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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3849-3855, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854846

RESUMO

It is important to obtain the size distribution of carbonaceous components in aerosols for studying the formation and transformation mechanisms and radiation characteristics of regional aerosols. However, only a few studies on the size distribution of aerosol carbonaceous fractions have been conducted in Beijing. In this study, a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI)-120 sampler was used to collect size-resolved aerosol samples in three seasons in Beijing, and the concentrations of different types of carbonaceous fractions were analyzed. Furthermore, the size distribution, characteristics, sources, and interrelationship of each carbonaceous component in different seasons and under different pollution levels were systematically studied. The results show that the carbonaceous components were concentrated mainly in fine particles, and the proportion of carbonaceous components in fine particles in autumn and winter was higher than that in summer. The carbonaceous components are distributed in two main modes:accumulation mode and coarse mode. Organic carbon fraction 1 (OC1) and OC2 were distributed mainly in the accumulated mode, with a higher proportion in the range of 0.056-0.56 µm, and OC3+OC4 was more abundant in the coarse mode. The concentration of Soot-elemental carbon (EC) was low but was highest in the 0.10-0.18 µm size range, which indicates that the EC emitted by high temperature combustion was distributed mainly in the ultra-fine particle size range. The Char-EC concentration was much higher, accounting for the majority of EC. The distribution appearances of the main carbonaceous components were essentially the same in the daytime and at night. Summer and winter were more conducive to the formation of SOC, and the OC/EC ratio was significantly higher than that in autumn. The OC/EC values varied greatly in different particle sizes because the water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) were distributed mainly in the range of 0.056-0.10 µm, with significantly higher OC/EC values than other particle sizes. Sunlight and high temperature were beneficial to the oxidation of gaseous organic matter to SOC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio in summer in daytime to be significantly higher than that at night. Among the carbonaceous components, EC1 and OC1 had the strongest interrelation. In addition, EC1 also had stronger interrelation with potassium.

2.
J Cancer ; 10(23): 5722-5726, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737108

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of the DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair system is a causative factor in many cancers, including high-risk neuroblastoma. A number of studies have shown that polymorphisms in the DNA ligase III (LIG3) gene, one of the key genes in the error-prone alternative NHEJ (a-NHEJ) pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, are associated with a variety of cancers. Nevertheless, whether LIG3 polymorphisms contribute to neuroblastoma risk remains unknown. We investigated the correlation between neuroblastoma susceptibility and two LIG3 polymorphisms (rs1052536 C>T and rs4796030 A>C) among 469 neuroblastoma patients and 998 healthy controls from China. Our results failed to detect any relationship between the analyzed SNPs and neuroblastoma risk in either overall analysis or stratification analysis. These results suggest that rs1052536 C>T and rs4796030 A>C are unrelated to neuroblastoma susceptibility in the Chinese population. Further studies with larger sample sizes and multiple ethnicities are necessary to verify our results.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746066

RESUMO

Wilms tumor is a kidney malignancy that typically occurs in children. Aberrant expression of HMGA2 gene is commonly seen in many malignant tumors. Yet, HMGA2 gene polymorphisms on Wilms tumor risk are not established. We carried out the first four-center case-control study with 355 patients and 1,070 controls to assess the association of HMGA2 polymorphisms (rs6581658 A>G, rs8756 A>C, and rs968697 T>C) with Wilms tumor risk. All of these three polymorphisms in single could not impact Wilms tumor risk. Stratified analysis revealed a contributing Wilms tumor risk role of rs968697 TC/CC in subgroup of male (TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-2.08, P = 0.035). However, we found that presence of 1-3 protective genotypes were less likely to develop tumor in subgroup of female (adjusted OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.48-0.99, P = 0.045). Our findings suggest that HMGA2 gene polymorphisms might influence Wilms tumor predisposition in a weak manner, under certain circumstances.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19616-19624, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747756

RESUMO

It is well-established that the inclusion of small atomic species such as boron (B) in powder metal catalysts can subtly modify catalytic properties, and the associated changes in the metal lattice imply that the B atoms are located in the interstitial sites. However, there is no compelling evidence for the occurrence of interstitial B atoms, and there is a concomitant lack of detailed structural information describing the nature of this occupancy and its effects on the metal host. In this work, we use an innovative combination of high-resolution 11B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and 105Pd static solid-state NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), in situ X-ray pair distribution function (XPDF), scanning transmission electron microscopy-annular dark field imaging (STEM-ADF), electron ptychography, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to investigate the B atom positions, properties, and structural modifications to the palladium lattice of an industrial type interstitial boron doped palladium nanoparticle catalyst system (Pd-intB/C NPs). In this study, we report that upon B incorporation into the Pd lattice, the overall face centered cubic (FCC) lattice is maintained; however, short-range disorder is introduced. The 105Pd static solid-state NMR illustrates how different types (and levels) of structural strain and disorder are introduced in the nanoparticle history. These structural distortions can lead to the appearance of small amounts of local hexagonal close packed (HCP) structured material in localized regions. The short-range lattice tailoring of the Pd framework to accommodate interstitial B dopants in the octahedral sites of the distorted FCC structure can be imaged by electron ptychography. This study describes new toolsets that enable the characterization of industrial metal nanocatalysts across length scales from macro- to microanalysis, which gives important guidance to the structure-activity relationship of the system.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(48): 17770-17779, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782445

RESUMO

Responsive molecular chromic materials have shown potential applications in molecular optical switches and sensor devices as they undergo reversible colour changes upon application of external stimuli. Herein, six host-guest coordination polymers 1-6 and one organic supramolecular compound 7 containing viologens have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 shows thermochromic behavior with a colour change from green to blue upon heating at 150 °C in air. Compounds 3, 4 and 7 display photochromic behaviors with a colour change from pale yellow to green under UV light, visible light or sunlight. The relationship between their structures and chromic behaviors has been discussed. Thermo/photochromic mechanisms have been investigated by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results demonstrate the generation of viologen radicals caused by thermo/photo-induced electron transfer. It is found that compound 4 can be used as an inkless and erasable printing medium. In addition, compounds 3, 4, and 7 can be used as anti-counterfeiting materials for QR codes. Our findings demonstrate the possibility of applying thermo/photochromic coordination polymers in molecular devices.

6.
Biomater Sci ; 7(12): 5197-5210, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588929

RESUMO

Zn2+ has been implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as amyloid-ß protein (Aß) aggregation and neurotoxicity are mediated by zinc ions. Therefore, development of metal chelators for inhibiting and regulating metal-triggered Aß aggregation has received attention as a strategy for treating AD. Here, we used an approach based on phage display to screen for a Zn(ii)-binding peptide that specifically blocks Zn-triggered Aß aggregation. A fixed Zn(ii) resin was prepared using Ni-IDA affinity resin, and the target Zn(ii) was screened by interaction with a heptapeptide phage library. After negative biopanning against IDA and four rounds of positive biopanning against Zn(ii), high specificity Zn(ii)-binding phages were obtained. Through DNA sequencing and ELISA, 15 sets of Zn(ii)-binding peptides with high histidine contents were identified. We chose a highly specific peptide against Zn(ii) with the sequence of H-M-Q-T-N-H-H, and its abilities to chelate Zn2+ and inhibit Zn2+-mediated Aß aggregation were assessed in vitro. We loaded the Zn(ii)-binding peptide onto PEG-modified chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the stability and the bioavailability of the Zn(ii) binding peptide. PEG-modified chitosan NPs loaded with Zn(ii)-binding peptide (PEG/PZn-CS NPs) reduced Zn2+ concentrations and Aß secretion in mouse neuroblastoma (N)2a cells stably over-expressing the APP Swedish mutation (N2aswe). Zn2+-Induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were attenuated by PEG/PZn-CS NPs. Intranasal administration of PEG/PZn-CS NPs improved the cognitive ability of APPswe/PS1d9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic mice and reduced Aß plaques in the mouse brain. This study indicated that a Zn(ii)-binding peptide and its NPs have promise as a potential anti-AD agent.

7.
J Cancer ; 10(18): 4159-4164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413734

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous cancer frequently occurring in childhood. Germline mutations of PARP1 oncogene are implicated in several types of cancer. However, whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PARP1 gene are associated with neuroblastoma risk has received relatively few attentions. In this multi-center study, we aimed to elucidate the contributing role of PARP1 SNPs in neuroblastoma risk. We successfully genotyped three potentially functional PARP1 SNPs (rs1136410 A>G, rs2666428 T>C, rs8679 A>G) in 469 neuroblastoma cases and 998 controls. We did not detect any significant association between the analyzed SNPs and neuroblastoma risk in single SNP analysis. However, stratified analysis revealed that rs1136410 AG/GG carriers were more likely to develop tumors arising from mediastinum (AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.06-2.56, P=0.028). Moreover, rs2666428 TC/CC carriers were at significantly lower risk to develop tumors from "other sites" (TC/CC vs. TT: adjusted OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20-0.96, P=0.040). Our findings failed to provide evidence of the conferring role of the PARP1 gene polymorphisms in the risk of neuroblastoma. Further investigations of the association between PARP1 gene SNPs and neuroblastoma risk are warranted.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443561

RESUMO

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the form of "forests" were synthesized directly on the surface of stainless steel (SS) mesh from ethanol flame volume. The growth dependence of the MWCNT forests on the porosity of SS mesh substrate and the morphologies and growth mechanism of the MWCNT forests were investigated in detail by a combination of turbulent flow simulation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The growth height of the MWCNT forests exhibited a strong dependence on the flame gas flow rate controlled by the porosity of SS mesh substrate, and the maximum averaged height of the MWCNT forests reached 34 µm. Most MWCNTs grew perpendicularly on the surface of SS wires, and some branch, welded, and spiral structures were observed by SEM and TEM. The MWCNT-decorated mesh was used as a novel heating element to weld glass-fabric-reinforced polyetherimide (GF/PEI) thermoplastics. We found that the maximum tensile lap-shear strength (LSS) of the welded joints could reach 39.21 MPa, an increase of 41% in comparison with that of conventional SS mesh-based joints.

9.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 462, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189879

RESUMO

An increased surface level of CIE (clathrin-independent endocytosis) proteins is a new feature of malignant neoplasms. CD147 is a CIE glycoprotein highly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The ability to sort out the early endosome and directly target the recycling pathway confers on CD147 a prolonged surface half-life. However, current knowledge on CD147 trafficking to and from the cell-surface is limited. In this study, an MSP (membrane and secreted protein)-cDNA library was screened against EpoR/LR-F3/CD147EP-expressed cells by MAPPIT (mammalian protein-protein interaction trap). CD147 co-expressing with the new binder was investigated by GEPIA (gene expression profiling interactive analysis). The endocytosis, ER-Golgi trafficking and recycling of CD147 were measured by confocal imaging, flow cytometry, and biotin-labeled chase assays, respectively. Rab GTPase activation was checked by GST-RBD pull-down and MMP activity was measured by gelatin zymography. HCC malignant phenotypes were determined by cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, Transwell motility, and invasion assays. An ER-Golgi-resident transmembrane protein YIPF2 was identified as an intracellular binder to CD147. YIPF2 correlated and co-expressed with CD147, which is a survival predictor for HCC patients. YIPF2 is critical for CD147 glycosylation and trafficking functions in HCC cells. YIPF2 acts as a Rab-GDF (GDI-displacement factor) regulating three independent trafficking steps. First, YIPF2 recruits and activates Rab5 and Rab22a GTPases to the endomembrane structures. Second, YIPF2 modulates the endocytic recycling of CD147 through distinctive regulation on Rab5 and Rab22a. Third, YIPF2 mediates the mature processing of CD147 via the ER-Golgi trafficking route. Decreased YIPF2 expression induced a CD147 efficient delivery to the cell-surface, promoted MMP secretion, and enhanced the adhesion, motility, migration, and invasion behaviors of HCC cells. Thus, YIPF2 is a new trafficking determinant essential for CD147 glycosylation and transport. Our findings revealed a novel YIPF2-controlled ER-Golgi trafficking signature that promotes CD147-medated malignant phenotypes in HCC.

10.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156366

RESUMO

To study the impact of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine on cognitive, functional, behavioral, global changes and adverse effects in patients with mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD), we screened the literature published before September 2017 in the Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library and Web of Science Electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies were finally determined from 1560 preliminary screened articles. The AD Assessment Scale-cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input scale (CIBIC+) were used as valid endpoints. Of the 36 trials included, meta-analyses of these placebo-control trials showed that there were significant differences between the donepezil, rivastigmine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, and CIBIC+. Meta-analyses of these placebo-controlled trials showed that there were significant differences between the galantamine and placebo groups using ADAS-cog, ADCS-ADL, NPI, and CIBIC+. These observations suggest that memantine is beneficial for stabilizing or slowing the decline in ADAS-cog and ADCS-ADL19 changes in AD patients. However, there was no significant effect according to the ADCS-ADL23, NPI, and CIBIC+ tests, which indicated that memantine treatment has no significant effect on these cognitive aspects of AD patients. Different effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, or memantine on AD were found in this study. According to the results, we conclude that galantamine is effective in treating all aspects of AD and is the first choice for the treatment of AD. However, due to limited data, we should consider additional data to obtain more stable results.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 999, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824710

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive behaviors of flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these materials promising in a wide variety of applications such as gas separation, drug delivery, and molecular sensing. Considerable efforts have been made over the last decade to understand the structural changes of flexible MOFs in response to external stimuli. Uniform pore deformation has been used as the general description. However, recent advances in synthesizing MOFs with non-uniform porous structures, i.e. with multiple types of pores which vary in size, shape, and environment, challenge the adequacy of this description. Here, we demonstrate that the CO2-adsorption-stimulated structural change of a flexible MOF, ZIF-7, is induced by CO2 migration in its non-uniform porous structure rather than by the proactive opening of one type of its guest-hosting pores. Structural dynamics induced by guest migration in non-uniform porous structures is rare among the enormous number of MOFs discovered and detailed characterization is very limited in the literature. The concept presented in this work provides new insights into MOF flexibility.

12.
Genes Dev ; 33(3-4): 166-179, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692202

RESUMO

Although changes in alternative splicing have been observed in cancer, their functional contributions still remain largely unclear. Here we report that splice isoforms of the cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD44 exhibit strikingly opposite functions in breast cancer. Bioinformatic annotation in patient breast cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database reveals that the CD44 standard splice isoform (CD44s) positively associates with the CSC gene signatures, whereas the CD44 variant splice isoforms (CD44v) exhibit an inverse association. We show that CD44s is the predominant isoform expressed in breast CSCs. Elimination of the CD44s isoform impairs CSC traits. Conversely, manipulating the splicing regulator ESRP1 to shift alternative splicing from CD44v to CD44s leads to an induction of CSC properties. We further demonstrate that CD44s activates the PDGFRß/Stat3 cascade to promote CSC traits. These results reveal CD44 isoform specificity in CSC and non-CSC states and suggest that alternative splicing provides functional gene versatility that is essential for distinct cancer cell states and thus cancer phenotypes.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Isoformas de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
ChemSusChem ; 11(24): 4214-4218, 2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286279

RESUMO

γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is regarded as a key platform molecule in the production of fine chemicals such as pentenoic acid (PA) from biomass. Although PA is believed to be the key intermediate in solid-acid-catalyzed reactions of GVL, due to subsequent facile decarboxylation reactions further alkene products are formed. Here, by tailoring the acidity of Brønsted acid sites in an aluminophosphate (AlPO) molecular sieve through incorporation of Zn2+ into the framework, we access a new selective and effective catalyst for GVL conversion to PA.

14.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(7): 4484-4486, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174899

RESUMO

A 70-year-old male patient with chest pain and high fever was diagnosed as lung squamous carcinoma T4N0M0 in the left upper lobe complicated with intratumoral lung abscess. With no improvement resulted from antibiotic treatment for 4 days, to control his infection and resect his large tumor, he received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) left upper lung lobe resection and broncho-and angioplasty. Two-port technique was employed and the utility port was 10 cm long because the tumor's diameter (max) was 12 cm. After the first step to divide the tumor from chest wall and mediastinum, the pericardium was opened and dissection was carried out in a direction from anterior to posterior meticulously. The superior pulmonary vein was divided by a stapler and then the upper bronchus cut open. Then the pulmonary artery was blocked and then its branches were cut open. At last, angioplasty and bronchoplasty was completed by sutures. Without any accidental bleeding, the whole operative time was 350 min and bleeding volume 100 mL. After the operation, fever resolved soon and pathologic stage was pT4N2M0. The patient was discharged from the hospital 20 days after the surgery. Generally, large tumor is still challenging in VATS operation and obstructive lung infection or abscess make the operation harder. However, VATS can still be applied in these patients and provide better vision and better chances for recovery without compromise of tumor principle.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(8): 1989-2000, 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089098

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a lethal tumor that commonly occurs in children. Polymorphisms in XPD reportedly influence risk for several types of cancer, though their roles in neuroblastoma remain unclear. Here we endeavored to determine the relevance of XPD gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma susceptibility in Chinese children genotyping three XPD polymorphisms (rs3810366, rs13181 and rs238406) in 505 cases and 1070 controls and assessing their contributions to neuroblastoma risk. Overall, we detected no significant association between any single XPD genotype and neuroblastoma risk. When risk genotypes were combined, however, we found that patients with 2-3 risk genotypes were more likely to develop neuroblastoma (adjusted odds ratio =1.31; 95% confidence interval =1.06-1.62, P=0.013) than those with 0-1 risk genotypes. Stratification analysis of rs3810366 revealed significant relationships between the subgroups age ≤18 months and clinical stage I+II+4s and neuroblastoma risk. Moreover, the presence of 2-3 risk genotypes was significantly associated with increased neuroblastoma risk in the subgroups age ≤18 months, male, tumor originated from others, and clinical stage I+II+4s. Our findings provide novel insight into the genetic underpinnings of neuroblastoma and demonstrate that XPD polymorphisms may have a cumulative effect on neuroblastoma risk.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/epidemiologia
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(51): 7014-7017, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873350

RESUMO

The traditional investigation of complex catalyst poisoning phenomena is in the operation level: poisonings commonly attributed to macroscopic coke deposition and particle size change, etc. Here, we demonstrate that high-resolution SXRD can reveal the structure of the organic molecule-active site complex in a 3-D environment, leading to an understanding of the poisoning mechanism at the molecular level.

17.
J Pineal Res ; 65(3): e12502, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710396

RESUMO

Copper is essential for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are induced by amyloid-ß (Aß) aggregation; thus, the homeostasis of copper is believed to be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although clinical trials of copper chelators show promise when applied in AD, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we reported that copper chelators promoted nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP through MT1/2 /CREB-dependent signaling pathways. First, we found that the formation of Aß plaques in the cortex was significantly reduced, and learning deficits were significantly improved in AßPP/PS1 transgenic mice by copper chelator tetrathiomolybdate (TM) administration. Second, TM and another copper chelator, bathocuproine sulfonate (BCS), promoted nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP via inducing the expression of ADAM10 and the secretion of sAßPPα. Third, the inducible ADAM10 production caused by copper chelators can be blocked by a melatonin receptor (MT1/2 ) antagonist (luzindole) and a MT2 inhibitor (4-P-PDOT), suggesting that the expression of ADAM10 depends on the activation of MT1/2 signaling pathways. Fourth, three of the MT1/2 -downstream signaling pathways, Gq/PLC/MEK/ERK/CREB, Gs/cAMP/PKA/ERK/CREB and Gs/cAMP/PKA/CREB, were responsible for copper chelator-induced ADAM10 production. Based on these results, we conclude that copper chelators regulate the balance between amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic processing of AßPP via promoting ADAM10 expression through MT1/2 /CREB-dependent signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Quelantes/farmacologia , Cobre , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Receptores de Melatonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína ADAM10/biossíntese , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/biossíntese , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(21): 6661-6667, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660275

RESUMO

Industrial olefin metathesis catalysts generally suffer from low reaction rates and require harsh reaction conditions for moderate activities. This is due to their inability to prevent metathesis active sites (MASs) from aggregation and their intrinsic poor adsorption and activation of olefin molecules. Here, isolated tungstate species as single molecular MASs are immobilized inside zeolite pores by Brønsted acid sites (BASs) on the inner surface. It is demonstrated that unoccupied BASs in atomic proximity to MASs enhance olefin adsorption and facilitate the formation of metallocycle intermediates in a stereospecific manner. Thus, effective cooperative catalysis takes place over the BAS-MAS pair inside the zeolite cavity. In consequence, for the cross-metathesis of ethene and trans-2-butene to propene, under mild reaction conditions, the propene production rate over WO x/USY is ca. 7300 times that over the industrial WO3/SiO2-based catalyst. A propene yield up to 79% (80% selectivity) without observable deactivation was obtained over WO x/USY for a wide range of reaction conditions.

19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(17): 4571-4579, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658706

RESUMO

Human colostrum is important for immune system development and plays a protective role for infants. However, the comprehensive exploration of lipids, which account for 3-5% of milk, and their biological functions in human colostrum was limited. In present study, the triacylglycerol (TAG) and fatty acid (FA) compositions of human colostrum and mature milk were analyzed and compared. Variations were observed in both the TAG and FA compositions. The concentrations of 18:1/18:1/16:0 TAG, high-molecular-weight and unsaturated TAGs were significantly higher in colostrum, whereas mature milk contained more low/medium-molecular-weight TAGs and medium-chain FAs. Furthermore, there were also specific TAGs in both colostrum and mature milk. Our data highlighted targets for further investigation to elucidate the biological function of lipids in colostrum milk. In addition, the comprehensive analysis of TAGs in Chinese colostrum might help in designing infant formula for Chinese babies, especially the preterm ones.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Leite Humano/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 10: 66, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615891

RESUMO

Amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), due to its neurotoxicity. Thus, blocking Aß generation and aggregation in the brain has been realized as an efficient way for the prevention of AD. The natural product catalpol, isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa, has shown neuroprotective activities through inhibiting soluble Aß production, degrading Aß peptide, and attenuating Aß toxicity and neuroinflammatory responses. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether catalpol reduce Aß generation associated with regulating amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolytic processing. By using Swedish mutant APP overexpressed N2a (SweAPP N2a) cells treated with catalpol, we found that catalpol was not able to reduce the expression levels of ß-secretase (BACE-1) and γ-secretase (PS1, APH-1, PEN-2 and Nicastrin). By contrast, catalpol had a significant promotion effect on the expression of α-secretase (ADAM10) and its proteolytic products, sAPPα and C83, suggesting that catalpol reduced the production of Aß might be involved in non-amyloidogenic APP pathway. In addition, we confirmed that the extracellular signal-related kinase/cAMP-response element binding protein (ERK/CREB) signaling pathways were responsible for the up-regulation of ADAM10 in catalpol-treated SweAPP N2a cells. The present data, for the first time, have demonstrated that the effect of catalpol on the inhibiting Aß generation might be closely related to α-cleavage of APP processing.

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