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1.
Nature ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790463

RESUMO

Upon gamete fusion, animal egg cells secrete proteases from cortical granules to establish a fertilization envelope as a block to polyspermy1-4. Fertilization in flowering plants is more complex and involves the delivery of two non-motile sperm cells by pollen tubes5,6. Simultaneous penetration of ovules by multiple pollen tubes (polytubey) is usually avoided, thus indirectly preventing polyspermy7,8. How plant egg cells regulate the rejection of extra tubes after successful fertilization is not known. Here we report that the aspartic endopeptidases ECS1 and ECS2 are secreted to the extracellular space from a cortical network located at the apical domain of the Arabidopsis egg cell. This reaction is triggered only after successful fertilization. ECS1 and ECS2 are exclusively expressed in the egg cell and transcripts are degraded immediately after gamete fusion. ECS1 and ESC2 specifically cleave the pollen tube attractor LURE1. As a consequence, polytubey is frequent in ecs1 ecs2 double mutants. Ectopic secretion of these endopeptidases from synergid cells led to a decrease in the levels of LURE1 and reduced the rate of pollen tube attraction. Together, these findings demonstrate that plant egg cells sense successful fertilization and elucidate a mechanism as to how a relatively fast post-fertilization block to polytubey is established by fertilization-induced degradation of attraction factors.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798587

RESUMO

A batch experiment was carried out in order to remove Hg2+ from the aqueous solution as well as the polluted water using modified chitosan (CS) with polyamine compounds (triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)), and melamine. The obtained polyamine-co-melamine crosslinked CS derivatives (MCS-4N and MCS-5N) were characterized and used as adsorbents. In comparison to the raw CS, the modification significantly promoted the adsorption of Hg2+ ions. The results of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model revealed that pH-dependent derivatives adsorbents achieved the equilibrium state within 12 h. The Langmuir model was best fitted with the Hg2+ adsorption isotherm and showed the highest adsorption capacities of 140.3 and 109.7 mg/g for MCS-4N and MCS-5N, respectively. A slight decrease in the adsorption efficiency of Hg2+ was noticed with the increment of the ionic strength of the solution. However, the studied adsorbents were easily regenerated and presented adequate reusability. The Hg2+ adsorption was regulated by the combined process of coordination reaction and electrostatic attraction as well. The as-prepared polyamine-co-melamine crosslinked CS derivatives were found potential adsorbents for the adsorptive capture of Hg2+ ions from aqueous solutions and polluted waters.

3.
J Mol Recognit ; : e2896, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822415

RESUMO

Portable and quantitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has the potential to reform clinical diagnostics, food safety, and environmental monitoring. At present, most commercial devices used for pathogen detection have disadvantages such as expensive, highly complex operations, or limited detection specificity. Using the common luminometer and the properties of pyruvate kinase utilizing phosphoenolpyruvate to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), we have developed a method that could specifically quantify E. coli. The system is based on a sandwich hybridization procedure wherein both oligonucleotide probes recognize each end of the target of pathogenic 16S rRNAs segment. The detection probe DNA-conjugated pyruvate kinase can link ATP production to the detection of pathogenic nucleic acid in the samples. The luminometer-based system is capable of detecting E. coli with single bacteria resolution. The platform should be easily used to the detection of many other toxic analytes through the application of suitable functional-DNA recognition elements.

4.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817972

RESUMO

Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim.) is a synonym of J. cathayensis, a diploid, vulnerable, temperate deciduous tree valued for its wood and nut. It is also valued as a rootstock for Juglans regia because of its reported tolerance of lesion nematode. Reference genomes are available for several Juglans species, our goal was to produce a de novo, chromosome-level assembly of the J. mandshurica genome. Here, we reported an improved assembly of J. mandshurica with a contig N50 size of 6.49 Mb and a scaffold N50 size of 36.1 Mb. The total genome size was 548 Mb encoding 29,032 protein coding genes which were annotated. The collinearity analysis showed that J. mandshurica and J. regia originated from a common ancestor, with both species undergoing two WGD events. A genomic comparison showed that J. mandshurica was missing 1,657 genes found in J. regia, and J. mandshurica includes 2,827 genes not found in of the J. regia genome. The J. mandshurica contained 1,440 unique paralogs that were highly enriched for flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. Four gene families related to disease resistance notable contraction (rapidly evolving) (LEA, WAK, PPR, and PR) in J. mandshurica compared to eight species. JmaPR10 and JmaPR8 contained 3 orthologous gene pairs with J. regia that were highly expressed in root bark. JmaPR10 is a strong candidate gene for lesion nematodes resistance in J. mandshurica. This J. mandshurica genome should be a useful resource for study of the evolution, breeding, and genetic variation in walnuts (Juglans).

5.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(2): 205-209, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825383

RESUMO

The registration system of medical device Master Files is established to solve the problem that the outsourcing suppliers are not willing to cooperate with the device applicants in the process of providing medical device application documents. After a brief introduction of Master Files systems established by foreign regulatory agencies, this article focuses on the research of establishing a medical device Master Files registration system in China. The results show that the establishment of Chinese Master Files registration system can both improve the standardization and convenience of outsourcing activities of medical devices, and satisfy the needs of the development of medical device industry and regulatory system. At the same time, the probability of additional risk caused by the implementation of the system is low. Therefore, it is expected that the benefits of the system to promote public health outweigh the potential risks, which demonstrates that establishment of the system has important application values.


Assuntos
Indústrias , China , Padrões de Referência
6.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(5): 160, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834299

RESUMO

A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-hemin metal-organic-frameworks nanoflower/three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (Cu-hemin MOFs/3D-RGO) was constructed to detect H2O2 released from living cells. The nanocomposite was synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method using hemin as the ligand, then decorated with 3D-RGO. The prepared Cu-hemin MOFs showed a 3D hollow spherical flower-like structure with a large specific surface area and mesoporous properties, which could load more biomolecules and greatly enhance the stability by protecting the activity of hemin. In addition, the introduction of 3D-RGO effectively enhanced the conductivity of Cu-hemin MOFs. Thus, the proposed sensor (Cu-hemin MOFs/3D-RGO/GCE) showed excellent electrochemical performances towards H2O2 with a wide linear range (10-24,400 µM), high sensitivity (207.34 µA mM-1 cm-2), low LOD (0.14 µM), and rapid response time (less than 3 s). Most importantly, we prepared a Cu-hemin MOFs/3D-RGO/ITO electrode with cells growing on it. Compared with detecting H2O2 in cell suspension by GCE-based electrode, adhesion of cells on ITO could shorten the diffusion distance of H2O2 from solution to the surface of the electrode and achieve in situ and a real-time monitor of H2O2 released by living cells. This self-supported sensing electrode showed great potential applications in monitoring the pathological and physiological dynamics of cancer cells.

7.
Talanta ; 228: 122232, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773736

RESUMO

Integrating long-term cell culture with real-time electrochemical monitoring is a promising strategy for future studies of physiological and pathological processes. However, great challenges still remain in fabricating such a platform with satisfactory electrochemical performance as well as desirable biocompatibility. Herein, we proposed a novel multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane modified indium tin oxide plate (ITO/APTES/ErGO/AuNPs). The unique biological and electrical properties of AuNPs and ErGO endow the platform with superior electrocatalytic activity and desirable biocompatibility. As a proof of concept, the present platform showed satisfactory electrochemical performance for sensitive and selective detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with a sensitivity about 0.25 µA µM-1 cm-2 and a detection limit of 0.38 µM in a linear range of 0.5-1461 µM. And the principle of catalytic reduction was clarified through density functional calculations (DFT). Furthermore, cells grew on the platform exhibited excellent proliferation ability and considerable viability after a long-term cultivation. Based on those desirable performances, in-situ and real-time monitoring of endogenously produced H2O2 released from cancer cells cultured on the platform has been successfully realized, which will be of great significance in pathophysiology research.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(12): 14248-14257, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734692

RESUMO

Surface defects of perovskite films are the major sources of nonradiative recombination which limit the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Surface passivation represents one of the most efficient strategies to solve this problem. Herein, for the first time we designed a porphyrin-involved benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide dendrimer (Por-BTA) as a multifunctional interface material between the interface of the perovskite and the hole-transporting layer (spiro-OMeTAD) for the surface passivation of perovskite films. The results suggested that Por-BTA not only efficiently passivated the perovskite surface defects via the coordination of the exposed Pb2+ with the carbonyl unit and basic sites of pyrrole units in Por-BTA but also improved the interface contact and the charge transfer between the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD ascribed to the strong intermolecular π-π stacking of Por-BTA. It was shown that the PSC devices with the Por-BTA treatment exhibited improved power conversion efficiency with the champion of 22.30% achieved (21.30% for the control devices), which is mainly attributed to the increased short-circuit current density and fill factor. Interestingly, the stability of moisture for the Por-BTA-treated device was also enhanced compared to those without the Por-BTA treatment. This work presents a promising direction toward the design of multifunctional organic molecules as the interface materials to improve the cell performance of PSCs.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744937

RESUMO

AIMS: We prospectively isolate and characterize first and second heart field- and nodal-like cardiomyocytes using a double reporter line from human embryonic stem cells. Our double reporter line utilizes two important transcription factors in cardiac development, TBX5 and NKX2-5. TBX5 expression marks first heart field progenitors and cardiomyocytes while NKX2-5 is expressed in nearly all myocytes of the developing heart (excluding nodal cells). We address the shortcomings of prior work in the generation of heart-field specific cardiomyocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells and provide a comprehensive early developmental transcriptomic as well as electrophysiological analyses of these three populations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transcriptional, immunocytochemical, and functional studies support the cellular identities of isolated populations based on the expression pattern of NKX2-5 and TBX5. Importantly, bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing analyses provide evidence of unique molecular signatures of isolated first and second heart-field cardiomyocytes, as well as nodal-like cells. Extensive electrophysiological analyses reveal dominant atrial action potential phenotypes in first and second heart fields in alignment with our findings in single-cell RNA sequencing. Lastly, we identify two novel surface markers, POPDC2 and CORIN, that enables purification of cardiomyocytes and first heart field cardiomyocytes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a high yield approach for isolation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell-derived heart field specific and nodal-like cardiomyocytes. Obtaining enriched populations of these different cardiomyocyte subtypes increases the resolution of gene expression profiling during early cardiogenesis, arrhythmia modeling, and drug screening. This paves the way for the development of effective stem cell therapy to treat diseases that affect specific regions of the heart or chamber-specific congenital heart defects. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Myocardial infarction leads to irreversible loss of cardiomyocytes and eventually heart failure. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be differentiated to cardiomyocytes and are considered a potential source of cell therapy for cardiac regeneration. However, current differentiation strategies yield a mixture of cardiomyocyte subtypes and safety concerns stemming from the use of a heterogenous population of cardiomyocytes have hindered its application. Here, we report generation of enriched heart field-specific cardiomyocytes using a hESC double reporter. Our study facilitates investigating early human cardiogenesis in vitro and generating chamber-specific cardiomyocytes to treat diseases that affect specific regions of the heart.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749096

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of uterine rupture without preceding Cesarean section. METHODS: The medical records of all deliveries at the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine between 1992 and 2017 were reviewed. All cases of uterine rupture without previous Cesarean delivery were included. Two types of uterine rupture, incomplete and complete, were distinguished. The clinical characteristics of each patient were collected and analyzed, including demographic information, clinical manifestation, operative records, site of rupture, pregnancy and labor complication, obstetrics risk factors, and birth outcome. RESULTS: There were 222 418 deliveries in total during the study period. Nineteen cases of uterine rupture without previous Cesarean section were identified. As a result, the incomplete rupture group had significant advanced gestational age, decreased maternal gravidity, lower incidence of dilation and curettage, and lower perinatal mortality rate. In aspect of the rupture site, the involvement of the lower segment of the uterus was significantly more common in the incomplete rupture group. In the complete rupture group, the participants with a gestation age less than 28 weeks were more likely to have a history of dilation and curettage than those with a gestation age over 28 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The history of dilation and curettage is the major risk factor of uterine rupture without Cesarean section. Our findings imply that obstetricians should be cautious of spontaneous uterine rupture in pregnant women who has a history of dilation and curettage.

11.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734317

RESUMO

The microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) causes dose-limiting chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is often accompanied by pain. Among the multifaceted effects of PTX is an increased expression of sodium channel NaV1.7 in rat and human sensory neurons, enhancing their excitability. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased NaV1.7 expression have not been explored, and the effects of PTX treatment on the dynamics of trafficking and localization of NaV1.7 channels in sensory axons have not been possible to investigate to date. In this study we used a recently developed live-imaging approach that allows visualization of NaV1.7 surface channels and long-distance axonal vesicular transport in sensory neurons to fill this basic knowledge gap. We demonstrate concentration- and time-dependent effects of PTX on vesicular trafficking and membrane localization of NaV1.7 in real-time in sensory axons. Low concentrations of PTX increase surface channel expression and vesicular flux (number of vesicles per axon). By contrast, treatment with a higher concentration of PTX decreases vesicular flux. Interestingly, vesicular velocity is increased for both concentrations of PTX. Treatment with PTX increased levels of endogenous NaV1.7 mRNA and current density in DRG neurons. However, the current produced by transfection of DRG neurons with Halo-tag NaV1.7 was not increased after exposure to PTX. Taken together, this suggests that the increased trafficking and surface localization of Halo-NaV1.7 that we observed by live imaging in tranfected DRG neurons after treatment with PTX might be independent of an increased pool of NaV1.7 channels. After exposure to inflammatory mediators (IM) to mimic the inflammatory condition seen during chemotherapy, both NaV1.7 surface levels and vesicular transport are increased for both low and high concentrations of PTX. Overall, our results show that PTX treatment increases levels of functional endogenous NaV1.7 channels in DRG neurons and enhances trafficking and surface distribution of NaV1.7 in sensory axons, with outcomes that depend on the presence of an inflammatory milieu, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased excitability of primary afferents and pain in CIPN.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 768: 144717, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736305

RESUMO

Coastal hypoxia/anoxia is a major emerging threat to global coastal ecosystems. Macroalgae blooms of tens of kilometers are often observed in open waters. These blooms not only cause a lack of oxygen, but also benthic light limitation. We explored the physiological responses of Zostera marina L. to anoxia under darkness. After exposing Z. marina to anoxia under darkness for 72 h, we measured the elongation of leaves and the decrease in maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and investigated the transcriptomic and metabolomic responses to anoxic stress based on RNA-sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technology. The results showed that anoxic stress significantly reduced the leaf Fv/Fm, and had a significant negative effect on the photosynthesis and growth of Z. marina. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed that glycolysis was the most significant enrichment pathway (p < 0.001), and most of the important products in glycolysis were significantly up-regulated. This indicated that the glycolysis process of anaerobic respiration is promoted under anoxia. The metabolite results also showed that glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate in the glycolysis pathway was significantly up-regulated. Moreover, three genes encoding sucrose synthase (gene-ZOSMA_310G00150, gene-ZOSMA_81G00980, and gene-ZOSMA_8G00730) and one gene encoding alpha-amylase (gene-ZOSMA_95G00270) were significantly up-regulated, providing the sugar basis for the subsequent increase in glycolysis. Furthermore, gene-encoding oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, was significantly down-regulated, indicating that this cycle was inhibited under anoxia. Metabolomic results showed that L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and DL-leucine were significantly up-regulated. Only significantly decreased glutamate and non-significantly decreased glutamine, substances consumed in alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt mechanisms, were detected in the leaves, while GABA and alanine were not detected. The results of this study show that anoxic stress induces a programmed transcriptomic and metabolomic response in seagrass, most likely reflecting a complex strategy of acclimation and adaptation in seagrass to resist anoxic stress.


Assuntos
Zosteraceae , Escuridão , Ecossistema , Humanos , Hipóxia , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma , Zosteraceae/genética
13.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(3): e16306, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing readmission reduction solutions tend to focus on complementing inpatient care with enhanced care transition and postdischarge interventions. These solutions are initiated near or after discharge, when clinicians' impact on inpatient care is ending. Preventive intervention during hospitalization is an underexplored area that holds potential for reducing readmission risk. However, it is challenging to predict readmission risk at the early stage of hospitalization because few data are available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to build an early prediction model of unplanned 30-day hospital readmission using a large and diverse sample. We were also interested in identifying novel readmission risk factors and protective factors. METHODS: We extracted the medical records of 96,550 patients in 205 participating Cerner client hospitals across four US census regions in 2016 from the Health Facts database. The model was built with index admission data that can become available within 24 hours and data from previous encounters up to 1 year before the index admission. The candidate models were evaluated for performance, timeliness, and generalizability. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify readmission risk factors and protective factors. RESULTS: We developed six candidate readmission models with different machine learning algorithms. The best performing model of extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.753 on the development data set and 0.742 on the validation data set. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, we identified 14 risk factors and 2 protective factors of readmission that have never been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of our model is better than that of the most widely used models in US health care settings. This model can help clinicians identify readmission risk at the early stage of hospitalization so that they can pay extra attention during the care process of high-risk patients. The 14 novel risk factors and 2 novel protective factors can aid understanding of the factors associated with readmission.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670662

RESUMO

Aiming at addressing the contradiction between the high-speed real-time positioning and multi-channel signal processing in multi-beam sonar systems, in this work we present a real-time multi-beam sonar system based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) from two perspectives, i.e., hardware implementation and software optimization. In terms of hardware, an efficient high-voltage pulse transmitting module and a multi-channel data acquisition module with time versus gain (TVG) compensation with characteristics such as low noise and high phase amplitude consistency, are proposed. In terms of algorithms, we study three beamforming methods, namely delay-and-sum (D&S), direct-method (DM) and Chirp Zeta Transform (CZT). We compare the computational efficiency of DM and CZT in the digital domain. In terms of software, according to the transmission bandwidth of the Gigabit Ethernet and a serial rapid IO (SRIO) interface, the data transmission paths of the acquired data and the beam pattern between the FPGA, the DSP, and a personal computer (PC) are planned. A master-slave multi-core pipelined signal processing architecture is designed based on DSP, which enhances the data throughput of the signal processor by seven times as compared with that of the single-core operation. The experimental results reveal that the sound source level of the transmitting module is around 190.25 dB, the transmitting beam width is 64° × 64°, the background noise of the acquisition module is less than 4 µVrms, the amplitude consistency error of each channel is less than -6.55 dB, and the phase consistency error is less than 0.2°. It is noteworthy that the beam number of the sonar system is 90 × 90, the scanning angle interval is 0.33°, the working distance ranges from 5 m to 40 m, and the maximum distance resolution is 0.384 m. In the positioning experiment performed in this work; the 3-D real-time position of the baffle placed in the detection sector is realized. Please note that the maximum deviation of azimuth is 2°, the maximum deviation of elevation is 2.3°, and the maximum distance deviation is 0.379 m.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 2429-2436, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661007

RESUMO

Nanoparticle motion and self-assembly have been regarded as a promising pathway for forming ordered nanostructures. However, the detailed dynamics processes induced by ligand involvement remained poorly understood. Here, we used in situ liquid-cell electron microscopy technology to image the formation of face-to-face Pt cube ordered structures: pairs, linear chains, and squares. The van der Waals interaction between the two neighboring cubes was quantified in real time. Interestingly, the two different formation processes of the square phase were achieved via a rotational and translational method. It is found that the space between two neighboring cubes was the same as the ex-TEM results. The density functional theory calculation demonstrated that it was attributed to the DMF ligand interactions of the cubes that promoted their face-to-face attachment.

16.
Metab Eng ; 65: 30-41, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684594

RESUMO

One grand challenge for bioproduction of desired metabolites is how to coordinate cell growth and product synthesis. Here we report that a tryptophan operon-assisted CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system can switch glycerol oxidation and reduction pathways in Klebsiella pneumoniae, whereby the oxidation pathway provides energy to sustain growth, and the reduction pathway generates 1,3-propanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), two economically important chemicals. Reverse transcription and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that this CRISPRi-dependent switch affected the expression of glycerol metabolism-related genes and in turn improved 3-HP production. In shake-flask cultivation, the strain coexpressing dCas9-sgRNA and PuuC (an aldehyde dehydrogenase native to K. pneumoniae for 3-HP biosynthesis) produced 3.6 g/L 3-HP, which was 1.62 times that of the strain only overexpressing PuuC. In a 5 L bioreactor, this CRISPRi strain produced 58.9 g/L 3-HP. When circulation feeding was implemented to alleviate metabolic stress, biomass was substantially improved and 88.8 g/L 3-HP was produced. These results indicated that this CRISPRi-dependent switch can efficiently reconcile biomass formation and 3-HP biosynthesis. Furthermore, this is the first report of coupling CRISPRi system with trp operon, and this architecture holds huge potential in regulating gene expression and allocating metabolic flux.

17.
Phytochemistry ; 184: 112675, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548770

RESUMO

Seven undescribed tirucallane-type triterpenoids, kumunorquassins A‒E and kumuquassins K and L, along with nine known analogues, have been isolated from the leaves of Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The absolute configuration of cornusalterin J was unequivocally determined by X-ray diffraction based on its p-bromobenzoate derivative. A brief approach was presented in our study, which could rapidly and conveniently determine the relative and absolute configurations of OCH3-23 of kumuquassin L and cornusalterins J, H and G depending on the chemical shift differences (Δδ) of C-24 and C-25 and the chemical shifts of C-23, H-23 and H-24. In addition, the cytotoxicities of these compounds against two human tumour cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were evaluated.


Assuntos
Picrasma , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta , Triterpenos/farmacologia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112230, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636622

RESUMO

Debris flow alluvial fans (DFAFs) are vulnerable, although they can be used as a natural resource. The relationships between different factors related to DFAF systems and between these factors and systems are important both for identifying the risks and opportunities presented by DFAFs and for tracking system status. In this regard, resilience may be used to characterize the status of a DFAF. This study aimed to explore the processes and mechanisms of interactions among the social, economic, and ecological factors related to DFAF with respect to resilience, and to discuss potential problems in a representative DFAF. Based on the site condition and characteristics of the Awang DFAF (China) in the period 1996-2017, we formed a comprehensive indicator evaluation framework by analyzing disturbance, function, and feedback. We also established a model for evaluating resilience by integrating the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) - an entropy evaluation method (EEM) and set pair analysis (SPA). The results showed that the system of the studied DFAF was dynamically stable. The domination of the ecological system was subsequently superseded by social and economic resilience. While disturbance had direct and immediate effects, coping ability was cumulative and characterized by hysteresis at a particular response time. Overall, resilience fluctuated within an acceptable range rather than linearly increasing or decreasing. This analysis illuminated the dynamic processes of DFAFs and contributed to the understanding and planning of system trade-offs and degraded-land utilization.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Utensílios Domésticos , China , Ecossistema
19.
Theranostics ; 11(7): 3489-3501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537099

RESUMO

The rapid development and remarkable success of checkpoint inhibitors have provided significant breakthroughs in cancer treatment, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, only 15-20% of HCC patients can benefit from checkpoint inhibitors. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for recurrence, metastasis, and local and systemic therapy resistance in HCC. Accumulating evidence has suggested that HCC CSCs can create an immunosuppressive microenvironment through certain intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, resulting in immune evasion. Intrinsic evasion mechanisms mainly include activation of immune-related CSC signaling pathways, low-level expression of antigen presenting molecules, and high-level expression of immunosuppressive molecules. External evasion mechanisms are mainly related to HBV/HCV infection, alcoholic/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, hypoxia stimulation, abnormal angiogenesis, and crosstalk between CSCs and immune cells. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of CSCs involved in immune evasion will contribute to therapies for HCC. Here we will outline the detailed mechanisms of immune evasion for CSCs, and provide an overview of the current immunotherapies targeting CSCs in HCC.

20.
Lasers Med Sci ; 36(3): 619-629, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590365

RESUMO

The aim of this study was comparing different lasers with conventional non-surgical treatment (CNT) for the management of peri-implantitis, regarding probing depth (PD), plaque index (PLI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on different lasers and CNT for peri-implantitis were searched. Pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed to analyze the PD, PLI, CAL, and SBI outcomes. The risk of bias, evidence quality, statistical heterogeneity, and ranking probability were also evaluated. Eleven studies were included in this study, involving three types of lasers. Diode + CNT had significantly superior efficacy to CNT alone, regarding PD reduction, while Er:YAG + CNT had significantly superior efficacy than CNT in terms of the PLI, CAL, and SBI. The highest probability of being most effective for PD was diode + CNT (49%), while Er:YAG + CNT had the highest probability of improving the PLI, CAL, and SBI (66%, 53%, and 79%, respectively). Diode + CNT was significantly superior for PD management in peri-implantitis compared with CNT alone, while Er:YAG + CNT significantly improved the PLI, CAL, and SBI. Therefore, Er:YAG + CNT might be recommended methods considered for management of peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Lasers , Peri-Implantite/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dentária , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Probabilidade , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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