circumcision after the information session, whereas those who regarded circumcision as an embarrassing surgery were disinclined to be circumcised. The low circumcision rate, along with its high acceptability in Chinese MSM, suggests a great potential benefit of circumcision intervention if proved effective. SRC might be a popular circumcision procedure in this population.

16.
Nutrition ; 89: 111235, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this population-based case-control study was to investigate the association between dietary consumption of the total flavonoids, subclasses, and specific flavonoids and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) among adults in a high-risk area of China. METHODS: We recruited 820 ESCC participants and 863 control participants from Yanting County. Dietary flavonoids were assessed using a validated 76-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression after considering potential confounders. RESULTS: Comparing the highest and lowest intake quartiles, we observed a negative association of ESCC risk with consumption of isoflavones (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.23-0.50, P for trend < 0.001), daidzein (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.21-0.45, P for trend < 0.001), genistein (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.23-0.50, P for trend < 0.001), and glycitein (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.22-0.48, P for trend < 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders. A more pronounced negative association was observed when comparing the third quartile, rather than the fourth, with the lowest quartile for consumption of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.42-0.80, P for trend = 0.004), delphinidin (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.41-0.78, P for trend = 0.004), and cyanidin (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.35-0.66, P for trend = 0.003) after considering potential confounders. Consumption of total flavonoids, flavones, flavonols, and six other specific flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin, and peonidin) was not associated with ESCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that increased dietary intake of isoflavones and moderate consumption of anthocyanidins were associated with a decreased risk of ESCC. Future nutritional guidelines may emphasize foods or supplements rich in specific isoflavones and anthocyanidins for ESCC chemoprevention.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100259, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837742

RESUMO

The ability of iron to transfer electrons enables the contribution of this metal to a variety of cellular activities even as the redox properties of iron are also responsible for the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH), the most destructive of the reactive oxygen species. We previously showed that iron can promote the oxidation of bisretinoid by generating highly reactive hydroxyl radical (•OH). Now we report that preservation of iron regulation in the retina is not sufficient to prevent iron-induced bisretinoid oxidative degradation when blood iron levels are elevated in liver-specific hepcidin knockout mice. We obtained evidence for the perpetuation of Fenton reactions in the presence of the bisretinoid A2E and visible light. On the other hand, iron chelation by deferiprone was not associated with changes in postbleaching recovery of 11-cis-retinal or dark-adapted ERG b-wave amplitudes indicating that the activity of Rpe65, a rate-determining visual cycle protein that carries an iron-binding domain, is not affected. Notably, iron levels were elevated in the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of Abca4-/- mice. Consistent with higher iron content, ferritin-L immunostaining was elevated in RPE of a patient diagnosed with ABCA4-associated disease and in RPE and photoreceptor cells of Abca4-/- mice. In neural retina of the mutant mice, reduced Tfrc mRNA was also an indicator of retinal iron overload. Thus iron chelation may defend retina when bisretinoid toxicity is implicated in disease processes.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(5): 2232-2239, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884792

RESUMO

To identify the spatial differences in the water quality and eutrophication characteristics of Songhua Lake, the largest artificial lake in northeast China, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and factor analysis were used to analyze the water quality sampling and testing results in 2017 in three regions, namely the main reservoir area of the Fengman Reservoir (MRAFR), the experimental area of the Songhua River Three Lakes Protection Zone (EASRTLPZ), and the Jiaohe River backwater area (JRBA). The nutrient status of the lake was evaluated by the trophic state index method, and the spatial correlation and aggregation status of the eutrophication level in Songhua Lake were studied using spatial autocorrelation analysis. The main results were as follows: ① the ANOVA showed that, except for dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), water temperature (WT), and pH in the three areas of Songhua Lake, with the clearest difference between TN and TP. ② The factor analysis showed that the changes in the climatic condition factor (WT), nutrient salt factors (TN and TP), and algal biomass factor (Chl-a) dominated the water quality in the lake. ③ The results of the trophic state index showed that the nutrient status of Songhua Lake as a whole is mildly eutrophic, and the eutrophication levels of the three regions from strong to weak are JRBA > MRAFR > EASRTLPZ. ④ The global spatial autocorrelation showed that the eutrophication level of the lake as a whole has significant positive spatial autocorrelation owing to the influence of regional eutrophication levels. The spatial heterogeneity of the eutrophication level of Songhua Lake is low. ⑤ The results of the local spatial autocorrelation showed that the central and northern areas of JRBA are the hot spots (high/high concentration) of eutrophication in the lake (P<0.01), and the central part of EASRTLPZ is the cold spot (low/low concentration) of eutrophication in the lake (P<0.05). Therefore, when conducting water environmental management of Songhua Lake, the key areas for eutrophication control should be the JRBA and MRAFR.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3960-3967, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872035

RESUMO

Black phosphorene (BP) has been attracting intense attention due to its high charge mobility and potential applications in electronic, optical and optoelectronic devices. We demonstrate by ab initio molecular dynamics and nonadiabatic quantum dynamics simulations that the excitation of out-of-plane acoustic phonon (ZA) provides strong modulation of the band gap, carrier lifetime and carrier mobility in BP. A 1% tensile strain can significantly enhance ZA mode excitation at room temperature, distinctly reducing the band gap, carrier mobility, and lifetime. These electronic properties can be tuned easily by influencing the excitation amplitude of the ZA mode. Unique to the family of two-dimensional materials, the ZA mode plays an essential role in controlling the electronic properties of BP. The results of our study provide valuable guidelines for design of functional nanodevices based on 2D BP.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114128, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872750

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Influenza virus infection is widely believed to cause mild symptoms, but can lead to high mortality and severe disease complicated by secondary bacterial pneumonia. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been proposed as a promising agent to treat respiratory viral infections. An herbal formula Lianhuaqingwen capsule (LHQW) comprising two prescriptions: Maxing Shigan decoction and Yinqiao San, has been used clinically to treat respiratory infection with immune regulatory effects. However, little is known about the capacity of LHQW against influenza-induced secondary bacterial pneumonia. AIM OF STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of LHQW on influenza A virus A/PR/8/34 (PR8) secondary methicillin-resistant Staphy-lococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. METHODS: The anti-adhesion activity of LHQW against PR8-induced MRSA infection was assessed in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and the effect of LHQW on the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was detected. Also, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in PR8-infected A549 cells were determined. The body weight change, survivals, viral titers, colonies and the pathological parameters after LHQW treatment in severe pneumonia model have all been systematically determined. RESULTS: LHQW significantly reduced the adhesion of MRSA to PR8-infected A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner by suppressing the up-regulation of bacterial receptors. LHQW also markedly declined the overexpression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α induced by LPS stimulated-A549 cells following influenza virus infection. Furthermore, the abnormal changes of lung index in dual-infection mice were relieved after administered with LHQW in preventive and therapeutic mode, but with no significantly difference (P>0.05). LHQW could not effectively improve survival rate or prolong the survival time of mice (P>0.05). LHQW (1000 mg/kg/d) administered prophylactically significantly decreased the lung viral titers (P<0.05), slightly downregulated IL-6 but TNF-α, IL-1ß levels and improved lung pathological inflammation including neutrophil infiltration, necrosis, which is consistent with the expression of inflammatory factors. CONCLUSIONS: LHQW inhibited influenza-induced bacterial adhesion by down-regulating the adhesion molecules with the improvement trend on severe pneumonia, indicating that it can be used as an adjuvant medication in severe viral-bacterial pneumonia therapy rather than as a single medication.

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