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1.
Glia ; 68(1): 27-43, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429156

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke leads to neuronal damage induced by excitotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Astrocytes play diverse roles in stroke and ischemia-induced inflammation, and autophagy is critical for maintaining astrocytic functions. Our previous studies showed that the activation of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), an estrogen membrane receptor, protected neurons from excitotoxicity. However, the role of astrocytic GPR30 in maintaining autophagy and neuroprotection remained unclear. In this study, we found that the neuroprotection induced by G1 (GPR30 agonist) in wild-type mice after a middle cerebral artery occlusion was completely blocked in GPR30 conventional knockout (KO) mice but partially attenuated in astrocytic or neuronal GPR30 KO mice. In cultured primary astrocytes, glutamate exposure induced astrocyte proliferation and decreased astrocyte autophagy by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. G1 treatment restored autophagy to its basal level by regulating the p38 pathway but not the mTOR and JNK signaling pathways. Our findings revealed a key role of GPR30 in neuroprotection via the regulation of astrocyte autophagy and support astrocytic GPR30 as a potential drug target against ischemic brain damage.

2.
Microbiol Res ; 230: 126348, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639624

RESUMO

The transcription factor PacC/Rim101 participates in environmental pH adaptation, development and secondary metabolism in many fungi, but whether PacC/Rim101 contributes to fungal adaptation to environmental stress remains unclear. In our previous study, a homologous gene of PacC/Rim101 was identified, and PacC-silenced strains of the agaricomycete Ganoderma lucidum were constructed. In this study, we further investigated the functions of PacC in G. lucidum and found that PacC-silenced strains were hypersensitive to environmental stresses, such as osmotic stress, oxidative stress and cell wall stress, compared with wild-type (WT) and empty-vector control (CK) strains. In addition, transmission electron microscopy images of the cell wall structure showed that the cell walls of the PacC-silenced strains were thinner (by approximately 25-30%) than those of the WT and CK strains. Further analysis of cell wall composition showed that the ß-1,3-glucan content in the PacC-silenced strains was only approximately 78-80% of that in the WT strain, and the changes in ß-1,3-glucan content were consistent with downregulation of glucan synthase gene expression. The ability of PacC to bind to the promoters of glucan synthase-encoding genes confirms that PacC transcriptionally regulates these genes.

3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7263-7279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686807

RESUMO

Background: Gemcitabine has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic drug. However, drug resistance, short half-life and side effects seriously decrease its chemotherapeutic efficacy. Purpose: The object of preparing RGDV-gemcitabine was to prolong the half-life, to overcome drug resistance and to eliminate bone marrow toxicity of gemcitabine. Methods: Arg-Gly-Asp-Val was coupled with gemcitabine, forming 4-(Arg-Gly-Asp-Val-amino)-1-[3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxylmethyl)oxo-lan-2-yl]pyrimidin-2-one (RGDV-gemcitabine) involving 9-step reactions. The advantages of RGDV-gemcitabine to gemcitabine were demonstrated by a series of assays, such as in vitro half-life assay, in vitro drug resistance assay, in vivo anti-tumor assay, in vivo kidney toxicity assay, in vivo liver toxicity assay and in vivo marrow toxicity assay. The nano-features of RGDV-gemcitabine were visualized by TEM, SEM and AFM images. The tumor-targeting action and release of RGDV-gemcitabine were evidenced by FT-MS spectra. Results: Half-life and anti-tumor activity of RGDV-gemcitabine were 17-fold longer and 10-fold higher than that of gemcitabine, respectively. RGDV-gemcitabine, but not gemcitabine, showed no kidney toxicity, no liver toxicity, no marrow toxicity and no drug resistance. The advantages attributed to the nanofeatures of RGDV-gemcitabine were targeting tumor tissue and releasing gemcitabine in tumor tissue. Conclusion: RGDV-gemcitabine successively overcame the defects of gemcitabine and provided a practical strategy of nano-medicine.

4.
Theranostics ; 9(25): 7616-7627, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695790

RESUMO

Cell-based immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, such as leukemia and lymphoma, has seen much success and played an increasingly important role in clinical studies. Nevertheless, the efficacy of immunotherapy in solid tumors still needs improvements due to the immunosuppressive properties of tumor cells and the microenvironment. To overcome these limitations, we prepared a novel tumor-targeting delivery system based on the underlying mechanism of immune-targeted cell death that encapsulated granzyme B protein within a porous polymeric nanocapsule. Methods: A cell-penetrating peptide TAT was attached onto granzyme B (GrB) to enhance its transmembrane transport efficiency and potency to induce cell apoptosis. The endocytosis and internalization pathways of GrB-TAT (GrB-T) were analyzed in comparison with perforin by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the positively charged GrB-T was wrapped into nanoparticles by p-2-methacryloyloxy ethyl phosphorylcholine (PMPC)-modified HA (hyaluronic acid). The nanoparticles (called TCiGNPs) were characterized in terms of zeta potential and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in vitro anti-tumor effects of GrB-T were examined by cell apoptosis assay and Western blotting analysis. The in vivo anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy of TCiGNPs was evaluated in a mouse tumor model. Results: The TAT peptide could play a role similar to perforin to mediate direct transmembrane transfer of GrB and improve GrB-induced cell apoptosis. The TCiGNPs were successfully synthesized and accumulated in the solid tumor through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. In the tumor microenvironment, TCiGNPs could be degraded by hyaluronidase and triggered the release of GrB-T. The TAT peptide enabled the translocation of GrB across the plasma membrane to induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo. Conclusion: We successfully developed a granzyme B delivery system with a GrB-T core and a PMPC/HA shell that simulated CTL/NK cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy mechanism. The GrB delivery system holds great promise for cancer treatment analogous to the CTL/NK cell-induced immunotherapy.

5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; : 112936, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672581

RESUMO

The combination of notoginseng total saponins (NS) and safflower total flavonoids (SF), namely CNS, presents a synergistic protection effect on the myocardial ischemia rats. The aim of this study was to find the clues for their synergistic actions by comparing the biliary metabolism and excretion profiles after oral administration of CNS and its individual extracts. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) platform was used to identify and quantify the CNS-derived components in bile. The neutral losses, precursor ions, and predictive multiple reaction monitoring (pMRM) scans were firstly used to detect the CNS-derived ingredients in vivo. A total of 43 components, including 38 flavonoids and 5 ginsenosides were tentatively identified according to the previously established chemical and metabolic profiles of NS and SF. Afterwards, the primary circulating and biological components, hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), ginsenosides Rg1 (GRg1), Re (GRe), and Rd (GRd) were chosen to compare the bile excretion between CNS and its individual extract groups, by using a validated LC-MRM-MS/MS method. The approach was proved to be well satisfied the related requirements from the guidelines of FDA (specificity, calibration curve, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect, recovery, and stability). Comparing with the SF and NS groups, the combination group did not affect the metabolic pathways of the CNS-related components, however, it decreased the cumulative excretion ratios of HSYA, GRg1, GRe, and GRd. In conclusion, the compatibility of SF and NS could reduce the bile excretion of the CNS-derived compounds, which may be one of the reasons for the enhancement of anti-myocardial ischemia after combination.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756231

RESUMO

Modified nucleosides in tRNAs are critical for protein translation. N1-methylguanosine-37 and N1-methylinosine-37 in tRNAs, both located at the 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, are formed by Trm5. Here we describe Arabidopsis thaliana AtTRM5 (At3g56120) as a Trm5 ortholog. Attrm5 mutant plants have overall slower growth as observed by slower leaf initiation rate, delayed flowering and reduced primary root length. In Attrm5 mutants, mRNAs of flowering time genes are less abundant and correlated with delayed flowering. We show that AtTRM5 complements the yeast trm5 mutant, and in vitro methylates tRNA guanosine-37 to produce N1-methylguanosine (m1G). We also show in vitro that AtTRM5 methylates tRNA inosine-37 to produce N1-methylinosine (m1I) and in Attrm5 mutant plants, we show a reduction of both N1-methylguanosine and N1-methylinosine. We also show that AtTRM5 is localized to the nucleus in plant cells. Proteomics data showed that photosynthetic protein abundance is affected in Attrm5 mutant plants. Finally, we show tRNA-Ala aminoacylation is not affected in Attrm5 mutants. However the abundance of tRNA-Ala and tRNA-Asp 5' half cleavage products are deduced. Our findings highlight the bifunctionality of AtTRM5 and the importance of the post-transcriptional tRNA modifications m1G and m1I at tRNA position 37 in general plant growth and development.

7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5999-6005, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In the present study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of trabectedin (TRAB) combined with oxaliplatinum (OXA)+5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on a colorectal cancer (CRC) patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A patient CRC tumor previously established in nude mice was implanted subcutaneously in transgenic green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing nude mice. Harvested tumor fragments were transplanted orthotopically in non-transgenic nude mice. Mice were randomized into three groups: Group 1 (G1), untreated-control; Group 2 (G2), OXA+5-FU; Group 3 (G3), TRAB+OXA+5-FU. Tumor width, length, and mouse body weight were measured twice a week. RESULTS: Both treatment groups inhibited tumor growth compared to the untreated control group. The combination of TRAB, OXA and 5-FU was significantly more efficacious than OXA+5-FU and arrested tumor growth. No significant changes were observed in body-weight in any of the three groups. CONCLUSION: TRAB, OXA and 5-FU combination has clinical potential for this and other CRC patients.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Trabectedina/administração & dosagem , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 322, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a serious complication in patients with cancers and HBV infection undergoing immunosuppressant treatment or chemotherapy. However, the safety of anti-programmed cell death (PD) -1 and anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy in these patients is unknown because they were excluded from clinical trials of immunotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved consecutive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -positive cancer patients who were referred to Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and received an anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibody between January 1, 2015 and July 31, 2018. The primary end point was the rate of the occurrence of HBV reactivation. RESULTS: In total, 114 eligible patients were included, among whom 90 (79%) were male, and the median (range) age was 46 (16-76) years. Six patients (5.3%) developed HBV reactivation, occurring at a median of 18 weeks (range, 3-35 weeks) from the commencement of immunotherapy. Among these patients, all of them had undetectable baseline HBV DNA; one had prophylactic antiviral therapy while five did not; four were positive for Hepatitis B e antigen while the other two were negative. At reactivation, the median HBV DNA level was 3.89 × 104 IU/mL (range, 1.80 × 103-6.00 × 107 IU/mL); five had HBV-related hepatitis and one exhibited increasing HBV DNA level without alanine transaminase elevation. No HBV-related fatal events occurred. The lack of antiviral prophylaxis was the only significant risk factor for HBV reactivation (odds ratio, 17.50 [95% CI, 1.95-157.07], P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: HBV reactivation occurs in a subset of HBsAg-positive cancer patients undergoing anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Regular monitoring of HBV DNA and antiviral prophylaxis are advised to prevent this potentially fatal complication.

9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Goodpasture disease, the noncollagenous domain 1 of the α3 chain (α3NC1) of type IV collagen is the main target antigen of antibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We previously identified a nephritogenic epitope, P14 (α3127-148), that could induce crescentic nephritis in WKY rats, and defined its core motif. Designing a modified peptide, replacing critical pathogenic residues with nonpathogenic ones (on the basis of homologous regions in α1NC1 chain of type IV collagen, known to be nonpathogenic), might provide a therapeutic option for anti-GBM GN. METHODS: We synthesized a modified peptide, replacing a single amino acid, and injected it into α3-P14-immunized rats from day 0 (the early-treatment group) or a later-treatment group (from days 17 to 21). A scrambled peptide administrated with the same protocol served as a control. RESULTS: The modified peptide, but not the scrambled peptide, attenuated anti-GBM GN in both treatment groups, and halted further crescent formation even after disease onset. Kidneys from the modified peptide-treated rats exhibited reductions in IgG deposits, complement activation, and infiltration by T cells and macrophages. Treatment also resulted in an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile versus a proinflammatory profile for animals not receiving the modified peptide; it also reduced α3-P14-specific T cell activation, modulated T cell differentiation by decreasing Th17 cells and enhancing the ratio of Treg/Th17 cells, and inhibited binding of α3-P14 to antibodies and MHC II molecules. CONCLUSIONS: A modified peptide involving alteration of a critical motif in a nephritogenic T cell epitope alleviated anti-GBM GN in a rat model. Our findings may provide insights into an immunotherapeutic approach for autoimmune kidney disorders such as Goodpasture disease.

10.
Zootaxa ; 4613(2): zootaxa.4613.2.2, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716411

RESUMO

Parastasia qiului Zhao, new species is described and illustrated from southwest China. This new species is allied to P. akebono Wada, 2015 from India, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the differences of color pattern and the shape of aedeagus. Parastasia sawadai Wada, 2003, P. alternata Arrow, 1899, and P. indica Ohaus, 1898 are reported new to Chinese fauna. Additional records for P. oberthueri Ohaus, 1900 and P. birmana Arrow, 1899 are provided. The knowledge of the natural history in this genus is improved.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , China , Cor , Índia
11.
Orthop Surg ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and oncological results of combination treatment of short-term preoperative denosumab (the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitor) with surgery in unresectable or recurrent cases of giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). METHODS: Between 2016 and 2018, 11 eligible patients (1 man, 10 women, mean age 38.1 years) with grade 3 GCTB were treated with a combination of short-term (six doses) preoperative denosumab and surgery in a single institution. The clinical, radiological, and pathological alteration after the denosumab treatment were compared. The oncological results of the combination therapy were also recorded. Meanwhile, adverse effects or complications of denosumab, if any, were reported. RESULTS: The median follow-up time after surgical procedure was 30 months (range 13-45 months). After 3-4 denosumab injections, pain relief was observed in all patients. In two spine patients, the neurological status improved after four doses of treatment. Intraoperatively, the margin of the tumor became clear and the intensity of the tumor increased while the blood supply around and within the lesion decreased. Within the lesion, the typically soft and loose tissue were replaced by the tough and dense fibro-osseous tissue. The mean diameter of the lesion before and after treatment was 61.55 ± 22.49 mm and 51.81 ± 21.12 mm, respectively, and the T-score was 1.02 (P = 0.32). Variable calcification was observed at the periphery and within the lesion. A total of three patients experienced local recurrence in this study. In the resection group, only one extremity patient had soft tissue recurrence that was treated with en-bloc excision. In the curettage group, two of three sacral tumor patients had local occurrence. Both refused re-operation and restarted the monthly denosumab injection thereafter, and the lesions remained stable at the final follow up. Finally, no adverse effects or complications related to denosumab treatment were found. CONCLUSION: For the unresectable or recurrent GCTB cases, short-term (six doses) preoperative use of denosumab improved clinical symptoms, decreased the tumor size, and increased the tumor density. The changes in tumors, in turn, simplified the tumor removal manipulation and, subsequently, decreased the local recurrence for the resection surgery. For the curettage, the denosumab-induced changes had mixed impacts, and shorter term (fewer than six doses) usage may be more appropriate. Our six-dose regime was deemed safe, while the safety of long-term use remains unknown.

12.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764220

RESUMO

Xp11 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features. We sought to identify variant fusions in TFEB translocation RCC. A total of 31 cases of TFEB RCCs were selected for the current study; MALAT1-TFEB fusion was identified in 25 cases (81%, 25/31) using fusion probes. The remaining 6 cases (19%, 6/31) were further analyzed by RNA sequencing and 5 of them were detected with TFEB-associated gene fusions, including 2 ACTB-TFEB, 1 EWSR1-TFEB, 1 CLTC-TFEB, and 1 potential PPP1R10-TFEB (a paracentric inversion of the TFEB gene, consistent with "negative" TFEB split FISH result, and advising a potential diagnostic pitfall in detecting TFEB gene rearrangement). Four of the 5 fusion transcripts were successfully validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Morphologically, approximately one third (29%, 9/31) of TFEB RCCs showed typical biphasic morphology. The remaining two thirds of the cases (71%, 22/31) exhibited nonspecific morphology, with nested, sheet-like, or papillary architecture, resembling other types of renal neoplasms, such as clear cell RCC, Xp11 RCC, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), or papillary RCC. Although cases bearing a MALAT1-TFEB fusion demonstrated variable morphologies, all 9 cases featuring typical biphasic morphology were associated with MALAT1-TFEB genotype. Accordingly, typical biphasic morphology suggests MALAT1-TFEB fusion, whereas atypical morphology did not suggest the specific type of fusion. Isolated or clustered eosinophilic cells were a common feature in TFEB RCCs, which may be a useful morphology diagnostic clue for TFEB RCCs. Clinicopathologic variables assessment showed that necrosis was the only morphologic feature that correlated with the aggressive behavior of TFEB RCC (P=0.004). In summary, our study expands the genomic spectrum and the clinicopathologic features of TFEB RCCs, and highlights the challenges of diagnosis and the importance of subtyping of this tumor by combining morphology and multiple molecular techniques.

13.
Tissue Cell ; 61: 109-114, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759402

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral recombinant methioninase (o-rMETase) on a model of colon cancer growing on the peritoneal surface using a patients-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model. Forty PDOX mouse models with colon cancer growing on the peritoneum were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each by measuring the tumor size and fluorescence intensity: untreated control; 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (50 mg/kg, once a week for two weeks, ip) and oxaliplatinum (OXA) (6  mg/kg, once a week for two weeks, ip); o-rMETase (100 units/day, oral 14 consecutive days); combination 5-FU + OXA and o-rMETase. All treatments inhibited tumor growth compared to the untreated control. The combination of 5-FU + OXA plus o-rMETase was significantly more efficacious than the control and each drug alone and was the only treatment that caused tumor regression. The present study is the first demonstrating the efficacy of o-rMETase combination therapy on a PDOX model of peritoneal colon cancer, suggesting potential clinical development of o-rMETase in a recalcitrant cancer.

14.
Transplant Proc ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are still disputes regarding the choice of surgical approach to harvest organs from pediatric donors for organ recipients. The primary goal of this multicenter, retrospective analysis was to compare outcomes between single-kidney transplantation (SKT) and en bloc kidney transplantation (EBKT). METHODS: Data from donors and recipients aged 4 to 18 months from 3 transplant centers over 5 year were collected to compare postoperative complications and recoveries of renal function between SKT and EBKT and to determine whether there is a difference in the 1-year patient and kidney survival rate between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Between the SKT and EBKT groups, the incidence of delayed graft function was significantly higher in the SKT group than in the EBKT group (44.1% vs 17.3%, P = .03), and there were no significant differences in other complications (47.0% vs 59.0%, P = .36). Moreover, no significant differences were observed for the overall patient survival rate (P = .08) or the overall graft survival rate (P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: The short-term effects of SKT make it worthy of consideration. For infants aged 4 to 18 months, SKT can provide good results, alleviating the current tense situation in kidney donation.

15.
BMJ ; 367: l5873, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672760

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the global capacity (availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability) to deliver kidney replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation) and conservative kidney management. DESIGN: International cross sectional survey. SETTING: International Society of Nephrology (ISN) survey of 182 countries from July to September 2018. PARTICIPANTS: Key stakeholders identified by ISN's national and regional leaders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Markers of national capacity to deliver core components of kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management. RESULTS: Responses were received from 160 (87.9%) of 182 countries, comprising 97.8% (7338.5 million of 7501.3 million) of the world's population. A wide variation was found in capacity and structures for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management-namely, funding mechanisms, health workforce, service delivery, and available technologies. Information on the prevalence of treated end stage kidney disease was available in 91 (42%) of 218 countries worldwide. Estimates varied more than 800-fold from 4 to 3392 per million population. Rwanda was the only low income country to report data on the prevalence of treated disease; 5 (<10%) of 53 African countries reported these data. Of 159 countries, 102 (64%) provided public funding for kidney replacement therapy. Sixty eight (43%) of 159 countries charged no fees at the point of care delivery and 34 (21%) made some charge. Haemodialysis was reported as available in 156 (100%) of 156 countries, peritoneal dialysis in 119 (76%) of 156 countries, and kidney transplantation in 114 (74%) of 155 countries. Dialysis and kidney transplantation were available to more than 50% of patients in only 108 (70%) and 45 (29%) of 154 countries that offered these services, respectively. Conservative kidney management was available in 124 (81%) of 154 countries. Worldwide, the median number of nephrologists was 9.96 per million population, which varied with income level. CONCLUSIONS: These comprehensive data show the capacity of countries (including low income countries) to provide optimal care for patients with end stage kidney disease. They demonstrate substantial variability in the burden of such disease and capacity for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management, which have implications for policy.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Nefrologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
16.
Metab Eng ; 57: 151-161, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711816

RESUMO

Engineering microbes to produce terpenes from renewable feedstock is a promising alternative to traditional production approaches. Generally, terpenes are not readily secreted by microbial cells, and their distribution within cells is usually obscure and often a restricting factor for the overproduction of terpenes due to the storage limitation. Here, we determined that squalene overproduced in the cytoplasm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was distributed in a form similar to oil droplets. Interestingly, these suspected oil droplets were confirmed to be inflated peroxisomes that were swollen along with the production of squalene, indicating that peroxisomes in S. cerevisiae are dynamic depots for the storage of squalene. In view of this, harnessing peroxisomes as subcellular compartments for squalene synthesis was performed, achieving a 138-fold improvement in squalene titer (1312.82 mg/L) relative to the parent strain, suggesting that the peroxisome of S. cerevisiae is an efficient subcellular factory for the synthesis of terpenes. By dual modulation of cytoplasmic and peroxisomal engineering, the squalene titer was further improved to 1698.02 mg/L. After optimizing a two-stage fed-batch fermentation method, the squalene titer reached 11.00 g/L, the highest ever reported. This provides new insight into the synthesis and storage of squalene in peroxisomes and reveals the potential of harnessing peroxisomes to overproduce terpenes in S. cerevisiae through dual cytoplasmic-peroxisomal engineering.

17.
J Psychosom Res ; 128: 109869, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression is the most common mental disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and previous studies have found that: (a) depression can accelerate the progression of CKD; and (b) depression is an independent risk factor for hospitalization and death among patients with CKD. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in Chinese patients with CKD, and to identify variables associated with depression. METHODS: The study analyzed baseline data from a multicenter prospective cohort study of Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (the C-STRIDE study). In all, 2995 participants in CKD stages 1 to 4 who completed a survey of depressive symptoms were included in the analyses. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). A ZSDS ≥50 was used as the cut-off score for the presence of depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with depression. RESULTS: The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the study sample was 51.59±29.49 ml/min/1.73 m2. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 37.8% and increased significantly with CKD stage. Being female, a higher level of education, a low income, a larger economic impact of disease cost, comorbid cardiovascular disease, anemia, and impaired physical ability were independently associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that depressive symptoms were common among patients with CKD in China. Sociodemographic variables and the clinical characteristics of disease severity were strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(46): 25889-25895, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742307

RESUMO

Noncovalent van der Waals (vdW) interactions are significant for the constitution of nanomaterials; however, they are not well understood in one-dimensional materials. Herein, we employ density functional theory (DFT) methods to address this issue and find that the many-body effects of vdW interactions within the one-dimensional wires composed of atoms chosen from the second period (B, C, N, O, F) vary with the interatomic distance of the wires. Furthermore, the atomic species effectively regulate the transition threshold of the many-body effects of vdW interactions. In the case of the adsorption of n-heptane (C7H16) on the wires, the atomic species alters the interactions between the wires and the molecule by modulating the coupling vibration between wires and C7H16 molecules. Correspondingly, replacing a portion of Pb with Tl atoms could contribute to the stability of the organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites with one-dimensional structures. Our findings not only contribute to the understanding of vdW interactions in one-dimensional structures with second-period atoms (B, C, N, O, F) but also provide clues for improving the stability of perovskites with one-dimensional structures.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18178, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770269

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Occasionally, tubulointerstitial lesions can be found in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). However, significantly isolated tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with germinal centers is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 17-year-old Chinese Han patient showed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, anuria, and serum creatinine of 19.4 mg/dL. DIAGNOSIS: He had positive ANCA targeting myeloperoxidase (55.0 RU/mL). The renal biopsy showed crescent formation in 100% of glomeruli. Of special note, the glomerular crescents were surrounded by granulomatous inflammation, extensive tubular destruction or disappearance, and massive interstitial infiltration. A diagnosis of AAV was thus made with the involved organ restricted to the kidney. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent 7 rounds of plasmapheresis, 3 pulses of methylprednisolone therapy (500 mg per pulse), and oral prednisolone (50 mg/d). Rituximab (500 mg) was used after the plasma exchange treatment. OUTCOMES: ANCA was negative, while anti-modified C-reactive protein (anti-mCRP) antibodies remained positive. The patient was dependent on hemodialysis. We found anti-mCRP antibody in the serum of the patient, with the major epitope on amino acids 35 to 47 of mCRP. LESSONS: We proposed that the anti-mCRP antibody might play an important role in this case of acute TIN in AAV.

20.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 435, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have demonstrated that hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) is associated with development of glomerular sclerosis. However, clinical case of such condition is very rare. Here we presented a case of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) associated with acromegaly. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old man was diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease for 2 years. Prednisone 1 mg/kg/day for 9 months led to no response. After admission, the second kidney biopsy indicated FSGS (NOS variant). On admission, his acromegalic features were noticed and he complained with a 20-year history of soft tissue swelling of hands and feet. Serum GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations were both elevated significantly. An oral glucose tolerance test showed inadequate suppression of serum GH. The presence of a pituitary macroadenoma with a diameter of 1.4 cm by MRI confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Then, the tumor was subtotally removed by trans-sphenoidal surgery. Partial remission of proteinuria was achieved 3 months after surgery and maintained during follow-up, with gradual reduce of corticosteroid. CONCLUSIONS: This rare case suggested that the hypersecretion of GH may participate, at least in part, in FSGS development and progression. Early diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly is beneficial.

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