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1.
Chemphyschem ; 19(24): 3401-3409, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294973

RESUMO

The chemical enhancement due to ground-state charge transfer (GSCT) and photon-driven charge transfer (PDCT) in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated by density functional theory. Para-substituted thiophenol derivatives adsorbed on silver and gold surfaces are selected as model systems to evaluate the chemical enhancement factor. By changing the functional groups on thiophenol, we are allowed to modulate the chemical interactions between the thiophenol and the metal cluster in both ground state and charge transfer excited state. Both off-resonance and pre-resonance SERS spectra are simulated to calculate the chemical enhancement factors. The GSCT enhancement factor, EFGSCT , shows a roughly linear relationship to (ωTP /ωM-TP )4 , where ωTP denotes the HOMO-LUMO gap of free molecule, and ωM-TP denotes the energy difference between the HOMO of the molecule and the LUMO of the metal. The PDCT enhancement factor, EFPDCT , is governed by the energy difference between the incident light energy and the excitation energy to the CT excited state. EFPDCT first increases and then decreases with the increase of incident light energy.

2.
J Org Chem ; 83(15): 7648-7658, 2018 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799747

RESUMO

A Brønsted acid-promoted, unprecedented formal (3 + 2) annulation strategy for the synthesis of multisubstituted furan-3-carbothioates is reported. This transformation represents the first regioselective annulation of α-oxo ketene dithio-acetals as 1,3-bis-nucleophiles in a cascade manner. The choice of isoindoline-1,3-dione-derived propargyl alcohols is crucial to the uncommon annulation mode between an alkyne-type bis-electrophile and a 1,3-bis-nucleophile under metal-free conditions. The scale-up of the synthesis and several interesting transformations of an as-synthesized product were further investigated. A Nazarov-like cyclization is proposed for the ring-closure process according to the experimental observations.

3.
ChemSusChem ; 11(7): 1215-1222, 2018 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380541

RESUMO

Conjugated carbonyl compounds have become the most promising type of organic electrode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries because only they can achieve simultaneously high energy density, high cycling stability, and high power density. In this work, we have performed first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to explore the fundamental rules of how the electronic structure and redox properties of a typical conjugated carbonyl compound, phenanthrenequinone (PQ), are modified by adjusting the heteroaromatic building blocks. Such a molecular design strategy allows for the improvement in discharge potential while the specific capacity remains nearly unchanged. The correlation between the electronic structures and redox properties for the designed PQ derivatives is systematically discussed. It is demonstrated that the discharge potential of the PQ derivatives depends strongly on the frontier orbital levels, the electric potential, and the Li-bonding configurations. The electrostatic potential (ESP) maps show visible displays of molecular electric structures and can be applied to understand how the redox properties of the PQ derivatives are modified by the heteroaromatic building blocks.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(19): 12480-12489, 2017 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28470283

RESUMO

Organic redox compounds have become the emerging electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The high electrochemical performance provides organic electrode materials with great opportunities to be applied in electric energy storage devices. Among the different types of organic materials, conjugated carbonyl compounds are the most promising type at present, because only they can simultaneously achieve, high energy density, high cycling stability, and high power density. In this research, a series of heteroatom substituted anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives were designed theoretically so that the high theoretical capacity of AQ remained. The discharge and charge mechanism as well as the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ and its derivatives were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. Using heteroatom substitution, both the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ as cathode materials could be largely improved. Among these conjugated carboxyl compounds, BDOZD and BDIOZD with a simultaneously high theoretical capacity and high working potential exhibit the largest energy density of about 780 W h kg-1, which is 41% larger than that of AQ. The PQD with the smallest value of λ gives the largest charge transfer rate constant, which is about four times as large as the prototype molecule, AQ. The most interesting finding is that the lithium ion transfer plays a very important role in influencing both the discharge potential and electrochemical charge transfer rate. The present study illustrates that theoretical calculations provide a highly effective way to discover potential materials for use with rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(9): 2353-7, 2014 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24481674

RESUMO

Surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) have been found to promote chemical reactions. In most oxidative chemical reactions oxygen molecules participate and understanding of the activation mechanism of oxygen molecules is highly important. For this purpose, we applied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to find out the mechanism of SPR-assisted activation of oxygen, by using p-aminothiophenol (PATP), which undergoes a SPR-assisted selective oxidation, as a probe molecule. In this way, SPR has the dual function of activating the chemical reaction and enhancing the Raman signal of surface species. Both experiments and DFT calculations reveal that oxygen molecules were activated by accepting an electron from a metal nanoparticle under the excitation of SPR to form a strongly adsorbed oxygen molecule anion. The anion was then transformed to Au or Ag oxides or hydroxides on the surface to oxidize the surface species, which was also supported by the heating effect of the SPR. This work points to a promising new era of SPR-assisted catalytic reactions.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(7): 1259-66, 2014 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274481

RESUMO

Taking advantage of the unique capacity of surface plasmon resonance, plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis has recently come into focus as a promising technique for high performance light-energy conversion. This work performs a theoretical study on the reaction mechanism for conversions of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) and p-nitrothiophenol (PNTP) to aromatic azo species, p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). In the absence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-driven photocatalysis mechanism (hot electron-hole reactions) is the major reaction channel. In the presence of O2 or H2, the plasmon-assisted surface catalysis mechanism (activated oxygen/hydrogen reactions) is the major reaction channel. The present results show that the coupling reactions of PATP and PNTP strongly depend on the solution pH, the irradiation wavelength, the irradiation power, and the nature of metal substrates as well as the surrounding atmosphere. The present study has drawn a fundamental physical picture for understanding plasmon-enhanced heterogeneous catalysis.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(37): 12919-29, 2012 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22899166

RESUMO

We propose that aromatic nitro and amine compounds undergo photochemical reductive and oxidative coupling, respectively, to specifically produce azobenzene derivatives which exhibit characteristic Raman signals related to the azo group. A photoinduced charge transfer model is presented to explain the transformations observed in para-substituted ArNO(2) and ArNH(2) on nanostructured silver due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. Theoretical calculations show that the initial reaction takes place through excitation of an electron from the filled level of silver to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of an adsorbed ArNO(2) molecule, and from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of an adsorbed ArNH(2) molecule to the unoccupied level of silver, during irradiation with visible light. The para-substituted ArNO(2)(-)˙ and ArNH(2)(+)˙ surface species react further to produce the azobenzene derivatives. Our results may provide a new strategy for the syntheses of aromatic azo dyes from aromatic nitro and amine compounds based on the use of nanostructured silver as a catalyst.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(24): 8485-97, 2012 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22614115

RESUMO

p-aminothiophenol (PATP) is an important molecule for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). It can strongly interact with metallic SERS substrates and produce very strong SERS signals. It is a molecule that has often been used for mechanistic studies of the SERS mechanism as the photon-driven charge transfer (CT) mechanism is believed to be present for this molecule. Recently, a hot debate over the SERS behavior of PATP was triggered by our finding that PATP can be oxidatively transformed into 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB), which gives a SERS spectra of so-called "b2 modes". In this perspective, we will give a general overview of the SERS mechanism and the current status of SERS studies on PATP. We will then demonstrate with our experimental and theoretical evidence that it is DMAB which contributes to the characteristic SERS behavior in the SERS spectra of PATP and analyze some important experimental phenomena in the framework of the surface reaction instead of the contribution "b2 modes". We will then point out the existing challenges of the present system. A clear understanding of the reaction mechanism for nitrobenzene or aromatic benzene will be important to not only understand the SERS mechanism but to also provide an economic way of producing azo dyes with a very high selectivity and conversion rate.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Vibração
9.
J Chem Phys ; 135(13): 134707, 2011 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21992335

RESUMO

The chemical enhancement effects in surface-enhanced Raman scattering of p-aminothiophenol (PATP, it is also called p-mercaptoaniline or p-aminobenzenthiol) adsorbed on coinage metal surfaces with single thiol end or trapped into metal-molecule-metal junctions with both thiol and amino groups have been studied by density functional theory (DFT). We focus on the influence of photon-driven charge transfer (PDCT) and chemical bonding interaction (ground-state charge transfer) on the intensity enhancement and frequency shift in the surface Raman spectra of PATP. For comparison, the electronic structures and transitions of free PATP are studied first. The simulated pre-resonance UV Raman spectra illustrate that b(2) modes can be selectively enhanced via vibronic coupling. The fundamentals of all the b(2) modes in the frequency range of 1000 to 1650 cm(-1) are assigned in detail. For PATP adsorbed on coinage metals, the time-dependent-DFT calculations indicate that the low-lying CT excited state arises from the π bonding orbital of molecule to the antibonding s orbital of metallic clusters. Our results further show that the PDCT resonance-like Raman scattering mechanism enhances the totally symmetric vibrational modes and the NH(2) wagging vibration. Finally, the effect of chemical bonding interaction is also investigated. The amino group binding to metals gives a characteristic band of the NH(2) wagging mode with the large blueshift frequency and an intense Raman signal.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 47(9): 2520-2, 2011 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21267488

RESUMO

When p-aminothiophenol (PATP) is used as a probe molecule and adsorbs on silver and gold nanogaps, a significant change of relative SERS intensities can be observed. Our DFT calculations show that surface photocatalytic coupling reactions yield a new surface species of p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) causing the significant change in the SERS spectra.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fótons , Adsorção , Compostos Azo/química , Catálise , Ouro/química , Nanotecnologia , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Propriedades de Superfície
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