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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 96: 103645, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036166

RESUMO

Eight new sesquiterpenes with diverse skeletons involving four cuparenes, denominated thujasutchins F-I (1-4), one eudesmane and one cedrol, named thujasutchin J (5) and thujasutchin K (6), as well as two thujopsenes thujasutchins L-M (7-8) together with three known congener compounds (9-11) were isolated from EtOAc soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the stems and roots of Thuja sutchuenensis. Their structures including absolute configurations were unambiguously established by extensive interpretation of the NMR and mass spectroscopic data, X-ray diffractions, and ECD measurements powered by molecular calculations. The biological assays disclosed that 5 and 9 displayed potent inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus. aureus (CMCC 26003), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (JCSC 4744), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 10876), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) with MICs ranging from 6.25 to 25 µg/mL.

2.
Thyroid ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remarkable achievements have been made for over two decades by implementing a universal salt iodization policy in China. However, changes in the standards and manufacturing of iodized salt have made it necessary to regularly monitor iodine intake and thyroid function in the population. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate iodine nutritional status using thyroid function and urinary iodine levels in pregnant women via a national survey. METHODS: Participants included pregnant women enrolled in the 2015 National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS). Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured using arsenic and cerium catalysis spectrophotometry. Plasma levels of thyrotropic stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4 (free thyroxine), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab) were determined using an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. RESULTS: UIC was analyzed in a total 6173 urinary samples collected from pregnant women residing in 31 provinces of China. The mUIC was 146 µg/L. Pregnant women with UIC >250 µg/L had higher TSH levels than those with UIC 120-149 µg/L and 150-249 µg/L. After excluding women with positive TPO-Ab and TG-Ab, a total 2097 plasma samples collected from pregnant women during three periods were analyzed for TSH and FT4. The rate of normal thyroid function in this study was >85%. The most common type of abnormal thyroid function, subclinical hypothyroidism, was similar to the 2010-2012 CNNHS, but its prevalence was decreased to 6.8%. Compared with pregnant women who had UIC <250 µg/L, the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was significantly increased in those with UIC > 250 µg/L. Even with UIC levels <150 µg/L, the iodine status of Chinese pregnant women in the 2015 CNNHS is acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status of pregnant women is generally adequate, but urinary iodine levels are close to the cut-off for suitable iodine status (150 µg/L). With non-iodized salt widely available, continued improvement in monitoring of iodine nutritional status and thyroid function is important in this population.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 151(21): 211101, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822097

RESUMO

Cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) perovskite has attracted great attention recently for its potentials for next-generation green-color lasing devices owing to the relatively high structural stability and the high emission efficiency among the perovskite family. Herein, we explore the origins of cavity modes in CsPbBr3 microplatelets (MPs) lasers by using angle-resolved microphotoluminescence Fourier imaging technique, which is still controversial so far. In-plane Fabry-Pérot (F-P) mode lasing transition to whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing is verified at room temperature, which mostly occurs in large MPs with edge length (L) over 13 µm. The F-P lasing is suppressed upon decreasing L or increasing excitation density, and the WGM lasing is predominant for all MPs at high excitation density. Furthermore, the parity and symmetry of in-plane F-P modes are classified. These results advance the fundamental understanding of lasing modes in planar microcavities as well as their applications in on-chip interconnection and quantum optics.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Lasers , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Óptica e Fotônica , Tamanho da Partícula , Teoria Quântica , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 869-875, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875807

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence and variation of hypotension in Chinese adults residents in 2002 and 2010-2012. METHODS: Data of the blood pressure measurements from 2002 and 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS), a multistage stratified cluster random sampling survey was conducted in 2002, and the sample size was 147 488, 64 869 males, 82 619 females, 50 123 urban residents, 97 365 rural residents, 71 078 northern residents and 76 410 southern residents. A multi-stage stratified and population-proportional cluster random sampling method was used in 2010-2012, and the sample size of was 120 427, 52 499 males, 67 928 females, 60 214 urban residents, 60 213 rural residents, 53 863 northern residents and 66 564 southern residents. The population data published by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009 was used as a standard population of the data result for 2002 and 2010-2012. Complex sampling weighting method was adopted in data analyses. The prevalence of hypotension and 95%CI in different populations were calculated. Chi-square test was used to compare the rates, multi-factor analysis was conducted by using SURVEYLOGISTIC model regression. RESULTS: In 2002, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 3. 0%, 1. 9% in males, 4. 1% in females, 2. 7% in urban residents, 3. 3% in rural residents, 2. 8% in northern residents and 3. 2% in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(4. 3%). Among people with different body mass index(BMI), the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 0%). From 2010 to 2012, the prevalence rate of hypotension in Chinese adults was 2. 1%, 1. 1% in males, 3. 2% in females, 1. 9% in urban residents, 2. 2% in rural residents, 1. 8% in northern residents and 2. 3%in southern residents. The prevalence rate of hypotension was the highest in 18-44 age group(3. 1%). Among people with different BMI, the prevalence of hypotension was higher in low weight group(7. 4%). The total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents in China from 2010 to 2012 was lower than that in 2002, and the difference was statistically significant(χ~2= 624. 3, P <0. 0001). In 2002 and 2010-2012, the prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China decreased with the increase of age, and the prevalence of hypotension in men and women also decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. The differences were statistically significant. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis also showed that lower age group, women and people with low weight were more prone to develop hypotension. CONCLUSION: In 2002 and 2010-2012, the total prevalence of hypotension in adult residents of China, and that of hypotension in both men and women decreased with the increase of age. Women were higher than men, the lower age group was higher than the higher age group, and the lower weight group was higher than the normal population. 18-44 age group, women and low weight group are more likely to have low blood pressure. Compared with 2002, the total prevalence of hypotension in Chinese adult residents showed a decreasing trend from 2010 to 2012.


Assuntos
Hipotensão , População Rural , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 888-944, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the weight recognition and control among women aged 15-49 in China. METHODS: Data was from the China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling method was used. The data of 35 664(16 914 urban women and 18 750 rural women) 15-49 years old women of childbearing age was used. The basic information was collected by questionnaires. Physical measurement indexes such as height and weight were collected. RESULTS: Among overweight and obese women of childbearing age, only 34. 9%(95%CI 34. 2%-35. 6%) of them correctly judged themselves overweight or obese, and 61. 4%(95% CI 60. 6%-62. 1%) of them thought they were normal weight; 10. 8%(95%CI10. 3%-11. 2%) of the normal-weight women thought they were overweight; while 3. 0%(95% CI 2. 6%-3. 4%) of the low-weight women thought they were overweight. Only17. 1%(95% CI 16. 4%-17. 8%) of overweight and obese women of childbearing age take weight control measures. In addition, 3. 6%(95% CI 3. 1%-4. 1%) of low-weight women of childbearing age and 9. 7%(95% CI 9. 3%-10. 1%) of normal-weight women took weight control measures, respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was higher than that of women aged 25-34 and 35-49, 14. 8%(95% CI 13. 3%-16. 4%), 12. 2%(95% CI 11. 1%-13. 2%) and 10. 0%(95% CI9. 3%-10. 1%), respectively. The proportion of women aged 15-24 taking weight control measures was the highest among normal weight women and overweight and obese women, 13. 9%(95% CI 13. 1%-14. 7%) and 26. 9%(95% CI 26. 4%-27. 4%), respectively. CONCLUSION: At present, there were more women of childbearing age in China who could not correctly assess their own body weight, leading to the inability to take correct weight control measures.


Assuntos
Cognição , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 898-963, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain hemoglobin values in different regions of China is of great guiding value for judging anemia in children in different regions. METHODS: A total of 13 951 children aged 0-2 years old(female 6759, male 7192, urban area 6866, rural area 7085) in the 2010-2013 National Nutrition and Health Survey was analyzed the characteristics of hemoglobin spatial differentiation. SAS was used to analyze the data of children's hemoglobin result. Geographic Information System(GIS)spatial analysis method was used to form the spatial distribution map of hemoglobin mean values at 55 monitoring points, and inverse distance weighted spatial interpolation(IDW)method was used to obtain the spatial distribution map of children's hemoglobin in China. RESULTS: Based on the data of 13 951 children aged 0-2 years in the National Nutrition and Health Survey, it was found that the average hemoglobin value of Chinese children ranged from 112. 02 to 139. 03 g/L. The average hemoglobin value of Yi 'an County in Heilongjiang Province(139. 04 ± 1. 22 g/L) and Kangle County in Gansu Province(132. 43 ± 0. 82 g/L) was the highest, followed by Shanxi, Yunnan, Anhui, Qinghai and Fujian Provinces(124. 03-128. 72 g/L). The result of spatial interpolation of hemoglobin for children aged 0-2 in China showed that the hemoglobin of children aged0-2 in China showed spatial differences, forming inland high value areas with Heilongjiang, Gansu-Qinghai, Shanxi and Yunnan as the core, Anhui-Jiangsu-ZhejiangFujian coastal high value areas. Low-value areas of hemoglobin were formed in eastern Sichuan-Chongqing-western Hubei-southern Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia-Shanxi-Shaanxi, Beijing-Hebei, Jilin-Liaoning, southern Guangdong and Hainan. There was no significant correlation between the spatial distribution of hemoglobin and altitude in children aged 0-2 years in China in 2013. CONCLUSION: The spatial distribution of hemoglobin in children aged 0-2 years in China has significant spatial difference characteristics between different regions, with local higher value region and lower value region distribution, which has no significant correlation with altitude.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas , Pequim , Pré-Escolar , China , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 902-906, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the early initiation of breastfeeding status of Chinese children aged less than 24 months and its influence factors. METHODS: Data of children aged less than 24 months old was collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. Subjects were selected form 55 survey sites of mainland China by the multilevel stratified equal proportional cluster random sampling and the final effective sample size was 14 825. Caregivers of children completed a feeding and health questionnaire, which included questions on whether the children were put to the breast within one hour of birth, influence factors and the initiation time of breastfeeding. Prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding, influence factors and time composition ratio of initiation of breastfeeding were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding of Chinese children under 2 years old in 2013 was 26. 4%, among which big cities, small and medium-sized cities, ordinary rural areas, povertystricken rural areas were 30. 1%、24. 1%、23. 2% and 36. 9%, respectively. Caesarean section was the most important factor affecting early breastfeeding of infants in big cities, small and medium-sized cities and ordinary rural areas, accounting for 40. 7%, 51. 5%and 33. 8%, respectively. The main influencing factor in poor rural areas was lack of early breast-feeding knowledge, accounting for 44. 6%. The prevalence of infants initiated breastfeeding 2 ± 23 hours after birth was 31. 0% and the prevalence of infants initiated breastfeeding ≥24 hours after birth was 35. 3%. In big cities, the prevalence of the two periods were 31. 2% and 33. 4%. In small and medium-sized cities, the prevalence were35. 4% and 34. 4%. In ordinary rural areas, the prevalence were 26. 9% and 42. 3%. In poverty-stricken rural areas, the prevalence were comparatively low, which were 29. 5%and 23. 5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding among infant aged less than 24 months is low in China. Caesarean section and lack of related knowledge were the main influencing factors in urban and rural areas respectively. Certain percentage of infants have severely delayed breast contact with their mothers and start breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prevalência , População Rural
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(6): 913-918, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the hypertension awareness, treatment and control among adults in China in 2010-2012. METHODS: Data was from the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. A stratified multistage cluster sampling was used from 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities and selected 150 districts/counties. The sample was adults aged 18 and over selected through the method of Probability Proportion to Size(PPS). The mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure the blood pressure. Each person had three measurements. The questionnaire was used to collect the information of hypertension awareness and control. RESULTS: The sample participants were 120 428 in 2010-2012. Among adults with hypertension, 46. 5%were aware of their hypertension, 41. 1% reported taking hypertension medicine in the last two weeks, and 13. 8% controlled the blood pressure. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control in women(49. 5%, 44. 2% and 14. 6%) than those of men(43. 0%, 37. 4% and 12. 9%). The three rates were increased with age. The prevalence of control was 33. 6% among the treated hypertensive individuals. It was higher for men and the rate was decreased with age. It was higher for hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates in urban area(52. 7%, 47. 9%, 17. 9% and 37. 3%) than those in rural area(39. 5%, 33. 4%, 9. 2% and 27. 6%). The rates of overall, gender, and age groups were decreased in large city, medium and small city, general county, and poor county. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension awareness, treatment and control among hypertension and control among treated hypertensive participates among Chinese adults was increased in 2010-2012. But the rates were still keep a low level. The region and age differences need pay attention.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755597

RESUMO

Stunting adversely affects physical and mental outcomes of children. It has not been examined whether household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is a risk factor for stunting in children. In a total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 across China, height was measured using a unified protocol. Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking/heating with stunting in children. Adjusted for covariates, cooking/heating with solid fuel was significantly associated with a lower z-score for height for age and sex (ß = -0.21 [-0.32 to -0.09] and -0.17 [-0.31 to -0.03], respectively) and an increased risk of stunting with an estimated ORs of 1.34 [1.07~1.68] and 1.37 [1.02~1.83], respectively. The risk of stunting associated with solid fuel use was statistically significant in high-age children. And the effect was greater on girls than on boys, though the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggested that Chinese children living in households using solid fuel had a significantly higher risk of stunting than those living in households using cleaner fuel.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1607-1612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension during pregnancy carries high mortality rate. The relatively long-acting, specific pulmonary vasodilator treprostinil has been used to improve survival in these parturients. Slow uptitration is performed in most cases, and rapid titration has not been reported in the postpartum period. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 17 pregnant patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension who were treated with intravenous treprostinil in our institution between 2014 and 2016. Patients' demographic characteristics, etiology, functional status, mode of delivery, anesthetic administration, medical therapy, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements, subsequent clinical course, and maternal-fetal outcomes were assessed. The a priori primary outcome is maternal mortality in this study. RESULTS: Rapid titration of intravenous treprostinil was initiated at 1.25 ng/kg/min and increased to effective dose of 10 ng/kg/min by 1.25-2.5 ng/kg/min every 3 hours. In the next 24 hours, we adjusted the dosage to a median maximum dose of 15 ng/kg/min (interquartile range, 15-20 ng/kg/min) over a median uptitration period of 34 hours (interquartile range, 24-41 hours) for 17 parturients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Treprostinil was weaned off by 0.50-1.25 ng/kg/min every 3 hours in 94.3 ± 42.4 hours. Fifteen patients survived to discharge, and only 2 patients died of pulmonary hypertensive crisis (maternal mortality rate, 11.7%). No treprostinil infusion-related postpartum complication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience suggested that rapid uptitration of intravenous treprostinil combined with oral sildenafil in the postpartum period may be a safe and effective approach for these very sick parturients with severe pulmonary hypertension.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine nutrient intakes of tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify their associated factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 adult TB patients were surveyed in two impoverished counties in China. Nutrient intakes were evaluated through two consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013. The potential socio-demographic and behavioral factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic model to identify strong influential factors. RESULTS: We found that mean daily energy intake was 1655.0 kcal (SD: 619.3 kcal) and 1360.3 kcal (SD: 552.1 kcal) for male and female patients, respectively. The mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than that has been recommended by DRI (i.e., 2250 and 1800 kcal for males and females, respectively), with 87.4% of the male patients and 59.9% of female patients failed to consume adequate energy. The protein intakes were 44.6 g (SD: 18.2 g) and 35.9 g (SD: 12.3 g) for male and female patients, respectively, which were lower than the recommended values by DRI (i.e., 65 and 55 g for males and females, respectively). Most male (90.8%) and female (58.4%) TB patients had insufficient daily protein intake. Further analyses suggested that mean daily intakes of many micronutrients, were insufficient, while for most of patients, intakes of vitamin E and sodium were sufficient. We identified that unemployment was a risk factor for low energy intake (p < 0.05) and out-home-eating was a protective factor for low protein intake (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In impoverished areas in China, intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients in TB patients were inadequate compared with DRIs, especially for unemployed patients and patients eating at home. These findings suggested that public health actions are needed to promote education on TB patients about significance of nutritional support, and, further interventions in TB patients' nutritional intakes are also required.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Recomendações Nutricionais , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
12.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 531-536, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome(MS) among Chinese men and women aged 18 years and older. METHODS: The 2010᾿012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey(CNNHS) used multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method to select study participants. Basic information, health-related behaviors and diseases history were collected by questionnaire. Drink information was collected by food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated NCEP ATP III criteria. A total of 102 591 participants aged 18 years and older were included in the analysis. Logistic regression model was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and MS. Restricted cubic spline(RCS) was performed to explore the dose response relation of alcohol intake and MS. RESULTS: The drink rate was 33. 66% in Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Compared with non-drinkers, men who consumed⇿0 g/time had a lower MS prevalence(OR=0. 77, 95%CI 0. 66-0. 90). There was a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not among women. In men, there was no association between drinking type and MS. The OR of MS were 0. 91(95%CI 0. 81-1. 03), 0. 90(95%CI 0. 75-1. 08), 0. 85(95%CI 0. 54-1. 36), and 0. 96(95%CI 0. 84-1. 10) among men who consumed liquor, beer, wine, and mixed liquor. Compared with non-drinkers, women who drink liquor or mixed liquor had a decrease MS prevalence. The OR were 0. 74(95%CI 0. 56-0. 98) and 0. 78(95%CI 0. 66-0. 91). The association between drinking frequency and MS had no statistical significance and the P-trend was 0. 11 in men and 0. 31 in women. CONCLUSION: There is a linear dose response association between alcohol intake and MS among men but not in women. Men consumed >20 g/time have an increased MS prevalence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vinho
13.
Small ; 15(45): e1902789, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544354

RESUMO

Palladium diselenide (PdSe2 ) is an emerging 2D layered material with anisotropic optical/electrical properties, extra-high carrier mobility, excellent air stability, etc. So far, ultrathin PdSe2 is mainly achieved via mechanical exfoliation from its bulk counterpart, and the direct synthesis is still challenging. Herein, the synthesis of ultrathin 2D PdSe2 on conductive Au foil substrates via a facile chemical vapor deposition route is reported. Intriguingly, an anisotropic growth behavior is detected from the evolution of ribboned flakes with large length/width ratios, which is well explained from the orthorhombic symmetry of PdSe2 . A unique even-layered growth mode from 2 to 20 layers is also confirmed by the perfect combination of onsite scanning tunneling microscopy characterizations, through deliberately scratching the flake edge to expose both even and odd layers. This even-layered, ribboned 2D material is expected to serve as a perfect platform for exploring unique physical properties, and for developing high-performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109375, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548175

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main cause of ischemic cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular diseases. Macrophage activity has been proven to play a critical role during the AS pathological process, which involves the adhesion, aggregation of mononuclear-macrophages, cell differentiation of M1/M2 macrophages as part of complex mechanisms occurring during lipid metabolism, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and immune reaction. Therefore, the development of effective AS treatments is likely to target macrophage activity. Certain herbal extracts (such as Salvia miltiorrhiza) have exhibited enormous potential for AS treatment in the past. Here, we aim to provide a summary on the current understanding of the type of action and the underlying target/pathway in macrophage regulation of certain herbal extracts used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of AS.

15.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10085-10094, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436948

RESUMO

Integrating metallic halide perovskites with established modern semiconductor technology is significant for promoting the development of application-level optoelectronic devices. To realize such devices, exploring the growth dynamics and interfacial carrier dynamics of perovskites deposited on the core materials of semiconductor technology is essential. Herein, we report the incommensurate heteroepitaxy of highly oriented single-crystal cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr3) on c-wurtzite GaN/sapphire substrates with atomically smooth surface and uniform rectangular shape by chemical vapor deposition. The CsPbBr3 microplatelet crystal exhibits green-colored lasing under room temperature and has a structural stability comparable with that grown on van der Waals mica substrates. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy studies show that the type-II CsPbBr3-GaN heterojunction effectively enhances the separation and extraction of free carriers inside CsPbBr3. These findings provide insights into the fabrication and application-level integrated optoelectronic devices of CsPbBr3 perovskites.

16.
Adv Mater ; 31(39): e1903030, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408551

RESUMO

2D Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) have aroused growing attention in light harvesting and emission applications owing to their high environmental stability. Recently, coherent light emission of RPPs was reported, however mostly from inhomologous thin films that involve cascade intercompositional energy transfer. Lasing and fundamental understanding of intrinsic laser dynamics in homologous RPPs free from intercompositional energy transfer is still inadequate. Herein, the lasing and loss mechanisms of homologous 2D (BA)2 (MA)n -1 Pbn I3 n +1 RPP thin flakes mechanically exfoliated from the bulk crystal are reported. Multicolor lasing is achieved from the large-n RPPs (n ≥ 3) in the spectral range of 620-680 nm but not from small-n RPPs (n ≤ 2) even down to 78 K. With decreasing n, the lasing threshold increases significantly and the characteristic temperature decreases as 49, 25, and 20 K for n = 5, 4, and 3, respectively. The n-engineered lasing behaviors are attributed to the stronger Auger recombination and exciton-phonon interaction as a result of the enhanced quantum confinement in the smaller-n perovskites. These results not only advance the fundamental understanding of loss mechanisms in both inhomologous and homologous RPP lasers but also provide insights into developing low-threshold, substrate-free, and multicolor 2D semiconductor microlasers.

17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(3): 621-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to estimate the national prevalence of metabolic syndrome, its individual components and its changes in the past decade. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Two national-representative cross-sectional surveys: the China National Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 (CNNHS 2002) and the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012 (CNNHS 2010-2012). A total of 48,235 and 104,098 participants aged 18 years or older who had completed data on physical examination, blood lipids, and fasting glucose tests from CNNHS 2002 and CNNHS 2010-2012, respectively, were included in current study. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults increased from 9.5% (95% confident interval [CI]: 9.2%-9.7%) in 2002 to 18.7% (18.3%-19.1%) in 2010-2012, corresponding to an estimated 83.6 million adults in 2002 and 189 million adults in 2010-2012 living with metabolic syndrome in China. The increment was more than doubled among young, rural residents and those from poor households. Abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL-C, and elevated blood pressure were found in 18.9% (18.5%-19.3%), 6.4% (6.2%-6.7%), 13.8% (13.5%-14.2%), 19.3% (18.9%-19.7%), and 34.0% (33.5%-34.5%) of adults in 2002, respectively, which was 25.8% (25.3%-26.2%), 16.2% (15.8%-16.5%), 23.7% (23.3%-24.2%), 32.6% (32.0%-33.1%), and 34.4% (33.9%-34.9%), respectively, in 2010-2012. CONCLUSIONS: Based on two nationally representative surveys, our results indicated that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is widespread and increasing in China.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382399

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the status of usual dietary micronutrient intakes among Chinese elderly living at home. The data was based on China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) 2010-2012. We analyzed data from the participants aged 60-year-old and more (n = 16,612) living at home, who provided dietary data on three days 24 h dietary survey combining with the household weighing method. The means and distribution percentiles for usual intakes of dietary micronutrients were estimated using the Multiple Source Method (MSM). The prevalence of inadequacy for the selected micronutrients was expressed using the proportion of individuals with usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). For vitamin E, sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. Usual dietary intakes of most micronutrients were inadequate in the participants, especially folate, calcium, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2, with the prevalence of inadequacy more than 90%. However, dietary sodium intake was extremely high with an average usual intake of 4702 mg/day. The usual dietary intakes of all selected micronutrients in old males were higher than females, and the prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients was higher in old women (p < 0.01). The subjects aged 60-74 years tended to have higher usual dietary micronutrient intakes and lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrients than those aged 75 years and over (p < 0.01). Higher usual dietary intakes and lower prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients were found in the elderly living in the southern region (p < 0.01). The average usual intakes of most micronutrients declined with socioeconomic status. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A, B2, C, calcium and selenium below EAR increased with socioeconomic status (p < 0.01, p for trend < 0.01). Thus, essential micronutrients insufficient intake is a public health concern among Chinese community-dwelling old population, especially the females, older people, the elderly in undeveloped areas or living in northern regions. Nutrition education and appropriate approach should be undertaken to address these problems.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social
19.
Small ; 15(35): e1901364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282127

RESUMO

Low threshold micro/nanolasers have attracted extensive attention for wide applications in high-density storage and optical communication. However, constrained by quantum efficiency and crystalline quality, conventional semiconductor small-sized lasers are still subjected to a high lasing threshold. In this work, a low-threshold planar laser based on high-quality single-crystalline hexagonal CdS nanoplatelets (NPLs) using a self-limited epitaxial growth method is demonstrated. The as-grown CdS NPLs show multiple whispering-gallery-mode lasing at room temperature with a threshold of ≈0.6 µJ cm-2 , which is the lowest value among reported CdS-based lasers. Through power-dependent lasing studies at 77 K, the lasing action is demonstrated to originate from a exciton-exciton scattering process. Furthermore, the edge length- and thickness-dependent lasing threshold studies reveal that the threshold is inversely proportional to the second power of lateral edge length while partially affected by vertical thickness, and the lasing modes can be sustained in NPLs as thin as 60 nm. The lowest threshold emerges with the thickness of ≈110 nm due to stronger energy confinement in the vertical Fabry-Pérot cavity. The results not only open up a new avenue to fabricate nonlayered material-based coherent light sources, but also advocate the promise of nonlayered semiconductor materials for the development of novel optoelectronic devices.

20.
J Cancer ; 10(10): 2299-2311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258733

RESUMO

Background: Lymphocytes were reported to play a significant part in host anticancer immune responses and influence tumour prognosis. Few studies have focused on the prognostic values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to lymphocyte ratio (ALRI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index (APRI) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with palliative treatments. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-eight HCC patients treated with palliative therapies were retrospectively analysed. We randomly assigned patients into the training cohort (429 patients) and the validation cohort I (169 patients). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the best cut-off values for the ALRI, APRI and SII in the training cohort and the values were further validated in the validation cohort I. Correlations between ALRI and other clinicopathological factors were also analysed. A prognostic nomogram including ALRI was established. We validated the prognostic value of the ALRI, SII and APRI with two independent cohorts, the validation cohort II of 82 HCC patients treated with TACE and the validation cohort III of 150 HCC patients treated with curative resection. In the training cohort and all the validation cohorts, univariate analyses by the method of Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression model were carried out to identify the independent prognostic factors. Results: The threshold values of ALRI, APRI and SII were 86.3, 1.37 and 376.4 respectively identified by ROC curve analysis in the training cohort. Correlation analysis showed that ALRI>86.3 was greatly associated with higher rates of Child-Pugh B&C, portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) and ascites (P < 0.05). Correspondingly, ALRI level of HCC patients with Child-Pugh B&C, PVTT and ascites was evidently higher than that of HCC patients with Child-Pugh A, without PVTT and without ascites (P < 0.001). In the training cohort and the validation cohort I, II, III, the OS of patients with ALRI >86.3 was obviously shorter than patients with ALRI ≤86.3 (P <0.001). We identified ALRI as an independent prognostic factor by univariate and multivariate analyses both in training Cohort (HR=1.481, P=0.004), validation cohort I (HR=1.511, P=0.032), validation cohort II (HR=3.166, P=0.005) and validation cohort III (HR=3.921, P=0.010). The SII was identified as an independent prognostic factor in training cohort (HR=1.356, P=0.020) and the validation cohort II (HR=2.678, P=0.002). The prognostic nomogram including ALRI was the best in predicting 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, 2-year survival And OS among TNM, ALRI, ALRI-TNM and nomogram. Conclusions: The ALRI was a novel independent prognostic index for the HCC patients treated with palliative treatments.

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