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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939606

RESUMO

We focus on a fundamental task of detecting meaningful line structures, a.k.a., semantic line, in natural scenes. Many previous methods regard this problem as a special case of object detection and adjust existing object detectors for semantic line detection. However, these methods neglect the inherent characteristics of lines, leading to sub-optimal performance. Lines enjoy much simpler geometric property than complex objects and thus can be compactly parameterized by a few arguments. In this paper, we incorporate the classical Hough transform technique into deeply learned representations and propose a one-shot end-to-end learning framework for line detection. By parameterizing lines with slopes and biases, we perform Hough transform to translate deep representations into the parametric domain, in which we perform line detection. Specifically, we aggregate features along candidate lines on the feature map plane and then assign the aggregated features to corresponding locations in the parametric domain. The problem of detecting semantic lines in the spatial domain is transformed into spotting individual points in the parametric domain, making the post-processing steps, i.e., non-maximal suppression, more efficient. Experimental results on our proposed dataset and another public dataset demonstrate the advantages of our method over previous state-of-the-art alternatives.

2.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4947-4959, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825469

RESUMO

Hapten-specific endogenous antibodies are naturally occurring antibodies present in human blood. Herein, we investigated a new strategy in which small-molecule haptens were utilized as naturally occurring antibody binders for peptide half-life extension. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin 4 was site-specifically functionalized with the dinitrophenyl (DNP) hapten at the C-terminus via sortase A-mediated ligation. The resulting Ex4-DNP conjugates retained GLP-1 receptor activation potency in vitro and had a similar in vivo acute glucose-lowering effect comparable to that of native Ex4. Pharmacokinetic studies and hypoglycemic duration tests demonstrated that the Ex4-DNP conjugates displayed significantly elongated half-lives and improved long-acting antidiabetic activity in the presence of endogenous anti-DNP antibodies. In chronic treatment studies, once-daily administration of optimal conjugate 7 demonstrated more beneficial effects without prominent toxicity compared with Ex4. This strategy provides a new approach and represents an alternative to the well-established peptide-Fc fusion strategy to improve the peptide half-life and the therapeutic efficacy.

3.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130349, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838424

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC), considered an endocrine-disrupting, persistent, and bioaccumulating organic matter, has attracted a great deal of attention for its pollution and health risks. However, studies on its toxicological mechanism, especially for embryo development are limited. This article explores the cardiac developmental toxicity induced in zebrafish embryos after exposure to different TCC concentrations. First, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used in detecting TCC in embryos in vivo after exposure to various TCC. Results showed that embryonic TCC content reached 9.23 ng after exposure to 300 µg/L TCC, the heart rates of the embryos markedly decreased, heart abnormalities significantly increased. In addition, obvious pericardial effusion was observed in the larvae. Through transcriptome sequencing, 200 differential gene expression (DGE) patterns were detected in the TCC (300 µg/L) experimental and control groups. The results of GO function analysis and KEGG pathway of DGE showed that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cyp-related genes (cyp1a, cyp1b1 and cyp1c) were significantly up-regulated. these affected the normal development of zebrafish embryonic heart, tissue edema, and hemorrhage. TCC exhibited strong cardiac teratogenic effects and developmental toxicity, which is partly related to AhR activation. Transcriptome-based results are helpful in precisely determining the risk of TCC exposure. The potential mechanism between TCC and AhR should be further investigated.

4.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839945

RESUMO

COVID-19 has spread globally, causing a pandemic and medical interruptions. As more countries control the epidemic, the resumption of work is imperative. However, asymptomatic carriers become the main source of infection. After several months of recovery, Wuhan had much experience with facing the challenge of work resumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of the resumption strategies, as well as the outcome of the resumption efforts, in the early post-epidemic period. A retrospective study was conducted in patients admitted between April 8 and June 30 to the neurosurgery department of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. The medical information, past medical history, COVID-19 tests, laboratory parameters, CT results, and management were reviewed and recorded. 768 patients were admitted to the neurosurgery department at Tongji Hospital, and none of them became new infections. Our department recovered to 70% efficiency one month after the resumption of work. Two patients were found to have asymptomatic infections in the outpatient department. Two patients who recovered from COVID-19 underwent the surgery without recurrence of COVID-19. Tumor patients accounted for more than 50% of the surgery patients in the early period. It is feasible and helpful to follow our strict admission algorithm in the early post-epidemic period, even though the challenges of asymptomatic infectors exist. Two COVID-19 tests in 3 days are suggested within the early period. Protective downgrades should be based on the testing of asymptomatic patients in the area. Recovered COVID-19 patients can undergo surgery without recurrence.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801491

RESUMO

This paper has an opportunity to collect questionnaire-based data regarding respondents' life choices in China at the peak of COVID-19 outbreak (i.e., around 9-11 March 2020) and in a relatively stable period where the national pandemic was over and the lockdown policy was halted (i.e., around 25-30 March 2020). Comparing respondents' answers about their most fundamental aspects of life during and after the pandemic, including income level, expenditure structure and level, purchase method, study method, food price and quality, and dining habit, both the descriptive and econometric models reveal that Chinese consumers' life patterns were not significantly changed. These findings may imply a "new normal" where consumers stick to their new living habits that were forged during the pandemic. Therefore, policy makers have to envisage such an implicative socio-economic change (cost) brought by the implementation of a lock down policy in a long run, in addition to direct and explicit economic losses. However, improving food quality and controlling food price appear to be the strong and stable safety signals to reassure consumers in this complicated environment.


Assuntos
Pandemias , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos
6.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831521

RESUMO

Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are rare and challenging to repair. We present a case of a 48-year-old female with solitary right kidney who had complex aneurysms near the renal hilum. CT angiogram showed fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) features of the renal artery and 2 saccular aneurysms measuring 2.3 cm and 1 cm. An additional small lower pole renal artery added to the complexity of the case. Ex-vivo aneurysm repair was performed after the kidney was removed and flushed with preservation solution. This was followed by auto-transplantation to the right external iliac vessels. The patient did well postoperatively without need for dialysis with serum creatinine returning to normal 5 weeks after.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective family planning services (FPs) use significantly improves both women and men sexual and reproductive health. Recently, the Chinese government has launched the two-child policy allowing families to have additional child. This study aimed to explore the population interest for FPs, unmet needs and the populations' expectations. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using stratified random sampling was conducted in 102 counties of Hubei province and 17,555 randomized subjects from rural, transitional, and urban areas were interviewed through a guided semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The Han ethnicity dominated our population and the living children per family ranged 0-6. Although 81% reported family planning services and sexual and reproductive health (FPs/SRH) as a shared responsibility, contraceptives use excluding condoms were mainly intrauterine devices (IUD) 76%, tubal ligation 16% and vasectomy 8%. Although 24% of subjects had a history of contraceptive failure, effective contraceptive usage after failure among men remained lower 6% (TL and vasectomy) and moreover, 74% of naïve contraceptive users strongly rejected vasectomy. Demographic factors, awareness on FPs/SRH, discussing and making joint decision, and gender discrepancies were strongly associated with FPs/SRH unmet needs (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: FPs use roughly varied with the population's unmet needs and expectations that should be considered to sustain the strategies.

8.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835391

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.

9.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923304

RESUMO

Chitosan is a non-toxic biological material, but chitosan is insoluble in water, which hinders the development and utilization of chitosan. Chitosan derivatives N-2-Hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (N-2-HACC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with good water solubility were synthesized by our laboratory. In this study, we synthesized mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles by the emulsion, and then the mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles were modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to synthesize aminated mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles; CMCS and N-2-HACC was used to cross-link the aminated mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles to construct SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles. Because the aminated mesoporous SiO2 nanoparticles with positively charged can react with the mucous membranes, the virus enters the body mainly through mucous membranes, so Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was selected as the model drug to evaluate the performance of the SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles. We prepared the SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles loaded with inactivated NDV (NDV/SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC). The SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles as delivery carrier had high loading capacity, low cytotoxicity, good acid resistance and bile resistance and enteric solubility, and the structure of NDV protein encapsulated in the nano vaccine was not destroyed. In addition, the SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles could sustain slowly released NDV. Therefore, the SiO2@CMCS-N-2-HACC nanoparticles have the potential to be served as delivery vehicle for vaccine and/or drug.

10.
Genome Biol Evol ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892511

RESUMO

Understanding how organisms adapt to aquatic life at high altitude is fundamental in evolutionary biology. This objective has been addressed primarily related to hypoxia adaptation by recent comparative studies, whereas highland fish has also long suffered extreme alkaline environment, insight into the genomic basis of alkaline adaptation has rarely been provided. Here, we compared the genomes or transcriptomes of 15 fish species, including two alkaline tolerant highland fish species and their six alkaline intolerant relatives, three alkaline tolerant lowland fish species and four alkaline intolerant species. We found putatively consistent patterns of molecular evolution in alkaline tolerant species in a large number of shared orthologs within highland and lowland fish taxa. Remarkably, we identified consistent signatures of accelerated evolution and positive selection in a set of shared genes associated with ion transport, apoptosis, immune response and energy metabolisms in alkaline tolerant species within both highland and lowland fish taxa. This is one of the first comparative studies that began to elucidate the consistent genomic signature of alkaline adaptation shared by highland and lowland fish. This finding also highlights the adaptive molecular evolution changes that support fish adapting to extreme environments at high altitude.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909406

RESUMO

Electrocatalysis is indispensable to various emerging energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and water electrolyzers. Owing to their unique physicochemical properties, perovskite oxide materials are one of the most promising water oxidation (OER) catalysts solely comprising earth-abundant elements. Nonetheless, many perovskite oxide catalysts suffer from a number of inherent problems such as the A-site cation segregation on the surface, coarse particles due to agglomeration/sintering, and surface decomposition during catalytic reactions. Besides, the catalytic activity is often incomparable with those of the state-of-the-art catalysts. In this work, we developed a proton-assisted approach to mitigate these common challenges. The protonation via the interaction of oxygen vacancies and water molecules induced the formation of protonic defects and the lattice expansion of the perovskite, leading to the fracture of big particles to yield small nanoparticles. This hydration in an acidic solution also selectively removed the A-site cation segregates and generated a spinel/perovskite heterostructure on the surface. We verified this approach using three typical perovskite OER catalysts including Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF), La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF), and La0.75Sr0.25MnO3 (LSM). The processed catalysts showed much improved activity while maintaining their excellent stability, surpassing most of today's OER catalysts based on complex oxides.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800795

RESUMO

Plant growth and development are challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses including salinity and heat stresses. For Populus simonii × P. nigra as an important greening and economic tree species in China, increasing soil salinization and global warming have become major environmental challenges. We aim to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying tree tolerance to salt stress and high temprerature (HT) stress conditions. Transcriptomics revealed that a PsnNAC036 transcription factor (TF) was significantly induced by salt stress in P. simonii × P. nigra. This study focuses on addressing the biological functions of PsnNAC036. The gene was cloned, and its temporal and spatial expression was analyzed under different stresses. PsnNAC036 was significantly upregulated under 150 mM NaCl and 37 °C for 12 h. The result is consistent with the presence of stress responsive cis-elements in the PsnNAC036 promoter. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PsnNAC036 was targeted to the nucleus. Additionally, PsnNAC036 was highly expressed in the leaves and roots. To investigate the core activation region of PsnNAC036 protein and its potential regulatory factors and targets, we conducted trans-activation analysis and the result indicates that the C-terminal region of 191-343 amino acids of the PsnNAC036 was a potent activation domain. Furthermore, overexpression of PsnNAC036 stimulated plant growth and enhanced salinity and HT tolerance. Moreover, 14 stress-related genes upregulated in the transgenic plants under high salt and HT conditions may be potential targets of the PsnNAC036. All the results demonstrate that PsnNAC036 plays an important role in salt and HT stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Populus/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Alta , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional
14.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(1): 64-73, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of silencing isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransfe-rase (Icmt) through small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). METHODS: Three siRNA were designed and constructed for the Icmt gene sequence and were then transfected into TSCC cells CAL-27 and SCC-4 to silence Icmt expression. The tested cells were divided as follows: RNA interference groups Icmt-siRNA-1, Icmt-siRNA-2, and Icmt-siRNA-3, negative control group, and blank control group. The transfection efficiency of siRNA was detected by the fluorescent group Cy3-labeled siRNA, and the expression of Icmt mRNA was screened by quantitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) selected the experimental group for subsequent experiments. The expression of Icmt, RhoA, Cyclin D1, p21, extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), and phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (p-ERK) were analyzed by Western blot. The proliferation abilities of TSCC cells were determined by cell counting kit-8 assay. The change in apoptosis was detected by AnnexinV-APC/propidium staining (PI) assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The expression of Icmt mRNA and protein in TSCC cells significantly decreased after Icmt-siRNA transfection (P<0.05). No significant difference in RhoA mRNA and protein expression was detected (P>0.05), but the expression of RhoA membrane protein decreased compared with the negative control group and blank control groups (P<0.05). Cyclin D1 expression decreased, whereas p21 expression significantly increased and the relative expression of ERK protein in the experimental group did not significantly different that in the control group (P>0.05). However, the phosphorylation level of ERK was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The cell cycles of TSCC CAL-27 and SCC-4 were altered in G1/S, cell proliferation activity was inhibited, and apoptosis was induced (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Silencing Icmt can effectively downregulate its expression in TSCC cells, reduce the RhoA membrane targeting localization and cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis. Thus, Icmt may be a potential gene therapy target for TSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias da Língua , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Metiltransferases de Proteína , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Língua
16.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116873, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714789

RESUMO

Triclocarban (TCC), an antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products, can affect embryonic development. However, the specific molecular mechanism of TCC-induced embryonic developmental damage remains unclear. In this study, TCC exposure was found to increase the expression of tmbim4 gene in zebrafish embryos. The tmbim4 mutant embryos are more susceptible to TCC exposure than wild-type (WT) embryos, with tmbim4 overexpression reducing TCC-induced embryonic death in the former. Exposure of tmbim4 mutant larvae to 400 µg/L TCC substantially increased apoptosis in the hindbrain and eyes. RNA-sequencing of WT and tmbim4 mutant larvae indicated that knockout of the tmbim4 gene in zebrafish affects the autophagy pathway. Abnormalities in autophagy can increase apoptosis and TCC exposure caused abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes in the hindbrain of tmbim4 mutant zebrafish embryos. Pretreatment of TCC-exposed tmbim4 mutant zebrafish embryos with autophagosome formation inhibitors, substantially reduced the mortality of embryos and apoptosis levels. These results indicate that defects in the tmbim4 gene can reduce zebrafish embryo resistance to TCC. Additionally, apoptosis induced by abnormal accumulation of autophagosomes is involved in this process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Carbanilidas , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Larva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of severe infection and infection-related mortality among patients with newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We conducted an age- and gender- matched cohort study of all patients with incident SLE between January 1, 1997 and March 31, 2015 using administrative health data from British Columbia, Canada. Primary outcome was the first severe infection after SLE onset necessitating hospitalization or occurring during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were total number of severe infections and infection-related mortality. RESULTS: We identified 5,169 SLE patients and matched them with 25,845 non-SLE individuals from the general population, yielding 955 and 1,986 first severe infections during 48,367 and 260,712 person-years follow-up, respectively. The crude incidence rate ratios for first severe infection and infection-related mortality were 2.59 (95% CI, 2.39-2.80) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.76-2.73), respectively. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.82 (95% CI 1.66-1.99) and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.24-2.08). SLE patients had an increased risk of a greater total number of severe infections with crude rate ratio of 3.24 (95% CI, 3.06-3.43) and adjusted rate ratio of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.82-2.36). CONCLUSION: SLE is associated with increased risks of first severe infection (1.8-fold), a greater total number of severe infections (2.1-fold) and infection-related mortality (1.6-fold).

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694113

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter of 2.5 µm or less in diameter (PM2.5) of environment contamination is deemed as a risk factor of cerebrovascular diseases. Yet there is still no explicit evidence strongly supporting that PM2.5 with per unit increment can increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS). Literatures were searched from PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase. After the systemic review of relevant studies, random effects model was used to perform meta-analysis and to evaluate the association between PM2.5 and risk of HS. Seven cohort studies were finally included, involving more than 6 million people and 37,667 endpoint events (incidence or mortality of HS). Total scores of quality assessment were 50. Pooled hazard ratio (HR) for crude HRs was 1.13 (95%CI: 1.09-1.17) (CI for confidence interval). Pooled HR of subgroup analysis for current smoking with exposure to growing PM2.5 was 1.14 (95%CI: 0.92-2.15) and for never and former smoking was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.74-1.46). Ambient PM2.5 level is significantly associated with the risk of HS, which might be a potential risk factor of HS. Smoking does not further increase the risk of HS under exposure of PM2.5.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111466, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740525

RESUMO

Rhizoma drynariae total flavonoids (RDTF) are extracted from Drynaria fortunei J. Sm (D. fortunei), which was a Chinese herb commonly used to treat fractures and bruises. Modern pharmacological studies indicate flavonoids have anti-inflammatory effect in clinical practice. However, its active ingredients and the mechanisms of action are far from clear. The present study aims to determine whether RDTF can protect against intervertebral disc degeneration in a rat cervical intervertebral disc model and investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into five groups: control group (CG, n = 8), intervertebral disc degeneration group (NG, n = 8), low-dose RDTF-treated group (LG, n = 8), medium-dose RDTF-treated group (MG, n = 8), and high-dose RDTF-treated group (HG, n = 8). Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, ELISA, Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays were used to investigate inflammatory, catabolic factors and the latent regulatory mechanism of the effects of RDTF on intervertebral disc cells. HE staining showed disc degeneration in all groups except CG, and the function was restored after RDTF treatment. IHC, Western blot, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA results showed that RDTF prevented intervertebral disc degeneration by suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which reduced expression of intracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such MMP3, MMP13, and inflammatory factors including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Notably RDTF inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration by increasing expression of aggrecan and collagen type II and preventing the upregulation of collagen type I and III. It suggests that RDTF has a potential therapeutic effect on cervical spondylosis.

20.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 119, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Sumatran rhinoceros is critically endangered, with fewer than 100 individuals surviving across its current range. Accurate census estimates of the remaining populations are essential for development and implementation of conservation plans. In order to enable molecular censusing, we here develop microsatellite markers with amplicon sizes of short length, appropriate for non-invasive fecal sampling. RESULTS: Due to limited sample quantity and potential lack of genome-wide diversity, Illumina sequence reads were generated from two Sumatran rhinoceros samples. Genomic screening identified reads with short tandem repeats and loci that were polymorphic within the dataset. Twenty-nine novel polymorphic microsatellite markers were characterized (A = 2.4; HO = 0.30). These were sufficient to distinguish among individuals (PID < 0.0001), and to distinguish among siblings (PID(sib) < 0.0001). Among rhinos in Indonesia, almost all markers were established as polymorphic and effective for genotyping DNA from fecal samples. Notably, the markers amplified and displayed microsatellite polymorphisms using DNA extracted from 11 fecal samples collected non-invasively from wild Sumatran rhinoceros. These microsatellite markers provide an important resource for a census and genetic studies of wild Sumatran rhinos.

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