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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4034-4039, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467712

RESUMO

As anti-aging ingredients, ß-nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD~+) have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. After oral administration, NMN can be converted into NAD~+ in vivo and the latter is the actual ingredient which exerts anti-aging effect. In order to explore the "rejuvenating and anti-aging" effect of Dendrobium officinale, which was firstly recorded in Shennong's Herbal Classic of Materia Medica, this study established the quantitative method of UPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of NMN and NAD~+ in D. officinale and the congeneric species for the first time, and 34 batches of samples were detected. UPLC conditions are as follows: ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 µm), gradient elution with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water at the flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1), and column temperature of 40 ℃. MS conditions were scanned electrospray ionization source and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method was verified by systematic methodology. The mean recoveries of NMN and NAD~+ were 77.58% and 80.70%, respectively, with RSD of 3.6% and 4.3%, separately. All results showed that the content of NMN was higher in D. officinale than in the other congeneric species. Particularly, the content in fresh D. officinale stems was as high as 0.931 9 µg·g~(-1). NAD~+ was only found in D. officinale and the content was three times higher than that of NMN. This may be the reason that D. officinale topped the "nine famous anti-aging herbs". In addition, processing method influences the content of NMN and NAD~+ in Dendrobium. Specifically, the content of NMN and NAD~+ was in the order of fresh Dendrobium stems > dried Dendrobium stem segments > spiral or spring-like dried Dendrobium stems.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , NAD , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4040-4050, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467713

RESUMO

In recent years, the establishment of the commercial grade of Yinpian [traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pieces for decoction] in the TCM industry has been hotly disputed. In this article, Sophorae Flavescentis Radix(SFR) was selected as a representative example to investigated. Through systematic comparison and analysis, the different grades of SFR slices were traced, verified and evaluated. According to the current published local grade standards of SFR slices, the results showed that the first-class of SFR slices were mostly derived from the wild medicinal materials, the second-class were mostly originated from the cultivated materials in 3-4 years, and the third-class products were from a small number of lateral roots and short-growing years or harsh habitat of wild medicinal materials. On the basis of identifying the sources of different grades of SFR slices, the contents of the active components, including matrine, oxymatrine, oxysophocarpine, sophoridine, N-methyl-cytisine, sophocarpine, were quantitatively determined in typical samples, it was found that the grades were inversely proportional to the contents of active ingredients. In order to ensure the universality of the conclusion, the contents of different grades of commercial SFR slices were determined, and the conclusion was verified as "the commercial grades of SFR slices were inversely linked to their contents of active ingredients". This phenomenon is common in the determination of the commercial grade of Yinpian of radix and rhizome. Therefore, we propose that the method or standard of the commercial grade of Yinpian of radix and rhizome based on the size of Yinpian maybe not proper. Whether and how to classify Yinpian commercial grade is not only a multi-disciplinary issue, especially in combination with clinical efficacy, but also a big problem need to consider the production, commercial circulation and other processes link of quality risk and quality assurance, and should be treated with great caution.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Sophora , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raízes de Plantas , Rizoma
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4051-4060, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467714

RESUMO

This research established the HPLC methods for the determination of perillaketone, perillaldehyde, caffeic acid, scutellarin, and rosmarinic acid in 33 batches of Perillae Folium. Kromasil C_(18)(4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) chromatographic column was used, and the mobile phase for determination of the perillaketone and perillaldehyde was methanol-water(55∶45) solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), with the column temperature at 30 ℃. The mobile phase for the determination of caffeic acid, scutellarin and rosmarinic acid was methanol(A)-0.2% phosphoric acid aqueous solution(B) with gradient elution(0-20 min, 25%-30% A; 20-60 min, 30%-43% A). The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was set at 30 ℃. The results showed that the established method can achieve good separation of the five components in samples, with a good linear relationship and high accuracy, indicating that the methods can be used for the determination of Perillae Folium. The results showed that all samples contained five components. And the content of rosmarinic acid(0.04%-1.57%) > scutellarin(0.03%-0.77%) > perillaldehyde(0.02%-0.66%) > perillaketone(0.03%-0.30%) > caffeic acid(0.006%-0.07%). Thirty-three Batches of Perillae Folium can be grouped into 5 categories. There are certain content rules and region specificities under different clusters. Perillaketone, perillaldehyde, and rosmarinic acid can be used as the main markers to evaluate the quality of Perillae Folium.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Folhas de Planta , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 21268-21282, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497154

RESUMO

Temozolomide (TMZ) is used for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. Acquired chemoresistance is a serious limitation to the therapy with more than 90% of recurrent gliomas showing little response to a second line of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to explore an alternative strategy to enhance the sensitivity of glioblastoma (GBM) to TMZ in neuro-oncology. Celecoxib is well known and widely used in anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression has been linked to the prognosis, angiogenesis, and radiation sensitivity of many malignancies such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor and advanced melanoma. The objective of this study was to explore the chemotherapy-sensitizing effect of celecoxib on TMZ in GBM cells and its potential mechanisms. From the study, we found that the combination therapy (TMZ 250uM+celecoxib 30uM) showed excellent inhibitory effect to the GBM, the LN229 and LN18, which were the TMZ resistant GBM cell lines. Our data suggest that the combination therapy may inhibits cell proliferation, increases apoptosis, and increases the autophagy on LN229 and LN18. The potential molecular mechanisms were related to mitochondrial metabolism and respiratory chain inhibition.

5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112060, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529969

RESUMO

The non-radical oxidation processes of persulfate activation by carbon materials have shown great potential for industrial and saline wastewater treatment. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as an emerging precursor have been widely used for fabricating functional carbon materials. Herein, we reported ZIF-8 derived defect-rich nitrogen-doped carbon (ZCNs) via NaCl-assisted pyrolysis for efficient non-radical activation of peroxydisulfate to degrade rhodamine B (RB). All samples exhibited excellent catalytic activity, and ZCN-900 (pyrolyzed at 900 °C) was found to be the most active, able to degrade 96 % of RB quickly within 10 min. Quenching tests and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analyses suggested that the singlet oxygen (1O2) dominated the degradation process by a non-radical pathway. Furthermore, the effect of anions and water quality on RB oxidation were investigated, and ZCN-900/PDS system showed great resistance to the anions and natural organic matters (NOM). This work may provide a significant addition to MOF-based functional materials for environmental remediation based on the results above.

6.
Comput Biol Chem ; 94: 107569, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500324

RESUMO

Transcriptional enhanced associate domains (Teads) are the downstream effectors of the hippo signaling pathway and have been recognized as attractive druggable targets of gastric cancer. The biological function of Teads is regulated by diverse cofactors. In this study, the intermolecular interactions of Teads with their cognate cofactors were systematically characterized at structural, thermodynamic and dynamic levels. The Teads possess a double-stranded helical hairpin that is surrounded by three independent structural elements ß-sheet, α-helix and Ω-loop of cofactor proteins and plays a central role in recognition and association with cofactors. A number of functional peptides were split from the hairpin region at Tead-cofactor complex interfaces, which, however, cannot maintain in native conformation without the support of protein context and would therefore incur a considerable entropy penalty upon competitively rebinding to the interfaces. Here, we further used disulfide and hydrocarbon bridges to cyclize and staple the hairpin and helical peptides, respectively. The chemical modification strategies were demonstrated to effectively constrain peptide conformation into active state and to largely reduce peptide flexibility in free state, thus considerably improving their affinity. Since the cyclization and stapling only minimize the indirect entropy cost but do not influence the direct enthalpy effect upon peptide binding, the designed conformationally constrained peptides can retain in their native selectivity over different cofactors. This is particularly interesting because it means that the cyclized/stapled, affinity-improved peptides can specifically compete with their parent Teads for the cofactor arrays as they share consistent target specificity.

7.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498704

RESUMO

Sepsis is a severe disease, with high mortality. Permanent organ damage caused by sepsis reduces the quality of life of surviving patients. The liver is an easily damaged organ in sepsis and sepsis­associated liver injury foretells a poor prognosis. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments or drugs to solve this problem. Therefore, strategies or novel drugs are urgently required to protect against liver dysfunction in sepsis. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish a model of liver injury in vitro. The data demonstrated that pretreatment of L02 human normal hepatocytes with paeonol (PAE) alleviated LPS­induced cell injury and decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase, indicating a protective effect of PAE. Further experiments demonstrated that PAE increased LPS­decreased L02 cell viability, the levels of superoxide dismutase and Bcl­2 expression. PAE decreased LPS­increased cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species and the expression levels of Bax and cleaved­caspase­3. PAE decreased LPS­promoted mitochondrial depolarization and nuclear translocation of NF­κB. In conclusion, PAE alleviated LPS­induced liver injury via alteration of mitochondrial function and NF­κB translocation. Therefore, PAE has potential for the treatment of sepsis.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502339

RESUMO

Motor neuron disease (MND) comprises a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases with no effective cure. As progressive motor neuron cell death is one of pathological characteristics of MND, molecules which protect these cells are attractive therapeutic targets. Accumulating evidence indicates that EphA4 activation is involved in MND pathogenesis, and inhibition of EphA4 improves functional outcomes. However, the underlying mechanism of EphA4's function in MND is unclear. In this review, we first present results to demonstrate that EphA4 signalling acts directly on motor neurons to cause cell death. We then review the three most likely mechanisms underlying this effect.

9.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510400

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a precancerous lesion that increases the risk of subsequent gastric cancer (GC) development. Previously, miR-1 has been shown to play an essential role in the initiation of bile acid (BA)-induced IM. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying miR-1 inhibition by BA in gastric cells. METHODS: Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to identify molecules acting upstream of miR-1. The effects of deoxycholic acid (DCA), FXR and SNAI2 on the expression of intestinal markers were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The expression level of major molecules was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue microarrays. The transcriptional regulation of miR-1 was verified using luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. RESULTS: We found that BA treatment caused aberrant expression of FXR and intestinal markers in gastric cells. Augmented FXR led to transcriptional activation of SNAI2, which in turn suppressed the miR-1 promoter. Moreover, we found that compared with normal tissues, the expression levels of both FXR and SNAI2 were increased and positively correlated with each other in IM tissues. Additionally, their expression showed an inverse correlation with that of miR-1 in IM tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that FXR may be responsible for a series of molecular changes in gastric cells after BA treatment, and that the FXR/SNAI2/miR-1 axis exhibits a crucial role in BA-induced progression of IM. Blocking the FXR-oriented axis may provide a promising approach for IM or even GC treatment.

10.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511262

RESUMO

This work solves the robust passive fault-tolerant control problem for autonomous electric vehicles based on an adaptive event triggered mechanism. Firstly, given the system uncertainties from the tire dynamics and the longitudinal speed, the T-ST-S fuzzy model method is used to approximate the vehicle lateral dynamics. Secondly, taking the communication constraints caused by band-limited networks into account, an adaptive event-triggered scheme is introduced in the process of the control design. Moreover, the asynchronous constraint of the weight function between the controller and system is considered. Thirdly, considering that the actuator faults are inevitably encountered in the control system, a robust passive fault-tolerant control method is proposed to improve vehicle performances. Finally, simulations are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

11.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 596-605, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514904

RESUMO

Brain glioma is the most common primary tumour of the central nervous system. Complete surgical removal of the brain glioma is virtually impossible. Chemotherapy is still an important treatment for brain glioma. However, blood-brain barrier (BBB) and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) channels remain two hindrances in regular treatments. Herein, we developed a novel nanoscaled dual targeting daunorubicin plus rofecoxib liposomes which could transport across the BBB, and eliminate brain glioma cells along with the VM channels. The liposomes were modified with two functional materials, and showed round in shape with a diameter about 120 nm. Evaluations were performed on human brain glioma U87MG cells in vitro and on intracranial brain glioma-bearing nude mice. The dual targeting liposomes demonstrated a long circulatory effect in the blood system, were able to transport across the BBB, and were accumulated into the brain. The results indicated that the dual targeting daunorubicin plus rofecoxib liposomes could inhibit the brain glioma VM channels and exhibited a significant efficacy in the treatment of intracranial glioma-bearing nude mice. The mechanisms are related to down regulations MMP-2, MMP-9, FAK and HIF-α. Hence, the established dual targeting liposomes could be a potential formulation to treat the brain glioma along with eliminating VM channels.

12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(13): 3508-3521, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512162

RESUMO

Rationale: The malignant phenotypes of glioblastomas (GBMs) are primarily attributed to glioma stem cells (GSCs). Our previous study and other reports have suggested that both miR-139 and its host gene PDE2A are putative antitumor genes in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles and mechanisms of miR-139/PDE2A in GSC modulation. Methods: Clinical samples were used to determine miR-139/PDE2A expression. Patient-derived glioma stem-like cells (PD-GSCs) were stimulated for immunofluorescent staining, sphere formation assays and orthotopic GBM xenograft models. Bioinformatic analysis and further in vitro experiments demonstrated the downstream molecular mechanisms of miR-139 and PDE2A. OX26/CTX-conjugated PEGylated liposome (OCP) was constructed to deliver miR-139 or PDE2A into glioma tissue specifically. Results: We demonstrated that miR-139 was concomitantly transcribed with its host gene PDE2A. Both PDE2A and miR-139 indicated better prognosis of gliomas and were inversely correlated with GSC stemness. PDE2A or miR-139 overexpression suppressed the stemness of PD-GSCs. FZD3 and ß-catenin, which induced Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activation, were identified as targets of miR-139 and mediated the effects of miR-139 on GSCs. Meanwhile, PDE2A suppressed Wnt/ß-catenin signaling by inhibiting cAMP accumulation and GSK-3ß phosphorylation, thereby modulating the self-renewal of PD-GSCs. Notably, Notch1, which is also a target of miR-139, suppressed PDE2A/miR-139 expression directly via downstream Hes1, indicating that miR-139 promoted its own expression by the miR-139-Notch1/Hes1 feedback circuit. Expectedly, targeted overexpression miR-139 or PDE2A in glioma with OCP system significantly repressed the stemness and decelerated glioma progression. Conclusions: Our findings elaborate on the inhibitory functions of PDE2A and miR-139 on GSC stemness and tumorigenesis, which may provide new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for GBMs.

13.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515677

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes significant economic loss of agriculture in East Asia, entirely depends on insect vectors for its effective transmission among host rice. Laodelphax striatellus (small brown planthopper, SBPH) is the primary insect vector that horizontally transmits RSV while sucking sap from the phloem. Saliva plays a significant role in insects' feeding behavior. A convenient method that will be useful for research on insects' saliva with piercing-sucking feeding behavior is described here. In this method, insects were allowed to feed on an artificial diet sandwiched between two stretched paraffin film layers. The diet containing the saliva was collected each day, filtered, and concentrated for further analysis. Finally, the quality of collected saliva was examined by protein staining and immunoblotting. This method was exemplified by detecting the presence of RSV and a mucin-like protein in the saliva of SBPH. These artificial feeding and saliva collection method will lay a foundation for further research on factors in insect saliva related to feeding behavior and virus transmission.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 9055-9059, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516115

RESUMO

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries with high safety and cost effectiveness have received much attention for large-scale energy storage. However, the inevitable dendrite growth derived from uneven zinc stripping/plating severely impedes practical application. In this work, we use controllable electrodeposition to construct a continuous and compact ZIF-8 protective layer and investigate the relationship between the morphology of the deposition layer and the zinc plating behavior. A continuous and insulating protective layer with suitable thickness can induce bottom deposition, and a prolonged battery life of over 5000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2 for 1 mA h cm-2 is achieved.

15.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117597, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488438

RESUMO

While exogenous administration of recombinant erythropoietin has been associated with increased risk of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and mortality, it is not known if endogenous circulating erythropoietin level is associated with coronary artery disease and its risk factors. We measured and analyzed epidemiological and genetic associations of circulating plasma erythropoietin levels in 2 population cohorts, from China (N=4329) and the United States (N=3671). In vitro smooth muscle cell responses and in vivo murine studies of erythropoietin exposure were performed. Erythropoietin levels were positively and linearly associated with blood pressure traits and inversely associated with cholesterol levels and red cell indices. Higher erythropoietin level was associated with higher prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.12-1.29], P=4.41×10-7) and coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.00-1.34], P=0.046). In a discovery stage genetic association study of erythropoietin level, we identified a previously reported locus on chromosome 6 (rs7776054 near HBS1L-MYB, P=4.86×10-25) and a new locus on chromosome 4 (rs172629 near PDGFRA-KIT, P=2.1×10-8), which was independently replicated. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication genetic association results identified a locus on chromosome 22 (rs855791 near TMPRSS6, P=3.60×10-9). Erythropoietin administration, within a physiological range of hematocrit achieved, induced hypertension in vivo and increased contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In conclusion, endogenous circulating erythropoietin level is influenced by common genetic variation and is associated with blood pressure traits, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Vascular effects of erythropoietin demonstrated in vitro and in vivo support a newly discovered mechanism of hypertension and cardiovascular risk with potential implications for erythropoietic support in the clinic.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489338

RESUMO

AIMS: To predict the vault and the EVO-implantable collamer lens (ICL) size by artificial intelligence (AI) and big data analytics. METHODS: Six thousand two hundred and ninety-seven eyes implanted with an ICL from 3536 patients were included. The vault values were measured by the anterior segment analyzer (Pentacam HR). Permutation importance and Impurity-based feature importance are used to investigate the importance between the vault and input parameters. Regression models and classification models are applied to predict the vault. The ICL size is set as the target of the prediction, and the vault and the other input features are set as the new inputs for the ICL size prediction. Data were collected from 2015 to 2020. Random Forest, Gradient Boosting and XGBoost were demonstrated satisfying accuracy and mean area under the curve (AUC) scores in vault predicting and ICL sizing. RESULTS: In the prediction of the vault, the Random Forest has the best results in the regression model (R2=0.315), then follows the Gradient Boosting (R2=0.291) and XGBoost (R2=0.285). The maximum classification accuracy is 0.828 in Random Forest, and the mean AUC is 0.765. The Random Forest predicts the ICL size with an accuracy of 82.2% and the Gradient Boosting and XGBoost, which are also compatible with 81.5% and 81.8% accuracy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Random Forest, Gradient Boosting and XGBoost models are applicable for vault predicting and ICL sizing. AI may assist ophthalmologists in improving ICL surgery safety, designing surgical strategies, and predicting clinical outcomes.

17.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large volume radiological text data have been accumulated since the incorporation of electronic health record (EHR) systems in clinical practice. We aimed to determine whether deep natural language processing algorithms could aid radiologists in improving thyroid cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Sonographic EHR data were obtained from the EHR database. Pathological reports were used as the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer. We developed thyroid cancer diagnosis based on natural language processing (THCaDxNLP) to interpret unstructured sonographic text reports for thyroid cancer diagnosis. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as the primary metric to measure the performance of the THCaDxNLP. We compared the performance of thyroid ultrasound radiologists aided with THCaDxNLP vs. those without THCaDxNLP using 5 independent test sets. RESULTS: We obtained a total number of 788,129 sonographic radiological reports. The number of thyroid sonographic data points was 132,277, 18,400 of which were thyroid cancer patients. Among the 5 test sets, the numbers of patients per set were 439, 186, 82, 343, and 171. THCaDxNLP achieved high performance in identifying thyroid cancer patients (the AUROC ranged from 0.857-0.932). Thyroid ultrasound radiologists aided with THCaDxNLP achieved significantly higher performances than those without THCaDxNLP in terms of accuracy (93.8% vs. 87.2%; one-sided t-test, adjusted P = 0.003), precision (92.5% vs. 86.0%; P = 0.018), and F1 metric (94.2% vs. 86.4%; P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: THCaDxNLP achieved a high AUROC for the identification of thyroid cancer, and improved the accuracy, sensitivity, and precision of thyroid ultrasound radiologists. This warrants further investigation of THCaDxNLP in prospective clinical trials.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491388

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increased levels of uric acid (UA), which is mainly excreted through the kidneys, are independently associated with higher mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The uricolysis of gut microbiota plays an important role in extrarenal excretion of UA. This study aimed to examine the effect of inulin-type prebiotics (a type of fermentable dietary fiber) on intestinal microbiota modulation and serum UA levels in ESRD patients. METHODS: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were recruited to a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 12-week inulin-type prebiotics. Participants were visited before and after treatment with prebiotics or placebo. Serum UA levels, dietary purine intake, serum xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, daily "renal excretion" of UA, and fecal UA degradation capability were measured at each visit. Fecal metagenomic analysis was conducted to assess microbial composition and function. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (mean age = 37 y; 10 men and 6 women) completed the trial, and 64 specimens were analyzed. The average concentration of serum UA decreased by approximately 10% in the prebiotic intervention group in comparison to the placebo group (p = 0.047) without an increase in daily "renal excretion" of UA via urine and dialysate. There were no significant changes in purine intake or activity of XO. Notably, enhanced fecal UA degradation was observed after prebiotic intervention (p = 0.041), and the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, which was positively associated with fecal UA degradation, increased in the prebiotic period (p = 0.032). Furthermore, prebiotics enriched purine-degrading species in the gut microbiota, including unclassified_o_Clostridiales, Clostridium sp. CAG:7, Clostridium sp. FS41, Clostridium citroniae, Anaerostipes caccae, and Clostridium botulinum. CONCLUSIONS: Inulin-type prebiotics is a promising therapeutic candidate to reduce serum UA levels in renal failure patients, and this urate-lowering effect could possibly be attributed to intestinal microbial degradation of UA. TRIAL REGISTRY: This study was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry ( http://www.chictr.org.cn/ ), registration ID: ChiCTR-INR-17013739, registration date: 6th Dec 2017.

19.
Neurochem Int ; : 105190, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537318

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is involved in blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and secondary injury after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying mechanisms of EGFR activation mediating BSCB disruption and secondary injury after SCI remain unclear. An in vitro model of oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced BSCB damage and in vivo rat SCI model were employed to define the role of EGFR/p38/NF-κB signal pathway activation and its induced inflammatory injury in main cellular components of BSCB. Genetic regulation (lentivirus delivered shRNA and overexpression system) or chemical intervention (agonist or inhibitor) were applied to activate or inactivate EGFR and p38 in astrocytes and microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) under which conditions, the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1ß), tight junction (TJ) protein (ZO-1 and occludin), nuclear translocation of NF-κB and permeability of BSCB were analyzed. The pEGFR was increased in astrocytes and MEC which induced the activation of EGFR and p38 and NF-κB nuclear translocation. The activation of EGFR and p38 increased the TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1ß responsible for the inflammatory injury and reduced the ZO-1 and occludin which caused BSCB disruption. While EGFR or p38 inactivation inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation, and markedly attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory factors and the loss of TJ protein. This study suggests that the EGFR activation in main cellular components of BSCB after SCI mediates BSCB disruption and secondary inflammatory injury via the EGFR/p38/NF-κB pathway.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108146, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that autophagy alleviates cerebral I/R injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammation. 6-Gingerol, a phenolic compound extracted from ginger, was reported to possess potent antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities and is associated with autophagy. However, the effects of 6-Gingerol in cerebral I/R injury have not been elucidated, and whether they involve autophagy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition remains unclear. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 24 h. 6-Gingerol and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were injected intraperitoneally, and si-TRPV1 was injected via the lateral ventricle. Cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, neurological deficits, HE and Nissl were used to evaluate the morphological and functional changes of brain tissue, respectively. TRPV1, FAF1, autophagy related (LC3II/I, P62, Beclin1), inflammation related (NLRP3, cleaved-caspase-1, caspase-1, cleaved-IL-1ß, IL-1ß, cleaved-IL-18, IL-18) and apoptosis related (Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3) proteins were assessed by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining and coimmunoprecipitation, respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the changes in the expression levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1ß) and interleukin-18(IL-18), respectively. The degree of neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL staining. Neuronal ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RESULT: 6-Gingerol treatment significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, improved brain edema and neurological scores, and reversed brain histomorphological damage after I/R injury. In addition, 6-Gingerol significantly reduced NLRP3 inflammasome-derived inflammation and neuronal apoptosis and upregulated autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA rescued the effects of 6-Gingerol on the NLRP3 inflammasome and apoptosis. Moreover, the findings illustrated that 6-Gingerol inhibited autophagy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis through the dissociation of TRPV1 from FAF1. CONCLUSION: In brief, 6-Gingerol exerts antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via TRPV1/FAF1 complex dissociation-mediated autophagy during cerebral I/R injury. Therefore, 6-Gingerol may be an effective drug for the treatment of I/R injury.

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