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1.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755597

RESUMO

Stunting adversely affects physical and mental outcomes of children. It has not been examined whether household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is a risk factor for stunting in children. In a total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 across China, height was measured using a unified protocol. Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking/heating with stunting in children. Adjusted for covariates, cooking/heating with solid fuel was significantly associated with a lower z-score for height-for-age and sex (ß=-0.21 [-0.32~-0.09] and -0.17 [-0.31~-0.03], respectively) and an increased risk of stunting with an estimated ORs of 1.34 [1.07~1.68] and 1.37 [1.02~1.83], respectively. The risk of stunting associated with solid fuel use was statistically significant in high-age children. And the effect was greater on girls than on boys, though the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggested that Chinese children living in households using solid fuel had a significantly higher risk of stunting than those living in households using cleaner fuel.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1607-1612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy carries high mortality rate. The relatively long-acting, specific pulmonary vasodilator treprostinil has been used to improve survival in these parturients. Slow uptitration is performed in most cases, and rapid titration has not been reported in the postpartum period. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 17 pregnant patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension who were treated with intravenous treprostinil in our institution between 2014 and 2016. Patients' demographic characteristics, etiology, functional status, mode of delivery, anesthetic administration, medical therapy, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements, subsequent clinical course, and maternal-fetal outcomes were assessed. The a priori primary outcome is maternal mortality in this study. RESULTS: Rapid titration of intravenous treprostinil was initiated at 1.25 ng/kg/min and increased to effective dose of 10 ng/kg/min by 1.25-2.5 ng/kg/min every 3 hours. In the next 24 hours, we adjusted the dosage to a median maximum dose of 15 ng/kg/min (interquartile range, 15-20 ng/kg/min) over a median uptitration period of 34 hours (interquartile range, 24-41 hours) for 17 parturients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Treprostinil was weaned off by 0.50-1.25 ng/kg/min every 3 hours in 94.3 ± 42.4 hours. Fifteen patients survived to discharge, and only 2 patients died of pulmonary hypertensive crisis (maternal mortality rate, 11.7%). No treprostinil infusion-related postpartum complication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggested that rapid uptitration of intravenous treprostinil combined with oral sildenafil in the postpartum period may be a safe and effective approach for these very sick parturients with severe pulmonary hypertension.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine nutrient intakes of tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify their associated factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 adult TB patients were surveyed in two impoverished counties in China. Nutrient intakes were evaluated through two consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013. The potential socio-demographic and behavioral factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic model to identify strong influential factors. RESULTS: We found that mean daily energy intake was 1655.0 kcal (SD: 619.3 kcal) and 1360.3 kcal (SD: 552.1 kcal) for male and female patients, respectively. The mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than that has been recommended by DRI (i.e., 2250 and 1800 kcal for males and females, respectively), with 87.4% of the male patients and 59.9% of female patients failed to consume adequate energy. The protein intakes were 44.6 g (SD: 18.2 g) and 35.9 g (SD: 12.3 g) for male and female patients, respectively, which were lower than the recommended values by DRI (i.e., 65 and 55 g for males and females, respectively). Most male (90.8%) and female (58.4%) TB patients had insufficient daily protein intake. Further analyses suggested that mean daily intakes of many micronutrients, were insufficient, while for most of patients, intakes of vitamin E and sodium were sufficient. We identified that unemployment was a risk factor for low energy intake (p < 0.05) and out-home-eating was a protective factor for low protein intake (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In impoverished areas in China, intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients in TB patients were inadequate compared with DRIs, especially for unemployed patients and patients eating at home. These findings suggested that public health actions are needed to promote education on TB patients about significance of nutritional support, and, further interventions in TB patients' nutritional intakes are also required.

4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 531-536, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome(MS) among Chinese men and women aged 18 years and older. METHODS: The 2010᾿012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS) used multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method to select study participants. Basic information, health-related behaviors and diseases history were collected by questionnaire. Drink information was collected by food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated NCEP ATP III criteria. A total of 102 591 participants aged 18 years and older were included in the analysis. Logistic regression model was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and MS. Restricted cubic spline(RCS) was performed to explore the dose response relation of alcohol intake and MS. RESULTS: The drink rate was 33. 66% in Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Compared with non-drinkers, men who consumed⇿0 g/time had a lower MS prevalence(OR=0. 77, 95%CI 0. 66-0. 90). There was a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not among women. In men, there was no association between drinking type and MS. The OR of MS were 0. 91(95%CI 0. 81-1. 03), 0. 90(95%CI 0. 75-1. 08), 0. 85(95%CI 0. 54-1. 36), and 0. 96(95%CI 0. 84-1. 10) among men who consumed liquor, beer, wine, and mixed liquor. Compared with non-drinkers, women who drink liquor or mixed liquor had a decrease MS prevalence. The OR were 0. 74(95%CI 0. 56-0. 98) and 0. 78(95%CI 0. 66-0. 91). The association between drinking frequency and MS had no statistical significance and the P-trend was 0. 11 in men and 0. 31 in women. CONCLUSION: There is a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not in women. Men consumed >20 g/time have an increased MS prevalence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vinho
5.
Small ; 15(45): e1902789, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544354

RESUMO

Palladium diselenide (PdSe2 ) is an emerging 2D layered material with anisotropic optical/electrical properties, extra-high carrier mobility, excellent air stability, etc. So far, ultrathin PdSe2 is mainly achieved via mechanical exfoliation from its bulk counterpart, and the direct synthesis is still challenging. Herein, the synthesis of ultrathin 2D PdSe2 on conductive Au foil substrates via a facile chemical vapor deposition route is reported. Intriguingly, an anisotropic growth behavior is detected from the evolution of ribboned flakes with large length/width ratios, which is well explained from the orthorhombic symmetry of PdSe2 . A unique even-layered growth mode from 2 to 20 layers is also confirmed by the perfect combination of onsite scanning tunneling microscopy characterizations, through deliberately scratching the flake edge to expose both even and odd layers. This even-layered, ribboned 2D material is expected to serve as a perfect platform for exploring unique physical properties, and for developing high-performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109375, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548175

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main cause of ischemic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular diseases. Macrophage activity has been proven to play a critical role during the AS pathological process, which involves the adhesion, aggregation of mononuclear-macrophages, cell differentiation of M1/M2 macrophages as part of complex mechanisms occurring during lipid metabolism, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and immune reaction. Therefore, the development of effective AS treatments is likely to target macrophage activity. Certain herbal extracts (such as Salvia miltiorrhiza) have exhibited enormous potential for AS treatment in the past. Here, we aim to provide a summary on the current understanding of the type of action and the underlying target/pathway in macrophage regulation of certain herbal extracts used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of AS.

7.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1903030, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408551

RESUMO

2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) have aroused growing attention in light harvesting and emission applications owing to their high environmental stability. Recently, coherent light emission of RPPs was reported, however mostly from inhomologous thin films that involve cascade intercompositional energy transfer. Lasing and fundamental understanding of intrinsic laser dynamics in homologous RPPs free from intercompositional energy transfer is still inadequate. Herein, the lasing and loss mechanisms of homologous 2D (BA)2 (MA)n -1 Pbn I3 n +1 RPP thin flakes mechanically exfoliated from the bulk crystal are reported. Multicolor lasing is achieved from the large-n RPPs (n ≥ 3) in the spectral range of 620-680 nm but not from small-n RPPs (n ≤ 2) even down to 78 K. With decreasing n, the lasing threshold increases significantly and the characteristic temperature decreases as 49, 25, and 20 K for n = 5, 4, and 3, respectively. The n-engineered lasing behaviors are attributed to the stronger Auger recombination and exciton-phonon interaction as a result of the enhanced quantum confinement in the smaller-n perovskites. These results not only advance the fundamental understanding of loss mechanisms in both inhomologous and homologous RPP lasers but also provide insights into developing low-threshold, substrate-free, and multicolor 2D semiconductor microlasers.

8.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(3): 621-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to estimate the national prevalence of metabolic syndrome, its individual components and its changes in the past decade. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Two national-representative cross-sectional surveys: the China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 (CNNHS 2002) and the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012 (CNNHS 2010-2012). A total of 48,235 and 104,098 participants aged 18 years or older who had completed data on physical examination, blood lipids, and fasting glucose tests from CNNHS 2002 and CNNHS 2010-2012, respectively, were included in current study. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults increased from 9.5% (95% confident interval [CI]: 9.2%-9.7%) in 2002 to 18.7% (18.3%-19.1%) in 2010-2012, corresponding to an estimated 83.6 million adults in 2002 and 189 million adults in 2010-2012 living with metabolic syndrome in China. The increment was more than doubled among young, rural residents and those from poor households. Abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and elevated blood pressure were found in 18.9% (18.5%-19.3%), 6.4% (6.2%-6.7%), 13.8% (13.5%-14.2%), 19.3% (18.9%-19.7%), and 34.0% (33.5%-34.5%) of adults in 2002, respectively, which was 25.8% (25.3%-26.2%), 16.2% (15.8%-16.5%), 23.7% (23.3%-24.2%), 32.6% (32.0%-33.1%), and 34.4% (33.9%-34.9%), respectively, in 2010-2012. CONCLUSIONS: Based on two nationally representative surveys, our results indicated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is widespread and increasing in China.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382399

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the status of usual dietary micronutrient intakes among Chinese elderly living at home. The data was based on China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) 2010-2012. We analyzed data from the participants aged 60-year-old and more (n = 16,612) living at home, who provided dietary data on three days 24 h dietary survey combining with the household weighing method. The means and distribution percentiles for usual intakes of dietary micronutrients were estimated using the Multiple Source Method (MSM). The prevalence of inadequacy for the selected micronutrients was expressed using the proportion of individuals with usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). For vitamin E, sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. Usual dietary intakes of most micronutrients were inadequate in the participants, especially folate, calcium, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2, with the prevalence of inadequacy more than 90%. However, dietary sodium intake was extremely high with an average usual intake of 4702 mg/day. The usual dietary intakes of all selected micronutrients in old males were higher than females, and the prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients was higher in old women (p < 0.01). The subjects aged 60-74 years tended to have higher usual dietary micronutrient intakes and lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrients than those aged 75 years and over (p < 0.01). Higher usual dietary intakes and lower prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients were found in the elderly living in the southern region (p < 0.01). The average usual intakes of most micronutrients declined with socioeconomic status. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A, B2, C, calcium and selenium below EAR increased with socioeconomic status (p < 0.01, p for trend < 0.01). Thus, essential micronutrients insufficient intake is a public health concern among Chinese community-dwelling old population, especially the females, older people, the elderly in undeveloped areas or living in northern regions. Nutrition education and appropriate approach should be undertaken to address these problems.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10085-10094, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436948

RESUMO

Integrating metallic halide perovskites with established modern semiconductor technology is significant for promoting the development of application-level optoelectronic devices. To realize such devices, exploring the growth dynamics and interfacial carrier dynamics of perovskites deposited on the core materials of semiconductor technology is essential. Herein, we report the incommensurate heteroepitaxy of highly oriented single-crystal cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) on c-wurtzite GaN/sapphire substrates with atomically smooth surface and uniform rectangular shape by chemical vapor deposition. The CsPbBr3 microplatelet crystal exhibits green-colored lasing under room temperature and has a structural stability comparable with that grown on van der Waals mica substrates. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy studies show that the type-II CsPbBr3-GaN heterojunction effectively enhances the separation and extraction of free carriers inside CsPbBr3. These findings provide insights into the fabrication and application-level integrated optoelectronic devices of CsPbBr3 perovskites.

11.
Small ; 15(35): e1901364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282127

RESUMO

Low threshold micro/nanolasers have attracted extensive attention for wide applications in high-density storage and optical communication. However, constrained by quantum efficiency and crystalline quality, conventional semiconductor small-sized lasers are still subjected to a high lasing threshold. In this work, a low-threshold planar laser based on high-quality single-crystalline hexagonal CdS nanoplatelets (NPLs) using a self-limited epitaxial growth method is demonstrated. The as-grown CdS NPLs show multiple whispering-gallery-mode lasing at room temperature with a threshold of ≈0.6 µJ cm-2 , which is the lowest value among reported CdS-based lasers. Through power-dependent lasing studies at 77 K, the lasing action is demonstrated to originate from a exciton-exciton scattering process. Furthermore, the edge length- and thickness-dependent lasing threshold studies reveal that the threshold is inversely proportional to the second power of lateral edge length while partially affected by vertical thickness, and the lasing modes can be sustained in NPLs as thin as 60 nm. The lowest threshold emerges with the thickness of ≈110 nm due to stronger energy confinement in the vertical Fabry-Pérot cavity. The results not only open up a new avenue to fabricate nonlayered material-based coherent light sources, but also advocate the promise of nonlayered semiconductor materials for the development of novel optoelectronic devices.

12.
J Control Release ; 307: 139-149, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233775

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the early stage of many metabolic syndromes. The intervention of NAFLD can prevent its further development into severe metabolic syndromes. Given the inefficiency and side effects of chemical drugs for treating NAFLD, the hepatic-targeted nanocarriers loaded with bioactive compounds may offer a more effective and acceptable strategy for eliminating NAFLD. Here we developed hepatic-targeted oxidized starch-lysozyme (OSL) nanocarriers to specifically deliver resveratrol (Res) to liver tissue in order to maximize its therapeutic efficiency. The hepatic targeting was achieved using covalently conjugated galactose (Gal), which is recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptors specifically expressed in hepatocytes. In steatotic HepG2 cell model, treatment with hepatic-targeted Gal-OSL/Res nanocarriers enhanced the cellular Res uptake and anti-lipogenesis capabilities, and effectively decreased triglyceride accumulation by modulating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/silent information regulation 2 homolog 1(SIRT1)/fatty acid synthase (FAS)/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) signaling pathway. In mice, Gal-OSL increased Res delivery into liver tissues and increased their hepatic effective concentration in liver. Most importantly, Gal-OSL/Res nanocarriers effectively reversed NAFLD and recovered hepatic insulin sensitivity of NAFLD mice to the healthy state. Furthermore, Gal-OSL/Res efficiently ameliorated lipid deposition and insulin resistance by modulating AMPK/SIRT1/FAS/SREBP1c signaling pathway and downregulated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation at serine 307 in liver. These findings suggested that the hepatic-targeted Gal-OSL nanocarriers delivering Res could potentially serve as a safe and promising platform for NAFLD and other liver related diseases.

13.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 38(3): 163-170, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204528

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the perinatal changes of plasma estradiol (E2) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in pregnant women with pulmonary arterial hypertension before and after cesarean section. Methods: Depending on pulmonary arterial pressure, the subjects were divided into two groups, moderate group, and severe group. Plasma concentrations of E2 and Ang II were determined at different time points using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and ELISA, respectively. The correlation between E2 and Ang II concentrations was analyzed. Results: Intragroup comparison indicated that E2 levels at different time points after surgery decreased in the two groups than before, with a greater reduction in the severe group. Besides, both groups showed a reduction in Ang II concentrations after surgery. As indicated by intragroup comparison, there was a significant difference at each time point in the two groups. The reduction in Ang II concentrations was more conspicuous at 48 h and 72 h after surgery (cesarean section) than before for the two groups. Moreover, E2 concentrations were correlated positively with AngII concentrations. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of E2 and Ang II decreased after delivery. The plasma concentrations of E2 and Ang II were correlated with each other.

14.
Psychol Health Med ; 24(10): 1277-1286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131632

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the sex-related associations between serum uric acid and depression. This study aimed to explore the associations between serum uric acid and depression stratified by sex among middle-aged and elderly Chinese participants. Using the baseline data of the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS), a total of 10,522 participants aged 45 years and older were included in the final analysis. Depression symptoms were measured with the 10-term Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A multivariable logistic regression model was performed to examine the associations between serum uric acid levels and depression, and the results are presented using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The prevalence of depression was 38% among middle-aged and elderly participants in China. In men, participants in the highest serum uric acid quartile had a decreased prevalence of depression relative to those in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.41-0.81) after adjustment for potential confounders. However, there was no significant association between serum uric acid and depression among women. Participants with hyperuricemia were had no higher prevalence of depression relative to participants with normal serum uric acid level. Negative association between uric acid and depression was found in men, but not in women.

15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(2): 200-207, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the status of nutrition and associated factors among elderly in China. METHODS: Based the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS), a total of 34 373 participants aged 60 years and older were included in the analysis. People without weight, height, education level, family income level, drinking, smoking status and lack of physical activity information were excluded. The survey adopted a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method proportional to the population. Dietary data were collected by the 24-hour-dietary for 3 days questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to examine the association between sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake with status of nutrition. RESULTS: The 34 373 subjects aged 60 years and older had a 6. 2% low body weight, 31. 8% overweight and 11. 5% obesity. The prevalent of low body weight of elderly women(6. 1%) was higher than that of elderly men(1. 4%). Women(47. 1%)had a higher overweight/obesity prevalence than men(39. 3%)(OR=1. 19, 95% CI 1. 10-1. 28). Participants living in rural areas had a higher prevalence of low body weight(OR=1. 41, 95% CI 1. 07-1. 86) and a lower overweight/obesity prevalence than urban residents(OR=0. 72, 95% CI 0. 61-0. 86). Education levels was negatively associated with low body weight(P<0. 05), but positively associated with overweight/obesity prevalence(P<0. 05). Physical activity levels were inversely related with low body weightand overweight/obesity(P<0. 05). High intake of wheat was associated with a decreased low body weight and an increased overweight/obesity prevalence(P<0. 05). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was negatively related with high intake of rice and organ meat(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Sex, region, education level, household income, smoking status, physical activity level and dietary intake were associated with the status of nutrition among elderly in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(7): 540-548, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have used nationally representative data to describe dietary trends and the related cardiometabolic mortality burden in China. Thus, we aimed to characterise the trends in disease-related dietary factors as well as their associated disease burden among Chinese adults from 1982 to 2012. METHODS: For this cross-sectional population-based study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of 204 802 adults aged 20 years or older, using data from the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-12 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS). We did a comparative risk assessment, in which the effects of suboptimal intakes of 12 dietary factors, individually and collectively, on cardiometabolic mortality were estimated by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) to estimate the proportional reduction in cardiometabolic deaths that would occur if exposure to each dietary risk factor was reduced to an alternative optimal level. FINDINGS: The overall PAF of mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that was associated with suboptimal dietary quality was 62·2% in 1982, 57·9% in 1992, 56·2% in 2002, and 51·0% in 2010-12, which accounted for 21·6% of total mortality in China in 1982, 16·6% in 1992, 17·6% in 2002, and 20·8% in 2010-12. The estimated number of cardiometabolic deaths associated with suboptimal dietary intakes was 1·07 million in 1982, 0·93 million in 1992, 1·18 million in 2002, and 1·51 million in 2010-12. Of all 12 dietary factors examined, high sodium intake (17·3%), low fruit consumption (11·5%), and low marine omega-3 fatty acids (9·7%) were associated with the largest numbers of estimated cardiometabolic deaths in 2010-12. INTERPRETATION: We observed an improvement in several dietary factors in China in the past few decades. However, current intakes of these dietary factors remain suboptimal. Poor diet quality is estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in China. FUNDING: Ministry of Health, China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, China.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013668

RESUMO

Undernutrition during early life may lead to obesity in adulthood. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between famine exposure during early life and the risk of abdominal obesity in adulthood. A total of 18,984 and 16,594 adults were surveyed in 2002 and 2010-2012 in two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys, namely China Nutrition and Health Survey, respectively. The risk of abdominal obesity was evaluated for participants born during 1956-1961 and compared with that of participants born during 1962-1964. The overall prevalence of abdominal obesity in adulthood showed a positive association with famine exposure during early life. The odds ratios of famine exposure were 1.31 (1.19-1.44) and 1.28 (1.17-1.40) in 2002 during fetal life and infancy and 1.09 (1.00-1.19) in 2012 during fetal life, respectively. The relationships between famine exposure and abdominal obesity across the famine exposure groups were distinct among females and those who lived in urban areas and were physical inactive (p < 0.05). Exposure to famine during early life was associated with increased risks of abdominal obesity in adulthood, which was partially alleviated by healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity).


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Inanição , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate data on water and beverage intakes are essential for assessing hydration adequacy and setting proper guidelines. The objective of this study is to identify the patterns and sociodemographic determinants of water intake and to assess the intake adequacy for children in China. METHODS: The study team recruited 41,439 children aged 6-17 years using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Daily water and beverage intakes were investigated with the standard questionnaires and measuring containers in face-to-face interviews. Each participant was assigned an adjustment weight to obtain a nationally representative sample. Sociodemographic factors influencing water intake were identified using multi-variable regressions. Water intake adequacy was evaluated by comparing with the recommended water intake (RWI). RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of total water intake (TWI) was 1603 ± 731 mL/day for boys and 1487 ± 661 mL/day for girls. Plain water, food moisture, and other beverages contributed 51%, 20%, and 29% of the TWI. Multi-variable analyses showed that TWI of children increased with age, in urban areas and day schools, and with parents' economic and educational levels. The majority (82%) of children had TWI not meeting the corresponding RWI, and the percentage increased with age except for 14-17-year-old boys. CONCLUSIONS: Plain water is still the major source of daily water intake by children in China. Unfortunately, the majority of children do not have sufficient water intake, which warrants future actions and guidelines targeting adequate hydration.

19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(9): 2346-2350, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758363

RESUMO

Four novel benzophenone derivatives, cytosporins A-D (1-4), hemiterpene-conjugated phenolics with an unprecedented benzo[b][1,5]dioxocane skeleton, were isolated from Cytospora rhizophorae A761. The structures of the new compounds were fully characterized on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The deduced structure represents the first example of natural meroterpenoids which bear a benzo[b][1,5]dioxocane framework embodying hemiterpene and benzophenone moieties. Moreover, compounds 1-4 were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Benzofenonas/química , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Ciclosporinas/química , Ciclosporinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Benzofenonas/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclosporinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Hemiterpenos/química , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
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