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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3192, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324803

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein, HBx, interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins through its BH3-like motif to promote HBV replication and cytotoxicity. Here we report the crystal structure of HBx BH3-like motif in complex with Bcl-xL where the BH3-like motif adopts a short α-helix to snuggle into a hydrophobic pocket in Bcl-xL via its noncanonical Trp120 residue and conserved Leu123 residue. This binding pocket is ~2 Å away from the canonical BH3-only binding pocket in structures of Bcl-xL with proapoptotic BH3-only proteins. Mutations altering Trp120 and Leu123 in HBx impair its binding to Bcl-xL in vitro and HBV replication in vivo, confirming the importance of this motif to HBV. A HBx BH3-like peptide, HBx-aa113-135, restores HBV replication from a HBx-null HBV replicon, while a shorter peptide, HBx-aa118-127, inhibits HBV replication. These results provide crucial structural and functional insights into drug designs for inhibiting HBV replication and treating HBV patients.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 724-733, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130075

RESUMO

Anti-HBs is a well-known marker of protective capability against HBV. However, little is known about the association between the qAnti-HBs determined by immunoassays and the neutralization activity (NAT) derived from functional assays. We developed an in vitro assay for direct measurement of the NAT of human sera. The new assay was highly sensitive, with an analytical sensitivity of 9.6 ± 1.3 mIU/mL for the HBIG standard. For serum detection, the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition (MDF50) of HBV infection was used as the quantitative index. In vitro NAT evaluations were conducted for a cohort of 164 HBV-free healthy individuals. The results demonstrated that the NAT positively correlated with the qAnti-HBs (R2 = 0.473, p < 0.001). ROC analysis indicated that the optimal cutoff value of the qAnti-HBs to discriminate significant NAT (MDF50 ≥ 8) was 62.9 mIU/mL, with an AUROC of 0.920. Additionally, we found that the qAnti-HBc was another independent parameter positively associated with the NAT (R2 = 0.300, p < 0.001), which suggested that antibodies against other HBV proteins generated by previous HBV exposure possibly also contribute to the NAT. In summary, the new cell-based assay provides a robust tool to analyse the anti-HBV NAT. Abbreviations: HBV: Hepatitis B virus; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; Anti-HBs: Hepatitis B surface antibody; HBeAg: Hepatitis B e antigen; Anti-HBc: Hepatitis B core antibody; qAnti-HBs: quantitative hepatitis B surface antibody; qAnti-HBc: quantitative hepatitis B core antibody; qHBeAg: quantitative hepatitis B e antigen; NAT: neutralization activity; HBIG: hepatitis B immune globulin; NTCP: Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide; IRES: internal ribosome entry site; ccHBV: cell culture derived hepatitis B virus; GE/cell: genome equivalent per cell; MOI: multiplicity of infection; Dpi: day post infection; HepG2-TetOn: a HepG2-derived cell line that expresses the doxycycline-regulated transactivator; ROC: receiver operating characteristic curve; AUROC: area under receiver operating characteristic curve; LLOQ: the lower limits of quantification; MDF50: the maximum fold dilution required to produce ≥50% inhibition; IC50: half maximal inhibitory concentration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Soro/imunologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1412-1425, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224653

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a highly heritable and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We report the largest genetic association study of blood pressure traits (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) to date in over 1 million people of European ancestry. We identify 535 novel blood pressure loci that not only offer new biological insights into blood pressure regulation but also highlight shared genetic architecture between blood pressure and lifestyle exposures. Our findings identify new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation with potential for improved cardiovascular disease prevention in the future.

11.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.

13.
Theranostics ; 8(2): 549-562, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290826

RESUMO

Rationale: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) mostly targeting extracellular or cell surface molecules have been widely used in the treatment of various diseases. However, mAbs cannot pass through the cell membrane as efficiently as small compounds, thus limiting their use against intracellular targets. Methods to shuttle antibodies into living cells may largely expand research and application in areas based on mAbs. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is an important intracellular multi-functional viral protein in the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBx plays essential roles in virus infection and replication and is strongly associated with HBV-related carcinogenesis. Methods: In this study, we developed a cell-penetrating whole molecule antibody targeting HBx (9D11-Tat) by the fusion of a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) on the C-terminus of the heavy chain of a potent mAb specific to HBx (9D11). The anti-HBV effect and mechanism of 9D11-Tat were investigated in cell and mouse models mimicking chronic HBV infection. Results: Our results demonstrated that the recombinant 9D11-Tat antibody could efficiently internalize into living cells and significantly suppress viral transcription, replication, and protein production both in vitro and in vivo. Further analyses suggested the internalized 9D11-Tat antibody could greatly reduce intracellular HBx via Fc binding receptor TRIM21-mediated protein degradation. This process simultaneously stimulated the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and IFN-ß, which promoted an antiviral state of the host cell. Conclusion: In summary, our study offers a new approach to target intracellular pathogenesis-related protein by engineered cell-penetrating mAb expanding their potential for therapeutic applications. Moreover, the 9D11-Tat antibody may provide a novel therapeutic agent against human chronic HBV infection.

14.
Hepatol Res ; 48(3): E133-E145, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28707778

RESUMO

AIM: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are not free from significant hepatic lesions. Recently, there has been an improved understanding of the clinical significance of quantitative hepatitis B core antibody levels (qAnti-HBc) during CHB management. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the utility of qAnti-HBc in identifying significant liver inflammation in CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 469 patients (training set, n = 363; validation set, n = 106) who underwent liver biopsy (LB) were included. The qAnti-HBc levels were quantified and the relationship between histology and serum markers was systematically analyzed. RESULTS: In the training set, qAnti-HBc levels were found to have significant diagnostic value for moderate to severe liver inflammation (≥G2) in all patients (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] = 0.768; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.721-0.810; P < 0.001) and in patients with normal or near-normal ALT levels (AUROC = 0.767; 95% CI, 0.697-0.828; P < 0.001). Our novel index (AC index) for the identification of ≥G2 inflammation, which combined the qAnti-HBc and ALT levels, significantly improved diagnostic performance (AUROC = 0.813; 95% CI, 0.768-0.852) compared to the use of ALT alone (AUROC = 0.779; 95% CI, 0.732-0.821) in all patients. In the validation set, the AC index showed an improved AUROC of 0.890 (95% CI, 0.814-0.942) and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.749-0.943) in all patients and patients with normal ALT levels, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The qAnti-HBc level predicts significant liver inflammation well, even in patients with normal or near-normal ALT levels. Compared with the conventional ALT level, the AC index is a more reliable non-invasive biomarker for significant liver inflammation in CHB patients.

15.
Europace ; 20(7): 1093-1098, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637244

RESUMO

Aims: To assess the association and the predictive value of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels with LA/LAA thrombus in non-valvular Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score. Methods and results: Eight hundred and eighty-eight consecutive patients in non-valvular AF with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 and 1 were enrolled. All patients routinely underwent transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography. A total of thirty-two patients had LA/LAA thrombus. Compared with patients without LA/LAA thrombus, plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in patients with LA/LAA thrombus (16.5 ± 4.8 mmol/L vs. 13.4 ± 4.1 mmol/L, P = 0.009). In multivariate analysis, Hcy was independently associated with LA/LAA thrombus (OR 1.048, 95% CI 1.007-1.090, P = 0.022). Hcy demonstrated a significant predictive value with area under the curve of 0.722 (95% CI 0.662-0.781, P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off point for Hcy predicting LA/LAA thrombus was 13.5 mmol/L (sensitivity 67%, specificity 65%). Patients with Hcy ≥13.5 mmol/L had higher prevalence of LA/LAA thrombus compared with those with Hcy <13.5 mmol/L (6.1% vs. 2.1%, P < 0.001). Elevated Hcy significantly increased the risk of LA/LAA thrombus in patients with CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 and 1 (OR 11.789, 95% CI 1.437-96.746, P = 0.022; OR 2.256, 95% CI 1.007-5.155, P = 0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Elevated plasma Hcy increases the risk of LA/LAA thrombus in non-valvular AF patients with low CHA2DS2-VASc score, thus it should be taken into account in prediction of thromboembolism.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(14): 2791-2802, 2017 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472463

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common and debilitating bone disease that is characterised by low bone mineral density, typically assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), commonly utilising the two parameters velocity of sound (VOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), is an alternative technology used to assess bone properties at peripheral skeletal sites. The genetic influence on the bone qualities assessed by QUS remains an under-studied area. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) including low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency ≥0.005) for BUA and VOS using a discovery population of individuals with whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from the UK10K project (n = 1268). These results were then meta-analysed with those from two deeply imputed GWAS replication cohorts (n = 1610 and 13 749). In the gender-combined analysis, we identified eight loci associated with BUA and five with VOS at the genome-wide significance level, including three novel loci for BUA at 8p23.1 (PPP1R3B), 11q23.1 (LOC387810) and 22q11.21 (SEPT5) (P = 2.4 × 10-8 to 1.6 × 10-9). Gene-based association testing in the gender-combined dataset revealed eight loci associated with BUA and seven with VOS after correction for multiple testing, with one novel locus for BUA at FAM167A (8p23.1) (P = 1.4 × 10-6). An additional novel locus for BUA was seen in the male-specific analysis at DEFB103B (8p23.1) (P = 1.8 × 10-6). Fracture analysis revealed significant associations between variation at the WNT16 and RSPO3 loci and fracture risk (P = 0.004 and 4.0 × 10-4, respectively). In conclusion, by performing a large GWAS meta-analysis for QUS parameters of bone using a combination of WGS and deeply imputed genotype data, we have identified five novel genetic loci associated with BUA.


Assuntos
Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS Genet ; 13(4): e1006528, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448500

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Exercício , Obesidade/genética , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epigenômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 416-425, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166213

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10-49), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Rep ; 7: 40199, 2017 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079152

RESUMO

Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its life cycle. The in vitro HDV infection system is widely used as a surrogate model to study cellular infection with both viruses owing to its practical feasibility. However, previous methods for running this system were less efficient for high-throughput screening and large-scale studies. Here, we developed a novel method for the production of infectious HDV by adenoviral vector (AdV)-mediated transduction. We demonstrated that the AdV-based method yields 10-fold higher viral titers than the transient-transfection approach. The HDV-containing supernatant derived from AdV-infected Huh7 cells can be used as the inoculum in infectivity assays without requiring further concentration prior to use. Furthermore, we devloped a chemiluminescent immunoassay (HDV-CLEIA) to quantitatively determine intracellular HDAg with a dynamic range of 5-11,000 pg/mL. HDV-CLEIA can be used as an alternative approach to assess HDV infection. The advantages of our updated methodology were demonstrated through in vitro HDV infection of HepaRG cells and by evaluating the neutralization activity using antibodies that target various regions of the HBV/HDV envelope proteins. Together, the methods presented here comprise a novel toolbox of in vitro assays for studying HDV infection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Hepatite D/patologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Adenoviridae/genética , Linhagem Celular , Vetores Genéticos , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Transdução Genética
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