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1.
Food Chem ; 372: 131289, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818734

RESUMO

Untargeted lipidomic analysis was conducted to explore how different dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio and, specifically, how an optimal ratio (2.3) compared to a suboptimum ratio (0.6) impacted lipid molecular species and the positional distribution of fatty acids in hepatopancreas of mud crab. The results indicated that major category of lipid affected by dietary DHA/EPA ratio was glycerophospholipids (GPs). The optimum dietary DHA/EPA ratio increased the contents of DHA bound to the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and triacylglycerol, EPA bound to the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine and 18:2n-6 bound to the sn-2 position of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Increased dietary DHA/EPA ratio also led to competition between arachidonic acid (ARA) and 18:2n-6 bound to esterified sites. Appropriate dietary DHA/EPA ratio can not only improve the growth performance and nutritional quality of mud crab, but also provide higher quality products for human consumers.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Animais , Braquiúros/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Hepatopâncreas , Humanos , Lipidômica
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e020979, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816729

RESUMO

Background Trimethyllysine, a trimethylamine N-oxide precursor, has been identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in acute coronary syndrome. However, limited data are available to examine the role of trimethyllysine in the population with stroke. We aimed to examine the relationship between plasma trimethyllysine levels and stroke outcomes in patients presenting with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Methods and Results Data of 10 027 patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack from the CNSR-III (Third China National Stroke Registry) and 1-year follow-up data for stroke outcomes were analyzed. Plasma levels of trimethyllysine were measured with mass spectrometry. The association between trimethyllysine and stroke outcomes was analyzed using Cox regression models. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the mediation effects of risk factors on the associations of trimethyllysine and stroke outcomes. Elevated trimethyllysine levels were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.03-2.86) and all-cause mortality (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: HR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.40-2.78) in multivariate Cox regression model. However, no associations were found between trimethyllysine and nonfatal stroke recurrence or nonfatal myocardial infarction. Trimethyllysine was associated with cardiovascular death independent of trimethylamine N-oxide. Both estimated glomerular filtration rate and hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) had significant mediation effects on the association of trimethyllysine with cardiovascular death, with a mediation effect of 37.8% and 13.4%, respectively. Conclusions Elevated trimethyllysine level is associated with cardiovascular death among patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Mediation analyses propose that trimethyllysine contributes to cardiovascular death through inflammation and renal function, suggesting a possible pathomechanistic link.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114795, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737009

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis and is a major cause of renal failure worldwide. Modified Huangqi Chifeng decoction (MHCD), a traditional Chinese herbal preparation, has clinical efficacy in reducing the 24-h urine protein levels in patients with IgA nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanism of MHCD needs further study. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which MHCD treatment alleviates renal fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IgA nephropathy rat model was established using bovine serum albumin, carbon tetrachloride, and lipopolysaccharide. The rats were divided into control, model, telmisartan, low-dose MHCD, medium-dose MHCD, and high-dose MHCD groups. Treatments were administered to these groups for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and blood albumin levels were measured. Pathological changes and degree of fibrosis in renal tissues were observed, and levels of the transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad3 signaling pathway components in renal tissues and TGF-ß1 in urinary exosomes were measured. RESULTS: Telmisartan and MHCD reduced 24-h urine protein levels, alleviated renal pathological injury, and decreased the renal expression of fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV in rats with IgA nephropathy. Urinary exosomes were extracted and identified for further investigation of their role in renal fibrosis. MHCD reduced TGF-ß1 expression in urinary exosomes and reduced TGF-ß1 and p-Smad3 levels in renal tissues. CONCLUSION: MHCD alleviated renal fibrosis in rats with IgA nephropathy by inhibiting the TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway through the downregulation of TGF-ß1 expression in exosomes.

4.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120031443, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the role of TMAO in ischemic stroke remains unclear. As we know, ischemic stroke is a heterogeneous disease with variable pathogenesis. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between TMAO and stroke recurrence according to etiology subtypes. METHODS: A total of 10 756 ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients from the Third China National Stroke Registry were enrolled, and 1-year follow-up data for stroke recurrence were analyzed. TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria was used to classify the etiology subtypes. Plasma TMAO levels were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The association between TMAO and stroke outcomes was analyzed using Cox regression models. We also conducted a meta-analysis on the association of TMAO levels and stroke risk. RESULTS: Elevated TMAO level was independently associated with the risk of stroke recurrence (Q4 versus Q1: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.15-1.64]) in multivariate Cox regression model. After stratification by TOAST subtypes, there was a significant association between TMAO and stroke recurrence in small artery occlusion subtype (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.03-2.00]) but not in the others subtype (large-artery atherosclerosis, 1.19 [0.95-1.48]; cardioembolism, 1.54 [0.95-2.48]; others, 1.19 [0.98-1.44]). The meta-analysis reported on stroke recurrence for the highest versus lowest TMAO levels with a pooled hazard ratio of 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91-3.01) and similarly found an increased risk of stroke recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated TMAO level is associated with increased risk of stroke recurrence in patients with small artery occlusion subtype, but this association seems to be attenuated in large-artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolism, and others subtypes.

5.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 206: 114380, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607204

RESUMO

The effectiveness and safety of anti-tumor drugs are clinically important issues, and their therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. This study aimed to develop an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous TDM and exploration of clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-tumor drugs, including cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, methotrexate, pemetrexed disodium, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, doxorubicin, fulvestrant, tamoxifen, and irinotecan. After magnetic solid-phase extraction of plasma samples, the isotope internal standards and 12 anti-tumor drugs were separated using a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (50.0 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) with water containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase in a total run time of 5.0 min. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was validated based on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, including assessment of specificity, calibration curves, carryover, accuracy, crosstalk, precision, stability, recovery, dilution integrity, incurred sample reanalysis, and matrix effect. The results showed that a simple, fast, reliable, and specific UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated, and all the performance characteristics of the method met the requirements. The response function was established for concentration range of 0.10-25.00 µg/mL for gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, methotrexate, pemetrexed disodium, capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin, and 0.05-12.50 µg/mL for doxorubicin, fulvestrant, tamoxifen, and irinotecan, with a coefficient of correlation of>0.9984 for all the compounds. The precision and accuracy of all the analytes were<6.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Hence, it could be used for TDM and exploration of pharmacokinetics of the aforementioned 12 anti-tumor drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 735569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712126

RESUMO

Introduction: Esketamine (Esk) (S(+)-ketamine) is now used as an alternative to its racemic mixture, i. e., ketamine in anesthesia. Esk demonstrated more powerful potency and rapid recovery in anesthesia and less psychotomimetic side effects comparing with ketamine, but Esk could still induce psychological side effects in patients. This study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine (Dex) can attenuate the Esk-induced neuronal hyperactivities in Kunming mice. Methods: Dexmedetomidine 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg accompanied with Esk 50 mg/kg were administrated on Kunming mice to assess the anesthesia quality for 1 h. The indicators, such as time to action, duration of agitation, duration of ataxia, duration of loss pedal withdrawal reaction (PWR), duration of catalepsy, duration of righting reflex (RR) loss, duration of sedation, were recorded for 1 h after intraperitoneal administration. The c-Fos expression in the brain was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot after 1 h of administration. Considering the length of recovery time for more than 1 h in Dex and Dex with Esk groups, other mice were repeatedly used to evaluate recovery time from the administration to emerge from anesthesia. Results: Dexmedetomidine dose-dependently increased recovery time when administrated with Esk or alone. Dex combined with Esk efficiently attenuated the duration of agitation, ataxia, and catalepsy. Dex synergically improved the anesthesia of Esk by increasing the duration of sedation, loss of RR, and loss of PWR. Esk induced the high expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum 1 h after administration. Western Blot results indicated that Dex at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg could significantly alleviate the Esk-induced c-Fos expression in the mice brain. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine ranged from 0.25 to 1 mg/kg could improve the anesthesia quality and decreased the neuronal hyperactivities and the overactive behaviors when combined with Esk. However, Dex dose-dependently increased the recovery time from anesthesia. It demonstrated that a small dose of Dex 0.25 mg/kg could be sufficient to attenuate Esk-induced psychotomimetic side effects without extension of recovery time in Kunming mice.

7.
Circulation ; 144(21): 1714-1731, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex disease partly explained by the effects of individual gene variants on sarcomeric protein biomechanics. At the cellular level, HCM mutations most commonly enhance force production, leading to higher energy demands. Despite significant advances in elucidating sarcomeric structure-function relationships, there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms that link altered cardiac energetics to HCM phenotypes. In this work, we test the hypothesis that changes in cardiac energetics represent a common pathophysiologic pathway in HCM. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive multiomics profile of the molecular (transcripts, metabolites, and complex lipids), ultrastructural, and functional components of HCM energetics using myocardial samples from 27 HCM patients and 13 normal controls (donor hearts). RESULTS: Integrated omics analysis revealed alterations in a wide array of biochemical pathways with major dysregulation in fatty acid metabolism, reduction of acylcarnitines, and accumulation of free fatty acids. HCM hearts showed evidence of global energetic decompensation manifested by a decrease in high energy phosphate metabolites (ATP, ADP, and phosphocreatine) and a reduction in mitochondrial genes involved in creatine kinase and ATP synthesis. Accompanying these metabolic derangements, electron microscopy showed an increased fraction of severely damaged mitochondria with reduced cristae density, coinciding with reduced citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial oxidative respiration. These mitochondrial abnormalities were associated with elevated reactive oxygen species and reduced antioxidant defenses. However, despite significant mitochondrial injury, HCM hearts failed to upregulate mitophagic clearance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that perturbed metabolic signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction are common pathogenic mechanisms in patients with HCM. These results highlight potential new drug targets for attenuation of the clinical disease through improving metabolic function and reducing mitochondrial injury.

8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(11): e008459, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac sialylation is involved in a variety of physiological processes in the heart. Altered sialylation has been implicated in heart failure (HF) mice. However, its role in patients with HF is unclear, and the potential effect of modulation of cardiac sialylation is worth exploring. METHODS: We first assessed the association between plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid levels and the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with HF over a median follow-up period of 2 years. Next, immunoblot analysis and lectin histochemistry were performed in cardiac tissue to determine the expression levels of neuraminidases and the extent of cardiac desialylation. Finally, the therapeutic impact of a neuraminidase inhibitor was evaluated in animal models of HF. RESULTS: Among 1699 patients with HF, 464 (27%) died of cardiovascular-related deaths or underwent heart transplantation. We found that the elevated plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid level was independently associated with a higher risk of incident cardiovascular death and heart transplantation (third tertile adjusted hazard ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.67-2.66], P<0.001). In addition, in cardiac tissues from patients with HF, neuraminidase expression was upregulated, accompanied by desialylation. Treatment with oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor, in HF mice infused with isoproterenol and angiotensin II significantly inhibited desialylation and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovered a significant association between elevated plasma N-acetylneuraminic acid level and an increased risk of a poor clinical outcome in patients with HF. Our data support the notion that desialylation represents an important contributor to the progression of HF, and neuraminidase inhibition may be a potential therapeutic strategy for HF.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26544, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To lower albuminuria and to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals, dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are sometimes used in clinical practice for the treatment of CKD. However, the efficacy and safety of dual RAAS blockade therapy remains controversial. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched, and random effects model was used to calculate the effect sizes of eligible studies. Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The present meta-analysis of 72 randomized controlled trials with 10,296 patients demonstrated that dual RAAS blockade therapy was superior to monotherapy in reducing the urine albumin excretion, urine protein excretion, and BP. These beneficial effects were related to the decrease of glomerular filtration rate, the increase of serum potassium level, and higher rates of hyperkalemia and hypotension. Meanwhile, these effects did not lead to improvements in short-term or long-term outcomes, including doubling of serum creatinine, acute kidney injury, end-stage renal disease, mortality, and hospitalization. Compared with the single therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in combination with angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) was a better dual therapy than ACEI or ARB in combination with renin inhibitor or aldosterone receptor antagonist in decreasing urine albumin excretion, urine protein excretion and BP, and the combination was not associated with a lower glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSION: Compared with the single therapy, ACEI in combination with ARB was a better dual therapy than ACEI or ARB in combination with renin inhibitor or aldosterone receptor antagonist. Although ACEI in combination with ARB was associated with higher incidences of hyperkalemia and hypotension, careful individualized management and potassium binders may further expand its application (PROSPERO number CRD42020179398).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
10.
Cell Stem Cell ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525346

RESUMO

Doxorubicin is an anthracycline chemotherapy agent effective in treating a wide range of malignancies, but its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. A recent genome-wide association study identified a SNP (rs2229774) in retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARG) as statistically associated with increased risk of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we show that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with rs2229774 and who suffered doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) are more sensitive to doxorubicin. We determine that the mechanism of this RARG variant effect is mediated via suppression of topoisomerase 2ß (TOP2B) expression and activation of the cardioprotective extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. We use patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as a drug discovery platform, determining that the RARG agonist CD1530 attenuates DIC, and we confirm this cardioprotective effect in an established in vivo mouse model of DIC. This study provides a rationale for clinical prechemotherapy genetic screening for rs2229774 and a foundation for the clinical use of RARG agonist treatment to protect cancer patients from DIC.

11.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5969-5980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588801

RESUMO

Introduction: Renal clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common tumor of the urinary system, most of which are primary malignant tumors with high metastatic rate and remaining incurable. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of iron-dependent programmed cell necrosis in recent years, which is inextricably linked to the occurrence and development of tumors progression. Due to the complexity of the interaction between genes in ccRCC, the research on the pathogenesis of ccRCC is still not remarkably accurate. Therefore, whether ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) can play a role in predicting prognosis in ccRCC needs to be discussed. Methods: We entered the Cancer Genome Mapping Project (TCGA) database and downloaded the relevant genes and clinical research data of ccRCC patients. Lasso Cox regression was used to construct a multi-gene prognostic model in the TCGA cohort. R language software was used for drawing pictures related to our study. Results: Most of the genes involved in ferroptosis (86.2%) existing differences between the tumor and normal tissues in the TCGA public gene database. In terms of univariate Cox regression analysis, 20 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with prognosis and survival (P<0.05). A prognostic model of 12 FRGs was constructed, and patients were segmented into two different groups depending on how risky they are. Considering overall survival, the high-risk group is dramatically lower than the low-risk group (P<0.001). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, risk scores and stage turned out be an independent prognostic factor (P<0.001). GO and KEGG analysis and ssGSEA analysis of DEGs revealed that these genes were related to immune-related pathways (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study established and identified the changes in FRGs expression and prognostic factors of ccRCC, which can be helpful for prognosis evaluation and clinical treatment of this disease.

12.
Mol Plant ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509639

RESUMO

In modern agriculture, frequent application of herbicides may induce the evolution of resistance in plants, but the mechanisms underlying herbicide resistance remain largely unexplored. Here, we report the characterization of rtp1 (resistant to paraquat 1), an Arabidopsis mutant showing strong resistance to the widely used herbicides paraquat and diquat. The rtp1 mutant is semi-dominant and carries a point mutation in the gene encoding the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family protein DTX6, leading to the change of glycine to glutamic acid at residue 311 (G311E). The wild-type DTX6 with glycine 311 conferred weak paraquat and diquat resistance when overexpressed, while mutation of glycine 311 to a negatively charged amino acid (G311E or G311D) markedly increased the paraquat and diquat resistance of plants, whereas mutation to a positively charged amino acid (G311R or G311K) compromised the resistance, suggesting that the charge property of residue 311 of DTX6 is critical for the paraquat and diquat resistance of Arabidopsis plants. DTX6 is localized in the endomembrane trafficking system and may undergo the endosomal sorting to localize to the vacuole and plasma membrane. Treatment with the V-ATPase inhibitor ConA reduced the paraquat resistance of the rtp1 mutant. Paraquat release and uptake assays demonstrated that DTX6 is involved in both exocytosis and vacuolar sequestration of paraquat. DTX6 and DTX5 show functional redundancy as the dtx5 dtx6 double mutant but not the dtx6 single mutant plants were more sensitive to paraquat and diquat than the wild-type plants. Collectively, our work reveals a potential mechanism for the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds and provides a promising gene for the manipulation of plant herbicide resistance.

13.
Eur Heart J ; 42(42): 4373-4385, 2021 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534287

RESUMO

AIMS: Aortic aneurysm and dissection (AAD) are high-risk cardiovascular diseases with no effective cure. Macrophages play an important role in the development of AAD. As succinate triggers inflammatory changes in macrophages, we investigated the significance of succinate in the pathogenesis of AAD and its clinical relevance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used untargeted metabolomics and mass spectrometry to determine plasma succinate concentrations in 40 and 1665 individuals of the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. Three different murine AAD models were used to determine the role of succinate in AAD development. We further examined the role of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) and its transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB) in the context of macrophage-mediated inflammation and established p38αMKOApoe-/- mice. Succinate was the most upregulated metabolite in the discovery cohort; this was confirmed in the validation cohort. Plasma succinate concentrations were higher in patients with AAD compared with those in healthy controls, patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Moreover, succinate administration aggravated angiotensin II-induced AAD and vascular inflammation in mice. In contrast, knockdown of OGDH reduced the expression of inflammatory factors in macrophages. The conditional deletion of p38α decreased CREB phosphorylation, OGDH expression, and succinate concentrations. Conditional deletion of p38α in macrophages reduced angiotensin II-induced AAD. CONCLUSION: Plasma succinate concentrations allow to distinguish patients with AAD from both healthy controls and patients with AMI or PE. Succinate concentrations are regulated by the p38α-CREB-OGDH axis in macrophages.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Animais , Biomarcadores , Dissecação , Humanos , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Ácido Succínico
15.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 446, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) function as supportive cells on skeletal muscle homeostasis through several secretory factors including type 6 collagen (COL6). Several mutations of COL6A1, 2, and 3 genes cause Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD). Skeletal muscle regeneration deficiency has been reported as a characteristic phenotype in muscle biopsy samples of human UCMD patients and UCMD model mice. However, little is known about the COL6-dependent mechanism for the occurrence and progression of the deficiency. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pathological mechanism of UCMD by supplementing COL6 through cell transplantation. METHODS: To test whether COL6 supplementation has a therapeutic effect for UCMD, in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted using four types of MSCs: (1) healthy donors derived-primary MSCs (pMSCs), (2) MSCs derived from healthy donor induced pluripotent stem cell (iMSCs), (3) COL6-knockout iMSCs (COL6KO-iMSCs), and (4) UCMD patient-derived iMSCs (UCMD-iMSCs). RESULTS: All four MSC types could engraft for at least 12 weeks when transplanted into the tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient UCMD model (Col6a1KO) mice. COL6 protein was restored by the MSC transplantation if the MSCs were not COL6-deficient (types 1 and 2). Moreover, muscle regeneration and maturation in Col6a1KO mice were promoted with the transplantation of the COL6-producing MSCs only in the region supplemented with COL6. Skeletal muscle satellite cells derived from UCMD model mice (Col6a1KO-MuSCs) co-cultured with type 1 or 2 MSCs showed improved proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, whereas those co-cultured with type 3 or 4 MSCs did not. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that COL6 supplementation improves muscle regeneration and maturation in UCMD model mice.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo VI , Músculo Esquelético , Animais , Transplante de Células , Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Camundongos , Distrofias Musculares , Esclerose
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 339: 125515, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332859

RESUMO

In this study, influence of biochar on nitrification was explored using multi-level (DNA, RNA, protein) and multi-aspect (diversity, structure, key community, co-occurrence pattern and functional modules) analyses (M-LAA) of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (AOMs) during cattle manure composting. Biochar addition increased the copy numbers and diversity of AOMs, restricted (36.02%) the amoA gene transcripts of archaea but increased (24.53%) those of bacteria, and reduced (75.86%) ammonooxygenase (AMO) activity. Crenarchaeota and Thaumarcheota mediated NH4+-N, Unclassified_k_norank_d_Archaea and Crenarchaeota regulated AMO activity and potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rates. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira were the predominant microbial taxa influencing NH4+-N variation and PAO rates, respectively. Additionally, both Crenarchaeota and Nitrosospira played crucial roles in mediating NO3--N and NO2--N. Furthermore, biochar altered the network patterns of AOMs community by changing the keystone species and the interactivity among communities. These findings indicated that influence of biochar on nitrification could be better explained using M-LAA of AOMs.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Amônia , Animais , Archaea/genética , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , Nitrificação , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 5386-5401, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424825

RESUMO

Immune cell infiltration (ICI) plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Evidence suggests that immune-related genes play an important role in the initiation of inflammation and the recruitment of immune cells. However, the underlying mechanisms and immune-related biomarkers in DN have not been elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore immune-related biomarkers in DN and the underlying mechanisms using bioinformatic approaches. In this study, four DN glomerular datasets were downloaded, merged, and divided into training and test cohorts. First, we identified 55 differentially expressed immune-related genes; their biological functions were mainly enriched in leukocyte chemotaxis and neutrophil migration. The CIBERSORT algorithm was then used to evaluate the infiltrated immune cells; macrophages M1/M2, T cells CD8, and resting mast cells were strongly associated with DN. The ICI-related gene modules as well as 25 candidate hub genes were identified to construct a protein-protein interactive network and conduct molecular complex detection using the GOSemSim algorithm. Consequently, FN1, C3, and VEGFC were identified as immune-related biomarkers in DN, and a related transcription factor-miRNA-target network was constructed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was estimated in the test cohort; FN1 and C3 had large area under the curve values (0.837 and 0.824, respectively). Clinical validation showed that FN1 and C3 were negatively related to the glomerular filtration rate in patients with DN. Six potential therapeutic small molecule compounds, such as calyculin, phenamil, and clofazimine, were discovered in the connectivity map. In conclusion, FN1 and C3 are immune-related biomarkers of DN.

19.
Epilepsy Res ; 176: 106728, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine exhibits age-related characteristics. Nevertheless, current evidence regarding the therapeutic range of lamotrigine has been derived almost exclusively from studies in adult patients, and the applicability of this therapeutic range to the pediatric population remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to establish the appropriate age-specific therapeutic ranges of lamotrigine corresponding to adequate clinical responses for patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This prospective cohort study of therapeutic drug monitoring included 582 Chinese epilepsy patients receiving lamotrigine monotherapy. Patients were divided into three age-related subgroups: (1) toddler and school-age group (2-12 years old, n = 168), (2) adolescent group (12-18 years old, n = 171), and (3) adult group (>18 years old, n = 243). Patients with a reduction in seizure frequency of 50 % or greater than baseline were defined as responders, and the remaining patients were non-responders. The relationship between lamotrigine serum concentrations and clinical response was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to determine the representative cut-off values of lamotrigine trough levels, to distinguish responders from non-responders. The upper margin of the therapeutic range of lamotrigine was determined by developing concentration-effect curves for the three age-related subgroups. RESULTS: The median trough levels of lamotrigine were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders from all three age-related groups (P < 0.0001). Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that higher serum concentrations of lamotrigine predicted a higher probability that seizure frequency would be reduced by more than 50 % compared to baseline (adjusted odds ratio: 1.228, 95 % CI: 1.137-1.327; P < 0.0001), and younger children were less likely to be responders (adjusted odds ratio: 1.027, 95 % CI: 1.012-1.043; P = 0.001). Based on a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, the optimal cut-off values for lamotrigine trough concentrations corresponding to clinical response were 3.29 mg/L, 2.06 mg/L, and 1.61 mg/L in the toddler and school-age group, adolescent group, and adult group, respectively. By reducing interpatient variability, the results of the concentration-effect curves suggested no additional clinical benefit from a continued increase of doses for lamotrigine concentrations exceeding 9.08 mg/L, 8.43 mg/L, and 10.38 mg/L in the toddler and school-age group, adolescent group, and adult group, respectively. In conclusion, the therapeutic ranges of lamotrigine trough concentrations corresponding to adequate clinical response were 3.29-9.08 mg/L in the toddler and school-age group, 2.06-8.43 mg/L in the adolescent group, and 1.61-10.38 mg/L in the adult group. CONCLUSIONS: The study determined age-specific therapeutic ranges corresponding to optimal clinical efficacy for lamotrigine. Our findings lay the foundation for catalyzing novel opportunities to optimize treatment and reduce therapeutic costs. Based on the age-specific therapeutic ranges identified in this study, individualized and cost-effective algorithms for lamotrigine treatment of epilepsy patients may be developed and validated in larger cohort studies of therapeutic drug monitoring.

20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 714584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381367

RESUMO

Modified Huangqi Chifeng decoction (MHCD) has been used to reduce proteinuria in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) for many years. Previously, we have demonstrated its protective role in glomerular mesangial cells. Podocyte injury, another key factor associated with proteinuria in IgAN, has also attracted increasing attention. However, whether MHCD can reduce proteinuria by protecting podocytes remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MHCD against podocyte injury in a rat model of IgAN. To establish the IgAN model, rats were administered bovine serum albumin, carbon tetrachloride, and lipopolysaccharide. MHCD in three doses or telmisartan was administered once daily for 8 weeks (n = 10 rats/group). Rats with IgAN developed proteinuria at week 6, which worsened over time until drug intervention. After drug intervention, MHCD reduced proteinuria and had no effect on liver and kidney function. Furthermore, MHCD alleviated renal pathological lesions, hyperplasia of mesangial cells, mesangial matrix expansion, and podocyte foot process fusion. Western blot analysis revealed that MHCD increased the expression of the podocyte-associated proteins nephrin and podocalyxin. Additionally, we stained podocyte nuclei with an antibody for Wilms' tumor protein one and found that MHCD increased the podocyte number in rats with IgAN. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MHCD attenuates proteinuria by reducing podocyte injury.

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