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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(2): 1287-1295, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256433

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) participate in gene regulation and malignant tumor progression, including uterine cervical cancer (CC). In this study, the expression profile of circRNAs in CC was detected using circRNA microarrays. Then, we selected hsa_circ_0000745 for further examination from the significantly dysregulated circRNAs. Proliferation assays, Transwell assays, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and tumorigenesis tests in vivo were used to validate the role of hsa_circ_0000745 in CC. hsa_circ_0000745 was upregulated in CC, and its level positively correlated with the level of its linear messenger RNA isoform. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors or vascular/lymphatic invasion presented higher expression of hsa_circ_0000745. The role of hsa_circ_0000745 was illuminated by knocking down hsa_circ_0000745 in CC cells, and the results revealed that reducing hsa_circ_0000745 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC by upregulating E-cadherin (E-cad) expression. In summary, as a tumor promoter in CC, hsa_circ_0000745 enhances the cell's ability to proliferate, migrate, and invade by reducing the expression of E-cad. hsa_circ_0000745 is a candidate target for the treatment of CC in the clinic.

2.
J Neurosci Methods ; 329: 108466, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third most common cause of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Ischemia, one of the two broad categories of stroke, is characterized by a lack of sufficient amounts of blood in order to supply an adequate amount of oxygen and nutrients. It is important to assess the part of the brain that becomes ischemic and necrotic during neurosurgery or experiments in real time. However, there is currently no effective means to achieve this goal. NEW METHOD: We proposed a method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for the real-time detection of a varied range of ischemic brain tissues in vivo or ex vivo and assessed the practical utility of a model of ischemic stroke in rats. RESULTS: The results showed that hyperspectral images processed with a ratio of spectral reflectance at 545 and 560 nm (R545/R560) could identify early brain ischemia and accurately show regions of ischemia. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We verified the area imaged by HSI using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining methods. This technique could precisely image the ischemic part of the brain in vivo and ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the practical utility of HSI for the real-time detection of cerebral ischemia in rats. By providing rapid assessment of brain tissue perfusion, HSI may help doctors recognize ischemic regions quickly and precisely during surgery as well as have great utility in the experimental process.

3.
Neurosci Lett ; : 134633, 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743752

RESUMO

Kaempferol is a medicinal flavonol derived from the roots of Kaempferia galanga L. Kaempferol can affect cell survival, apoptosis, and anti-oxidation, though its role and underlying mechanism in retinal ganglion cells with high-glucose injury remains unclear. In this study, we explored kaempferol's role in high-glucose injury in cells from the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) line. RGC cells were isolated and then cultured in high glucose (55 mmol/L) for 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h, and results showed decreased cell viability at 48 h and 72 h. We treated RGC cells with different concentrations of kaempferol (0 µmol/L, 20 µmol/L, 40 µmol/L, 60 µmol/L, 80 µmol/L, or 100 µmol/L) and high-glucose (55 mmol/L) for 48 h. The data indicated inhibited lactate dehydrogenase leakage, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Moreover, whereas cell viability increased in RGC cells that were incubated with kaempferol (60 µmol/L, 80 µmol/L, or 100 µmol/L) and glucose (55 mmol/L), compared with glucose alone. Kaempferol (60 µmol/L) elevated ERK phosphorylation and vasohibin-1 (VASH1) expression, and inhibition of ERK phosphorylation reversed the effect of kaempferol (60 µmol/L) on VASH1 expression in RGC cells with high-glucose injury. Additionally, interference of VASH1 by VASH1 siRNA markedly reversed the effects of kaempferol (60 µmol/L) on cell viability, caspase-3 activity, and ROS levels in RGC cells with high glucose injury. Taken together, the results suggest that kaempferol protected retinal ganglion cells from high-glucose-induced injury via ERK and VASH1 signaling.

4.
Small ; : e1903057, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701640

RESUMO

Electroless deposition via a spontaneous redox reaction between the metal precursor and support is believed to be a promising approach for the syntheses of supported metal nanoparticles (SMNPs). However, its widespread applications are significantly prohibited by the low reductivity and high cost of support. To overcome these shortcomings, a porous carbon (PC) is herein developed as a promising matrix for the electroless deposition of metal NPs. Benefiting from abundant oxygen-based surface functional groups, the PC shows stronger reducibility (low redox potential) than conventional carbon substrate such as carbon nanotubes or graphene oxide, enabling a facile electroless deposition of Ir, Rh, and Ru NPs on its surface. These SMNPs exhibit an impressive electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). For example, the Rh NP/PC can deliver an HER current density of 10 mA cm-2 with a small overpotential of 21 mV in 0.5 m H2 SO4 , while the Ru NP/PC exhibits excellent HOR activity in 0.1 m KOH in terms of high mass and surface specific exchange current density of 263 A g-1 Ru and 0.227 mA cm-2 Ru . The present strategy may open up opportunities for mass production of efficient supported NPs for diverse applications.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694247

RESUMO

Water resources allocation is an urgent problem for basin authorities. In order to obtain greater economic benefits from limited water supplies, sub-regions must cooperate with each other. To study the influence of cooperation among sub-regions and the symmetry of cooperation information on the interests of the basin authority and each sub-region, this study proposes a regional water allocation model in three different situations: (1) non-cooperation; (2) cooperation and information symmetry; (3) cooperation and information asymmetry. The proposed model clearly reflects the Stackelberg game relationship between the basin authority and sub-regions. Finally, the model is applied to the Qujiang River Basin in China, and the decisions of the basin authority and sub-regional managers of the Qujiang River Basin under three different situations are discussed. The results show that regional cooperation benefits both the cooperative regions and the social welfare value of the entire river basin, when compared with non-cooperation.

6.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667864

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis (LN) is the most common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with LN mostly die of sclerosing glomerulonephritis and renal failure. The inhibition of glomerular mesangial matrix deposition is an efficient method to restrict the progress of renal injury. By recognizing and binding extracellular and intracellular ligands, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) contributes to the pathogenesis of most immune diseases. However, the relationship between TLR2 and LN is still unknown. Our previous studies confirmed that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an important ligand of TLR2, promotes the progression of LN by inducing the proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells. However, whether or not HMGB1 participates in the pathogenesis of glomerular mesangial matrix deposition in LN remains unknown. In this study, we observed the upregulated expression of TLR2 in the glomeruli of LN patients and MRL/lpr mice. The inhibition of either TLR2 or HMGB1 inhibited the release of fibronectin and the activation of the MyD88/NF-κB pathway in mesangial cells cultured with LN plasma. In addition, both TLR2- and HMGB1-deficient mice showed reduced 24 hr urine protein levels and improved glomerular histological changes and sclerosis levels. These results indicate that TLR2 regulates glomerular mesangial matrix deposition in LN through the activation of the MyD88/NF-κB pathway by binding to HMGB1.

7.
Science ; 366(6467)2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672917

RESUMO

The transition from peri-implantation to gastrulation in mammals entails the specification and organization of the lineage progenitors into a body plan. Technical and ethical challenges have limited understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this transition. We established a culture system that enabled the development of cynomolgus monkey embryos in vitro for up to 20 days. Cultured embryos underwent key primate developmental stages, including lineage segregation, bilaminar disc formation, amniotic and yolk sac cavitation, and primordial germ cell-like cell (PGCLC) differentiation. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis revealed development trajectories of primitive endoderm, trophectoderm, epiblast lineages, and PGCLCs. Analysis of single-cell chromatin accessibility identified transcription factors specifying each cell type. Our results reveal critical developmental events and complex molecular mechanisms underlying nonhuman primate embryogenesis in the early postimplantation period, with possible relevance to human development.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726169

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rh2 (3ß-O-Glc-protopanaxadiol), a trace but an important pharmacological component of ginseng, has exhibited excellent medicinal potential. Many studies have found that the synthesis of Rh2 by UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) is an alternative production strategy. In this study, Yjic from B. subtilis 168 was found to synthesize ginsenoside F12 (3ß,12ß-Di-O-Glc-protopanaxadiol) and Rh2 at a ratio of 7:3. Yjic regioselectivity toward Rh2 synthesis was successfully improved using a semi-rational design including structure-guided alanine scanning and saturation mutations. As a result, mutant M315F was found to efficiently synthesize Rh2 (∼99%) and block the further glycosylation of C12-OH. The circulation of UDPG was achieved by combining M315F with AtSuSy through a cascade reaction. Furthermore, an extraordinarily high yield of Rh2 (3.7 g/L) was attained in an aqueous solvent system with 17% DMSO (v/v) through the fed-batch feeding of PPD. This study presents the high potential for the oriented preparation of ginsenoside Rh2.

9.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728830

RESUMO

In terms of taxonomic status, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprininae) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus, Cyprininae) are different species; however, in this study, a newborn homodiploid crucian carp-like fish (2n=100) (2nNCRC) lineage (F1-F3) was established from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp (2n=100)×male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, Cultrinae, 2n=48). The phenotypes and genotypes of 2nNCRC differed from those of its parents but were closely related to those of the existing diploid crucian carp. We further sequenced the whole mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the 2nNCRC lineage from F1 to F3. The paternal mtDNA fragments were stably embedded in the mt-genomes of F1-F3 generations of 2nNCRC to form chimeric DNA fragments. Along with this chimeric process, numerous base sites of F1-F3 generations of 2nNCRC underwent mutations. Most of these mutation sites were consistent with the existing diploid crucian carp. Moreover, the mtDNA organization and nucleotide composition of 2nNCRC were more similar to those of the existing diploid crucian carp than those of the parents. The inheritable chimeric DNA fragments and mutant loci in the mt-genomes of different generations of 2nNCRC provided important evidence of the mtDNA change process in the newborn lineage derived from hybridization of different species. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that the paternal mtDNA were transmitted into the mt-genomes of homodiploid lineage, which provided new insights into the existence of paternal mtDNA in the mtDNA inheritance.

10.
Ginekol Pol ; 90(10): 596-603, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) affects many women worldwide and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal and maternal settings. Abnormal expression of placental microRNAs (miRNAs) may be associated with PE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted to the relationship between IGF1 and the expression spectrum of miRNA in the placenta of preeclampsia patient. The expression of miRNA in placental tissue was compared between pre-eclampsia (n = 6) and normal pregnant women (n = 5) miRNA targets were studied by computer simulation and functional assays. The role of miRNA was verified in trophoblast cell lines by apoptosis assay and invasion assay. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in miRNAs in the placenta of women with pre-eclampsia compared with patients with normal pregnancy. Luciferase assay confirmed direct regulation of miRNA. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of IGF1 and miRNA was significantly increased in the placenta of patients with pre-eclampsia.

11.
Pediatrics ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are a well-known complication of Kawasaki disease (KD), but there are no data on incidence or outcomes of systemic artery aneurysms (SAAs) in the current era. METHODS: From April 1, 2016, to March 31, 2019, we screened for SAAs in 162 patients with KD at risk for SAAs with magnetic resonance angiography or peripheral angiography and analyzed incidence and early outcomes of SAAs. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients had SAAs, demonstrating an incidence of 14.2% (23 of 162) in patients who were screened at 1 month after onset. The proportion of patients with SAAs was estimated to be 2% (23 of 1148) of all patients with KD. The median age at onset of KD with SAAs was 5 months. All patients with SAAs had CAAs, with z scores >8. Of patients with giant CAAs, 38.6% (17 of 44) had SAAs. A total of 129 SAAs occurred in 17 different named arteries. The most common sites for SAAs were the axillary (18.6%), common iliac (12.4%), and brachial (11.6%) arteries. During a median follow-up time of 6 months, 92.9% (79 of 85) of SAAs had some degree of regression, with 80% (68 of 85) of SAAs returning to normal. The overall regression rate was higher for medium to large SAAs than for medium to giant CAAs. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of SAAs may not be as dramatically reduced as we expected compared with previous data, SAAs have a high regression rate during short-term follow-up.

12.
Alcohol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734309

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption and genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) are among many factors known to be associated with brain structure in cognitively healthy adults. It is unclear, however, whether the effect of alcohol consumption on brain structure varies depending on a person's level of genetic risk for AD. We hypothesized that there is an interaction effect of alcohol consumption and a 33-SNP AD polygenic risk score (PRS) on the cortical thickness of brain regions known to be affected early in the course of AD. Studying 6213 cognitively healthy subjects from the UK Biobank, we found a significant interaction effect of the 33-SNP AD PRS and alcohol consumption on this AD Cortical Thickness Signature. Stratified, among those who consume 12-24 g/day of alcohol, the 33-SNP AD PRS had a significant, positive association with AD Cortical Thickness Signature, with high risk subjects having the greatest AD Cortical Thickness Signature. There were no significant associations of the 33-SNP AD PRS with AD Cortical Thickness Signature among the nondrinker or <1, 1-6, 6-12, 24-48, or >48 g/day groups. It is unclear whether this interaction is due to a detrimental or beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption in those with the highest genetic risk for AD.

13.
Cell Tissue Res ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736014

RESUMO

The article "Reducing macrophage numbers alleviates temporomandibular joint ankylosis", written by Lu Zhao, E Xiao, Linhai He, Denghui Duan, Yang He, Shuo Chen, Yi Zhang and Yehua Gan, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety between early preoperative administration and postoperative administration of oral meloxicam in patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery (AKS). METHODS: Totally 296 patients with the intention to undergo AKS were recruited and randomly allocated as 1:1 ratio into early preoperative analgesia (EPA) group and postoperative analgesia (POA) group. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) score and severity (at rest and at flexion), patient global assessment (PGA) score, the consumption of rescue analgesia (pethidine), and adverse events were evaluated during the perioperation. And knee range of motion (ROM), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, and Lysholm score were assessed at baseline and at 3 months after AKS. RESULTS: Both pain VAS score and severity (at rest and at flexion) were decreased at 4, 8, and 12 hours, but similar at -24, -2, 24, 36, and 48 hours after AKS in EPA group compared with POA group. Besides, PGA score was lower at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours, but similar at -24, -2, 36, and 48 hours after AKS in EPA group compared with POA group. As to the consumption of pethidine in perioperative period, it was decreased in EPA group compared with POA group. No difference was observed in knee ROM, IKDC score, Lysholm score, and adverse effects between EPA group and POA group. CONCLUSION: Early preoperative administration of meloxicam was a superior approach in pain control compared with postoperative administration in treating patients underwent AKS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633227

RESUMO

The programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) and bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) are frequently overexpressed in cancer and have even been shown to act synergistically. The aim of this study was to determine their potential oncogenic role .in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We detected significantly higher expression levels of both PD-L1 and BRD4 in TSCC tissues compared to normal tissues (P ≤ .05). In addition, the high levels of PD-L1 were significantly associated with increased tumor lymphatic metastasis (P ≤ .05), tumor staging (P ≤ .01), as well as BRD4 expression (P ≤ .05). Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 in TSCC cells not only reduced their growth rate but also PD-L1 levels (P ≤ .05), while overexpression of BRD4 upregulated PD-L1. Bioinformatics analysis showed that c-MYC and CDK9 were interactive partners of both BRD4 and PD-L1. While c-MYC clearly modulated the expression of PD-L1, as well as reversed the inhibitory effects of JQ1, no obvious association was observed between CDK9 and PD-L1. We report a novel regulatory axis consisting of BRD4, PD-L1, and c-MYC that likely drives TSCC progression, and is a potential prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for TSCC.

16.
MBio ; 10(5)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594817

RESUMO

The presence of an extremely stable latent reservoir of HIV-1 is the major obstacle to eradication, despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent studies have shown that clonal expansion of latently infected cells without viral reactivation is an important phenomenon that maintains the long-term stability of the reservoir, yet its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that a subset of CD4+ T cells, characterized by CD161 expression on the surface, is highly permissive for HIV-1 infection. These cells possess a significantly higher survival and proliferative capacity than their CD161-negative counterparts. More importantly, we found that these cells harbor HIV-1 DNA and replication-competent latent viruses at a significantly higher frequency. By using massive single-genome proviral sequencing from ART-suppressed individuals, we confirm that CD161+ CD4+ T cells contain remarkably more identical proviral sequences, indicating clonal expansion of the viral genome in these cells. Taking the results together, our study identifies infected CD161+ CD4+ T cells to be a critical force driving the clonal expansion of the HIV-1 latent reservoir, providing a novel mechanism for the long-term stability of HIV-1 latency.IMPORTANCE The latent reservoir continues to be the major obstacle to curing HIV-1 infection. The clonal expansion of latently infected cells adds another layer maintaining the long-term stability of the reservoir, but its mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that CD161+ CD4+ T cells serve as an important compartment of the HIV-1 latent reservoir and contain a significant amount of clonally expanded proviruses. In our study, we describe a feasible strategy that may reduce the size of the latent reservoir to a certain extent by counterbalancing the repopulation and dissemination of latently infected cells.

17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 76: 105921, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600692

RESUMO

Drug resistance substantially limits the curative capability of chemotherapy in head and neck cancers such as oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is considered a potential cause of drug resistance. A key discovery in the past decade is that chemotherapeutics can alter tumor cell immunogenicity via inducing release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including ecto-calreticulin (ecto-CALR), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and ATP, causing tumor cells to die in a manner known as bona fide immunogenic apoptosis or immunogenic cell death (ICD). Intriguingly, JQ1 was found in this study to exhibit therapeutic potential in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) by inducing ICD. JQ1 induced significant release of calreticulin (CALR), HMGB1 and ATP from Cal27 and SCC7 cells in vitro. Immature dendritic cells (Im-DCs) cocultured with JQ1-pretreated Cal27 cells exhibited significant upregulation of mature markers on their surface and an increase in the secretion of cytokines. In vivo experiments demonstrated that JQ1-pretreated dying SCC7 cells protected immunocompetent mice from rechallenge of SCC7 cells. Intravenous injection of JQ1 efficiently reduced tumor growth and increased tumor-infiltration of CD3+/CD8+ T cells in C3H mice.

18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580519

RESUMO

Five novel H5N6 influenza viruses, including four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses and one low pathogenic avian influenza virus, were isolated from migratory birds in Ningxia, China, in November 2017. To understand the genetic origination of the novel H5N6 virus, and the infectivity and pathogenicity of the four highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in mammals, phylogeographic analyses and infection studies in mice were performed. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses showed that the H5N6 isolates, which are closely related to the viruses from Korea, Japan and the Netherlands, originated from reassortant virus between H5N8 and HxN6 viruses from western Russia. The animal study revealed that the SBD-87 isolate presented moderate virulence in mice, suggesting a potential public risk to humans and a potential threat to public health.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(43): 40078-40090, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517475

RESUMO

In this study, we described the synthesis, characterization, and application of hyperbranched polymer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles (HEMNs) as integrated catalysts for the supercritical cracking of hydrocarbon fuels. The metal precursor was extracted into the organic phase using a hydrocarbon-soluble hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (CPAMAM) and then reduced in situ by NaBH4 to produce HEMNs with virtually a single-size distribution. The monitoring of the preparation process by UV-vis demonstrated the feasibility of this encapsulation approach, and the successful synthesis of three different types of HEMNs, metal (Pd, Pt, Au)@CPAMAM, reflected the universality of this method. Compared with the existing catalyst octadecylamine-stabilized Pd nanoparticle, Pd@18N, HEMNs were superior in every aspect. The new encapsulation method allowed metal NPs to have a smaller particle size beneficial to their overall specific surface area and a higher proportion of active surface atoms for a better catalytic activity. Moreover, the space-limiting effect of the polymer allowed the three HEMNs to be highly dispersed in decalin and exhibited admirable stability under storage tests for up to 12 months and high-temperature stability tests at 180 °C. During the supercritical cracking of decalin, Pd@CPAMAM possessed a much better catalytic performance than Pd@18N and CPAMAM (which can also be used as a macroinitiator). To obtain the same heat sink of 3.02 MJ/kg, the temperature could be lowered from 725 to 701, 693, and 699 °C for Pd, Pt, and Au HEMNs, respectively. Pt HEMN turned out to be the best due to its excellent catalytic dehydrogenation/cracking performance, with the conversion of decalin increasing from 22.3 to 50.7% and the heat sink rising from 2.18 to 2.62 MJ/kg with the existence of 50 ppm Pt@CPAMAM, at 675 °C. The significant enhancements were ascribed to the synergistic catalysis through the remarkable abilities of nanometals to catalyze dehydrogenation/cracking of fuel, the supercritical stabilization effects from CPAMAM, and the initiation effects of the hyperbranched polymer CPAMAM.

20.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 278, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470892

RESUMO

Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of 30-150 nm, are shed by almost all cell types. Bearing proteins, lipids, RNAs, and DNAs, exosomes have emerged as vital biological mediators in cell-to-cell communication, affecting a plethora of physiological and pathological processes. Particularly, mounting evidence indicates that immunologically active exosomes can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Herein, we review recent advances in the research of exosomes in several immune-mediated eye diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS) dry eye, corneal allograft rejection, autoimmune uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, we discuss the potential of exosomes as novel biomarkers and drug delivery vesicles for the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

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