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1.
Life Sci ; 285: 119996, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597607

RESUMO

AIMS: Dezocine and pentazocine, widely prescribed in China for postoperative pain, were initially considered as mixed agonist/antagonist targeting µ-opioid receptors (MORs) and κ-opioid receptors (KORs). However, dezocine has been revealed to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain through MOR activation and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI). This study investigated dezocine- and pentazocine-induced antinociception and physical dependence development, compared to the typical MOR-NRI opioid tapentadol. MAIN METHODS: Calcium mobilization assay was conducted to assess the potency of the drugs while hot-plate test was performed to compare the antinociception. Physical dependence development was compared with morphine. KEY FINDINGS: Treatment with dezocine, pentazocine and tapentadol stimulated calcium mobilization in HEK293 cells stably expressed MORs but not KORs, whereas dezocine and pentazocine inhibited KOR activities. Subcutaneously injected dezocine-, tapentadol- and pentazocine-induced antinociception dose-dependently, in hot-plate test. Intrathecally injected MOR antagonist CTAP, norepinephrine depletor 6-OHDA and α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) antagonist yohimbine partially antagonized dezocine, pentazocine and tapentadol antinociception. Whereas specific KOR antagonist GNTI did not alter their antinociception, the putative inverse KOR agonist nor-BNI reduced dezocine and pentazocine antinociception. Moreover, combined CTAP and 6-OHDA or yohimbine blocked dezocine and tapentadol antinociception but displayed the same partial inhibition on pentazocine antinociception as CTAP alone. Furthermore, compared to morphine and pentazocine, long-term treatment with dezocine and tapentadol produced much less physical dependence-related withdrawal signs, which were restored by spinal 6-OHDA or yohimbine treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings illustrated that dezocine and tapentadol, but not pentazocine, exert remarkable antinociception in nociceptive pain with less abuse liability via dual mechanisms of MOR activation and NRI.

2.
Nurs Res ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a major cause of adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization, falls, disability, and morbidity among older adults; the elucidation of factors affecting frailty trends over time may facilitate the development of effective interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the trend of frailty over time (at baseline, with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups) among Chinese nursing home residents and identify associated resident- and institutional-level factors. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 353 residents who were admitted into 27 nursing homes in Jinan, China. Frailty was defined based on the seven self-reported components of the FRAIL-NH scale, which was designed for nursing home residents. Information was gathered using scales that assessed resident-level (sociodemographic characteristics and physical, psychological, and social factors) and institutional-level characteristics (hospital affiliation, fitness sites, green space, occupancy percentage, staff-resident ratio, staff turnover rate). These data were subjected to a multilevel linear analysis. RESULTS: Frailty was identified in 49.7% of residents at baseline and exhibited a progressively worsening trend over 1 year. Among institutional-level characteristics, the provision of fitness sites in nursing homes was a protective factor for frailty. Among resident-level characteristics, undernutrition was a significant independent risk factor and played a key role in increasing frailty over time. Other risk factors for frailty included younger age, poorer self-rated health, lower physical function, chewing difficulty, loneliness, anxiety, and being less active in leisure activities. DISCUSSION: Frailty was highly prevalent among Chinese nursing home residents and gradually increased over time. The results of this study could be used to inform the development of interventions targeted at modifiable risk factors and shape public health policies aimed at promoting healthy aging and delaying frailty and its adverse outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617221

RESUMO

Extracellular organic matter (EOM) is an important precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Nowadays, little is known about changes in molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilic (HPI)/hydrophobic (HPO) fractions of EOM during the entire algal growth phase. In this study, a combined approach of fractionation procedure and parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was applied to characterize the EOM during the entire growth phase of two algal species (M. aeruginosa and Synedra sp.), and investigated the relationships between fluorescent component and the DBP formation potential (FP) in MW and HPI/HPO fractions. Thereinto, three components (including one protein-like component (C1), one humic-like component (C2), and one fulvic acid-like component (C3)) were identified by the PARAFAC model. For two algae, the HPI and high MW (> 100 kDa) fractions were both the main components of algal EOM in the three growth phases in terms of the dissolved organic carbon. The high MW fraction had more C1 compared with other MW fractions, especially for M. aeruginosa. Besides, the formation risk of EOM-derived DBPs from M. aeruginosa was lower than that from Synedra sp. The result of this study showed the FP of DBPs varied with fluorescent components of algal EOM fractions and also indicated that the humic-like substances were tended to form trichloromethane and the tryptophan-like substances were associated with dichloroacetic acid by canonical correspondence analysis for both two algae.

4.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E868-E869, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623255

RESUMO

Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an aortic catastrophe with low prevalence. Giant CAA is even more uncommon, requiring surgical intervention. Giant CAA usually originates from the proximal segments of the right coronary and the anterior descending arteries. Here we report a rare case of giant left CAA with fistula formation treated with successful surgery.

5.
Appl Opt ; 60(29): 9200-9204, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624002

RESUMO

An all-dielectric metasurface is proposed, and the transmission spectrum is analyzed by numerical simulation. The Fano resonance line appears in the transmission spectrum. The mechanism of Fano resonance is analyzed based on multipole coupling theory. The mathematical model between structural parameters and spectral performance is established by the back propagation (BP) neural network. Then, the genetic algorithm, sparrow search algorithm, and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are used to find the structural parameters corresponding to the optimal performance. The result shows that the quality factor is increased by three times, reaching 3805, and the modulation depth is close to 100% after PSO optimization. Our study provides a new method for the design of metasurfaces and parameter optimization of optical micro-nano structures.

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(20): 2403-2411, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence in cancer patients is still controversial. The stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is one of the most important sources of heterogeneity for the treatment effect. We sought to update existing systematic reviews and clarify the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence in late-stage cancer patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that assessed the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence and overall survival (OS) compared with general anesthesia. Late-stage cancer patients were primarily assessed according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual (eighth edition), and the combined hazard ratio (HR) from random-effects models was used to evaluate the effect of regional anesthesia. RESULTS: A total of three RCTs and 34 cohort studies (including 64,691 patients) were identified through the literature search for inclusion in the analysis. The risk of bias was low in the RCTs and was moderate in the observational studies. The pooled HR for recurrence-free survival (RFS) or OS did not favor regional anesthesia when data from RCTs in patients with late-stage cancer were combined (RFS, HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-2.18, P = 0.729, I2 = 76%; OS, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.63-1.18, P = 0.345, I2 = 48%). Findings from observational studies showed that regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.96, P = 0.008, I2 = 71%) and improve OS (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.022, I2 = 79%). CONCLUSIONS: RCTs reveal that OS and RFS were similar between regional and general anesthesia in late-stage cancers. The selection of anesthetic methods should still be based on clinical evaluation, and changes to current practice need more support from large, well-powered, and well-designed studies.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Neoplasias , Humanos , Recidiva
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The convoluted element of PM2.5 may cause various biological reactions. Nowadays, few studies have indicated the long-term health effects of PM2.5 on HCC. Therefore, this meta-analysis first aims to obtain more precise estimates of the effects of PM2.5 exposure on HCC to assess the strength of the evidence. METHODS: A combination of computer and manual retrieval was used to search in Medline through PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to examine the heterogeneity among the studies. RESULTS: Finally, 8 qualified articles meet the inclusion criteria. The results were I2 = 0%, P > 0.1 indicating that there was no heterogeneity. The results showed that the concentration of PM2.5 increased by 10 µg/m3 was significantly correlated with liver cancer, and HR was 1.22 (95% CI 1.14-1.30, P < 0.05), indicating that maternal exposure to PM2.5 was positively correlated with liver cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis showed that the patients with HCC significance related to PM2.5 exposure. However, more studies investigating the combined effects of different air pollutants on HCC incidence are warranted to provide more comprehensive evidence for assessing the different levels impacts of PM2.5 exposure on HCC incidence.

8.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is one of the main active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhiza. It has significant skin anti-aging, whitening, and sun protection properties. AIMS: The study aimed at studying the mechanism underlying the effect of salvianolic acid Bon collagen synthesis, which has good anti-aging efficacy and modulates microcirculation. METHODS: This study employed available public databases, bioinformatics methodologies, and the inverse docking approach to explore the effectiveness of SAB in the regulating collagen synthesis, and then used an human dermal fibroblast (HDF)- Human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) in vitro model to validate the predicted mechanism of SAB in influencing collagen synthesis. RESULTS: The results showed that NO production in SAB-treated HDMEC-conditioned medium was increased compared to that in control media, and the same tendency was also observed for growth factor production. SAB also upregulated HDMEC cellular eNOS and VEGF. When SAB-treated HDMEC conditioned medium was transferred to HDFs, the expression of collagen I, collagen III, and elastin in HDFs was upregulated and MMP-1 was downregulated. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that SAB regulates collagen through the HDMEC-HDF pathway. Furthermore, the mechanisms might be closely related to the microcirculation factors NO and VEGF.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 10-Hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE, 10-OH C18:1), an emerging functional fatty acid, has anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects. 10-HOE is synthesized by bacterial 10-linoleic acid hydratase (10-LHT) with linoleic acid as the substate. However, the characterization of 10-LHT and its targeted synthesis of 10-HOE have been rarely reported. In this study, the recombinant 10-LHT from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ZS2058 was characterized, and the biocatalysis of 10-HOE using crude enzyme was optimized. RESULTS: The recombinant 10-LHT catalyzed the conversion of linoleic acid (C18:2) to 10-HOE as identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It showed a molecular weight of about 70 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and was a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme. The activity of 10-LHT was optimal at pH 6.5 and 25 °C, and it was pH-stable but thermo-sensitive. The optimal condition for the 10-HOE biosynthesis using crude enzyme was 5 g L-1 linoleic acid (C18:2), 148.0 U mL-1 10-LHT, 0.05 mmol L-1 FAD, 2% methanol and 100 mmol L-1 sodium chloride at 25 °C and pH 6.5. A conversion yield of 47.8 ± 1.5% and the corresponding 10-HOE concentration of 2.4 ± 0.1 g L-1 were achieved at 48 h under the optimal reaction conditions. CONCLUSION: This work achieved the highest conversion yield of 10-HOE with the highest substrate concentration, and provides some useful information for the industrial production of 10-HOE. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 372, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666710

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: To describe changes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgical procedures in Beijing during the COVID-19 Pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of RRD patients was analyzed. Patients were divided into the COVID-19 pandemic group and pre-COVID-19 group according to their presentation. The presurgery characteristics, surgical procedures, and surgery outcomes were collected. The potential factors related to the choice of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) or scleral buckling (SB) were analyzed using logistic regression. The differences in the procedure choice under specific conditions were compared. Surgery outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In the COVID-19 pandemic group, less patients received SB (27.8, 41.3%, p = 0.02) while more patients received PPV (72.2, 58.6%, p = 0.02); in patients who received SB, fewer patients received subretinal fluid drainage (45.4,75.7%, p = 0.01); in patients who received PPV, fewer patients received phacovitrectomy (7.0, 21.0%, p = 0.02). The choice of PPV was related to older age (1.03, p = 0.005), the presence of RRD with choroidal detachment (RRD-CD) (2.92, p = 0.03), pseudophakia (5.0, p = 0.002), retinal breaks located posterior to the equator (4.87, p < 0.001), macular holes (9.76, p = 0.005), and a presurgery visual acuity (VA) less than 0.02 (0.44, p = 0.03). Fewer phakia patients with retinal breaks located posterior to the equator (1/28, 11/30, p = 0.01) and fewer patients with chronic RRD and subretinal strand (1/9, 9/16, p = 0.03) received SB in the COVID-19 pandemic group. There were more patients with improved VA (55.7, 40.2%, p = 0.03) in the COVID-19 pandemic group. The overall single-surgery retinal attachment rate was similar in the two groups (94.9, 94.5%, p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 Pandemic, the main reason for the increased number of PPV in RRD treatment was that more complicated cases were presented. However, the surgeons were conservative in procedure choice in specific cases. The adjustments on RRD treatments lead to comparable surgery outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Descolamento Retiniano , Idoso , Humanos , Pandemias , Descolamento Retiniano/epidemiologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Recurvamento da Esclera , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitrectomia
11.
Mucosal Immunol ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686839

RESUMO

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in allergic airway inflammation. Despite recent advances in defining molecular mechanisms that control ILC2 development and function, the role of endogenous metabolites in the regulation of ILC2s remains poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that bilirubin, an end product of heme catabolism, was a potent negative regulator of ILC2s. Bilirubin metabolism was found to be significantly induced during airway inflammation in mouse models. The administration of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) dramatically suppressed ILC2 responses to interleukin (IL)-33 in mice, including cell proliferation and the production of effector cytokines. Furthermore, UCB significantly alleviated ILC2-driven airway inflammation, which was aggravated upon clearance of endogenous UCB. Mechanistic studies showed that the effects of bilirubin on ILC2s were associated with downregulation of ERK phosphorylation and GATA3 expression. Clinically, newborns with hyperbilirubinemia displayed significantly lower levels of ILC2 with impaired function and suppressed ERK signaling. Together, these findings indicate that bilirubin serves as an endogenous suppressor of ILC2s and might have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of allergic airway inflammation.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573108

RESUMO

Hollow nanoparticles are preferred over solid ones for their high loading capabilities, sustained release and low density. Hollow zein particles are susceptible to aggregation with a slight variation in the ionic strength, pH and temperature of the medium. This study was aimed to fabricate quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles with chitosan and pectin coating to improve their physicochemical stability. Quercetin as a model flavonoid had a loading efficiency and capacity of about 86-94% and 2.22-5.89%, respectively. Infrared and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed the interaction of quercetin with zein and the change in its physical state from crystalline to amorphous upon incorporation in the composite particles. The chitosan/pectin coating improved the stability of quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles against heat treatment, sodium chloride and in a wide range of pH. The complex coating protected quercetin that was encapsulated in hollow zein particles from free radicals in the aqueous medium and enhanced its DPPH radical scavenging ability. The entrapment of quercetin in the particles improved its storage and photochemical stability. The storage stability of entrapped quercetin was enhanced both at 25 and 45 °C in hollow zein particles coated with chitosan and pectin. Therefore, composite hollow zein particles fabricated with a combination of polysaccharides can expand their role in the encapsulation, protection and delivery of bioactive components.

13.
Immunohorizons ; 5(9): 772-781, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583938

RESUMO

Innate-like T cells, including invariant NKT cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γ δ T (γδT) cells, are groups of unconventional T lymphocytes. They play important roles in the immune system. Because of the lack of Cre recombinase lines that are specific for innate-like T cells, pan-T cell Cre lines are often used to study innate-like T cells. In this study, we found that distal Lck promoter-driven Cre (dLckCre) in which the distal Lck gene promoter drives Cre expression in the late stage of thymocyte development has limited function in the innate-like T cells using ROSA26floxed-Stop-tdTomato reporter. Innate-like T cells differentiate into mature functional subsets comparable to the CD4+ Th subsets under homeostatic conditions. We further showed that dLckCre-expressing γδT cells are strongly biased toward γδT1 phenotype. Interestingly, the γδT cells residing in the epidermis and comprising the vast majority of dendritic epidermal T cells nearly all express dLckCre, indicating dLckCre is a useful tool for studying dendritic epidermal T cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Lck distal promoter has different activity in the conventional and unconventional T cells. The use of dLCKcre transgenic mice in the innate-like T cells needs to be guided by a reporter for the dLckCre function.

14.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 6925-6934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526818

RESUMO

Objective: DCE-MRI is an imaging technique that reflects the blood perfusion status of the tissue's microcirculation. The purpose of this article is to explore the clinical value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI in distinguishing benign and malignant tongue lesions and the internal heterogeneity of a tumour. Methods: The patients were divided into a tongue cancer group (22 patients) and a glossitis group (7 patients) based on the pathology results. All of the patients underwent DCE-MRI examination. Results: The results of this study showed that the volume transfer constant (Ktrans), rate constant (Kep), contrast enhancement ratio (CER) and initial area under the gadolinium contrast agent concentration time curve (IAUGG) values of the tongue cancer group were significantly higher than those of the glossitis group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve), fractional plasma volume (fPV), maximum slope (MaxSlope), and bolus arrival time (BAT) values measured by DCE-MRI in the tongue cancer group were not significantly different from those in the glossitis group (P > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the Ktrans, Kep, and IAUGG values measured by DCE-MRI had a good ability to distinguish tongue inflammation from tumours and Ktrans threshold of 0.484 has the best discriminative ability among them. The mean Ktrans values of stage I-II lesions were significantly higher than that of stage III-IV lesion (p = 0.045). Conclusion: DCE-MRI is effective in distinguishing between benign and malignant tongue lesions and the internal heterogeneity of the tumour; it is worth following up in a larger study. Clinical Registration Number: Research registry 6393.

16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14850, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular dysfunction has been reported as an important mechanism of weaning failure, and recent data suggest that elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels is associated with an increased risk of weaning failure. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the correlation between elevated BNP levels and weaning failure in critically ill patients subject to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A systematic search in Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science was performed up to September 25, 2019. Standard mean differences (SMD) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the BNP levels were calculated for each study. RESULTS: Nine studies with a total number of 589 were included in the final meta-analysis. The results showed that elevated BNP levels were significantly associated with the risk of weaning failure (SMD: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.05, P < .00001). The finding was consistent with the BNP measured before (SMD: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.26 to 1.11, P = .002) or at the end of spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) (SMD: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.18, P < .00001). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that increased plasma BNP concentration was associated with weaning failure in ICU patients.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Desmame do Respirador , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Respiração Artificial
17.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 141-154, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474107

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic inflammation is a primary reason for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, while disordered branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism is found in T2DM, but the link between BCAA catabolic defects and inflammation in T2DM remains elusive and needs to be investigated. METHODS: The changes in BCAA catabolism, inflammation, organ damage, redox status, and mitochondrial function in db/db mice with treatments of BCAA-overload or BCAA catabolism activator were analyzed in vivo. The changes in BCAA catabolic metabolism, as well as the direct effects of BCAAs/branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs) on cytokine release and redox status were also analyzed in primary macrophages in vitro. RESULTS: Inactivation of branched-chain ɑ-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex was found in multiple organs (liver, muscle and kidney) of db/db mice. Long-term high BCAA supplementation further increased BCKA levels, inflammation, tissue fibrosis (liver and kidney), and macrophage hyper-activation in db/db mice, while enhancing BCAA catabolism with pharmacological activator reduced these adverse effects in db/db mice. In vitro, the BCAA catabolism was unchanged in primary macrophages of db/db mice, and elevated BCKAs but not BCAAs promoted the cytokine production in primary macrophages. Moreover, BCKA stimulation was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and redox imbalance in macrophages and diabetic organs. CONCLUSION: Impaired BCAA catabolism is strongly associated with chronic inflammation and tissue damage in T2DM, and this effect is at least partly due to the BCKAs-induced macrophage oxidative stress. This study highlights that targeting BCAA catabolism is a potential strategy to attenuate T2DM and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Animais , Cetoácidos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(20): 9863-9877, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532973

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious disease for which effective therapeutic agents are required. The capacity of curcumin (CUR) to resolve renal inflammation/oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage has been reported, but crosstalk between these effects and the consequence of this crosstalk remain elusive. In this study, a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury model and an ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced mouse AKI model were treated with CUR with or without mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and FCCP) or siRNA targeting mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Changes in mitochondrial function, inflammation, the antioxidant system and related pathways were analysed. In vitro, CUR suppressed NFκB activation and cytokine production and induced NRF2/HO-1 signalling in TECs under H/R conditions. CUR treatment also reduced mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, TCA cycle activity and ATP synthesis in damaged TECs. However, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of CUR in damaged TECs were markedly abolished upon mitochondrial disruption. In vivo, CUR treatment improved renal function and antioxidant protein (NRF2 and SOD2) expression and reduced oxidative stress (8-OHdG), tubular apoptosis/death, cytokine release/macrophage infiltration and mitochondrial damage in the kidneys of AKI mice. In vitro, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of CUR in damaged kidneys were impaired when mitochondrial function was disrupted. These results suggest mitochondrial damage is a driving factor of renal inflammation and redox imbalance. The therapeutic capacity of CUR in kidneys with AKI is primarily dependent on mitochondrial mechanisms; thus, CUR is a potential therapy for various diseases characterized by mitochondrial damage.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 2900-2911, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467680

RESUMO

Paridis Rhizoma(PR) is prepared from the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis(PPY) or P. polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) in Liliaceae family. The rapid development of PPY or PPC planting industry resulted from resource shortage has caused the waste of a large number of non-medicinal resources. To clarify the chemical compositions in rhizomes, fibrous roots, stems, leaves, seeds and pericarps of PPC, and explore the comprehensive application value and development prospect of these parts, the qualitative and quantitative analyses on the different parts of PPC were carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). A total of 136 compounds were identified, including 112 steroidal saponins, 6 flavonoids, 11 nitrogen-containing compounds and 7 phytosterols. Rhizomes, fibrous roots, and seeds mainly contained protopennogenyl glycosides and pennogenyl glycosides; leaves and stems mainly contained protodiosgenyl glycosides and diosgenyl glycosides; pericarps mainly contained pennogenyl glycosides, followed by diosgenyl glycosides. The total level of four saponins was the highest in fibrous roots and rhizomes, followed by those in the pericarps and arillate seeds, and the lowest in the stems and exarillate seeds. This study can provide data support for the comprehensive development and rational application of non-medicinal parts of PPC.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Saponinas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rizoma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
J Nurs Meas ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518396

RESUMO

Few studies have critically appraised Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in immigrants. The purpose of the article is to determine if PSS is adequately developed and properly used with U.S. immigrants. Searching via PubMed and PsycINFO databases resulted in 10 research papers published between 2009 and 2019 that met the selection criteria and were integrated for this review. Most of the studies do not have adequate theoretical models and do not have proper consideration of socio-cultural factors. Five studies used the PSS translated into different languages but only one study validated the translated version. Six studies reported the reliability of the PSS. The PSS-14 and PSS-10 may be appropriately used in immigrants to measure psychological stress. Some issues, such as the PSS's reliability and validity, need to be addressed in future use in immigrants.

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