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1.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1718-1723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226289

RESUMO

A newly identified novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is causing pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome across the world. Epidemiology, genomics, and pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 show high homology with that of SARS-CoV. Current efforts are focusing on development of specific antiviral drugs. Therapeutic neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 will be greatly important therapeutic agents for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, the host immune responses against SARS-CoV discussed in this review provide implications for developing NAbs and understanding clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we describe the benefits, challenges and considerations of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Although many challenges exist, NAbs still offer a therapeutic option to control the current pandemic and the possible re-emergence of the virus in the future, and their development therefore remains a high priority.

2.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134177

RESUMO

It is highly desired to improve the visible-light activity of g-C 3 N 4 for H 2 evolution by constructing closely-contacted heterojunctions with conductive polymers. Herein, a polymer nanocomposite photocatalyst with high visible-light activity was successfully fabricated by coupling nano-sized polypyrrole (NPPy) particles onto g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets through a simple wet-chemical process and its visible-light activity is further improved by constructing Mg-O bridges between the NPPy and g-C 3 N 4 . The amount-optimized bridged nanocomposite displays a ~9-time visible-light activity improvement compared to g-C 3 N 4 . Based on transient-state surface photovoltage responses and photoluminescence spectra, •OH amount evaluation and photoelectrochemical curves, it is concluded that the exceptional photoactivity is attributed to the significantly promoted charge transfer and separation along with visible photosensitization from NPPy. Interestingly, it is confirmed that the promoted charge separation mainly depends on the excited high-level electron transfer from g-C 3 N 4 to NPPy by single-wavelength photocurrent action spectra. This work provides a feasible strategy for designing polymer nano-heterojunction photocatalysts with exceptional visible-light activities.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 101(2-1): 023302, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168678

RESUMO

The effective one-component plasma (EOCP) model has provided an efficient approach to obtaining many important thermophysical parameters of hot dense matter [J. Clérouin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 115003 (2016)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.116.115003]. In this paper, we perform extensive quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations to determine the equations of state, ionic structures, and ionic transport properties of neon and krypton within the warm dense matter (WDM) regime where the density (ρ) is up to 12 g/cm^{3} and the temperature (T) is up to 100 kK. The simulated data are then used as a benchmark to explicitly evaluate the EOCP and Yukawa models. It is found that, within present ρ-T regime, the EOCP model can excellently reproduce the diffusion and viscosity coefficients of neon and krypton due to the fact that this model defines a system which nearly reproduces the actual physical states of WDM. Therefore, the EOCP model may be a promising alternative approach to reasonably predicting the transport behaviors of matter in WDM regime at lower QMD computational cost. The evaluation of Yukawa model shows that the consideration of the energy level broadening effect in the average atom model is necessary. Finally, with the help of EOCP model, the Stokes-Einstein relationships about neon and krypton are discussed, and fruitful plasma parameters as well as a practical ρ-T-dependent formula of the effective coupling parameter are obtained. These results not only provide valuable information for future theoretical and experimental studies on dense neon and krypton but also reveal the applicability of the EOCP model and the limitation of the Yukawa model in WDM regime and further support the continuing search for a unified description of ionic transport in dense plasma.

5.
AIDS Care ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168993

RESUMO

Early life adverse events in children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS can have long-lasting effects on brain function. However, data are limited regarding the brain activation during resting state in these children. The current study aims to investigate the brain oscillation at rest in children orphaned by HIV/AIDS using resting-state EEG data. Data were derived from a larger neurodevelopmental study in which 90 children aged 9-17 years orphaned by AIDS and 66 matched controls were recruited through the local communities and school system. Children (63 orphans and 65 controls) who had resting-state EEG data and completed the Teacher-Child Rating Scale (T-CRS) were included in the current analysis. EEG results showed that children orphaned by HIV/AIDS had increased theta activity in the midline region, decreased beta activity in left hemisphere and overall increased theta/beta power ratio. Furthermore, the theta/beta ratio is positively correlated with learning problem and acting out scores, and negatively correlated with task orientation and peer social skill activities. Findings support that children orphaned by HIV/AIDS demonstrate different brain activity compared to non-orphan controls and also suggest that the EEG activities in resting state may serve as useful indicators of children's behavioral problems.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120953

RESUMO

Amynthas triastriatus (Oligochaete: Megascolecidae) is a widely distributed endemic species in Southern China. To shed light on the population genetic diversity and to elucidate the population differentiation and dispersal of A. triastriatus, a population genetic structure study was undertaken based on samples from 35 locations collected from 2010 to 2016. Two exclusive lineages within A. triastriatus-lineage A and lineage B-were revealed. Lineage A was mainly distributed at high altitudes while lineage B was mainly distributed at low altitudes in Southeast China. The genetic diversity indices indicated that the populations of A. triastriatus had a strong genetic structure and distinct dispersal histories underlying the haplogroups observed in this study. Combined with morphological differences, these results indicated a new cryptic subspecies of A. triastriatus. Lineage A was almost degenerated to parthenogenesis and lineage B had a trend to parthenogenesis, which suggested that parthenogenesis could be an internal factor that influenced the differentiation and dispersal of A. triastriatus. The divergence time estimates showed that A. triastriatus originated around Guangxi and Guangdong provinces and generated into two main lineages 2.97 Ma (95%: 2.17-3.15 Ma) at the time of Quaternary glaciation (2.58 Ma), which suggested that the Quaternary glaciation may have been one of main factors that promoted the colonization of A. triastriatus.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160248

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224537.].

8.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217029

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to pre-operatively investigate the diagnostic performance of 2D shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for staging liver fibrosis and inflammation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who then undergo surgery and to determine the optimal locations for measurement. In total, 106 patients were enrolled in this prospective study from March 2017 to May 2018. Two-dimensional SWE was used to measure liver stiffness (LS) in each patient 0-1, 1-2 and 2-5 cm from the tumor border (groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Spearman's correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between LS and hepatic fibrosis and between LS and inflammation. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 2D-SWE. The technical success rate of SWE in tissue distant from the tumor (group 3) was significantly higher than that in peri-tumoral tissue (groups 1 and 2) (p < 0.001). Moreover, the area under the ROC for diagnosing cirrhosis (F4) and severe inflammation (A3) was higher for group 3 than for groups 1 and 2. Our results suggest that 2D-SWE is a helpful approach to assessment of hepatic fibrosis in HCC patients before hepatic resection. We found that to achieve a superior success rate and preferable diagnosis accuracy for patients with HCC, LS measurement should be performed 2-5 cm from the tumor margin.

9.
Pharmacol Res ; 155: 104752, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169656

RESUMO

As a potential drug for treating inflammatory, autoimmune diseases and cancers, triptolide (TP) is greatly limited in clinical practice due to its severe toxicity, particularly for liver injury. Recently, metabolic homeostasis was vitally linked to drug-induced liver injury and gut microbiota was established to play an important role. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functions of gut microbiota on TP-induced hepatotoxicity using metabolomics in mice. Here, predepletion of gut microbiota by antibiotic treatment strikingly aggravated liver injury and caused mortality after treated with a relatively safe dosage of TP at 0.5 mg/kg, which could be reversed by gut microbial transplantation. The loss of gut microbiota prior to TP treatment dramatically elevated long chain fatty acids and bile acids in plasma and liver. Further study suggested that gut microbiota-derived propionate contributed to the protective effect of gut microbiota against TP evidenced by ameliorative inflammatory level (Tnfa, Il6 and Cox2), ATP, malondialdehyde and hepatic histology. Supplementing with propionate significantly decreased the mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis (Srebp1c, Fasn and Elovl6), resulting in the decreased long chain fatty acids in liver. Moreover, TP restricted the growth of Firmicutes and led to the deficiency of short chain fatty acids in cecum content. In conclusion, our study warns the risk for TP and its preparations when antibiotics are co-administrated. Intervening by foods, prebiotics and probiotics toward gut microbiota or supplementing with propionate may be a clinical strategy to improve toxicity induced by TP.

10.
Analyst ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222739

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination has posed a great threat to human survival and social development. For this, a series of nanoenzyme-based colorimetric sensors, e.g., metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, metal sulfides, graphene-based nanomaterials, G-quadruplex and so on, were developed for the rapid and efficient detection of toxic heavy metal ions, whose detection limit for heavy metal ions could be as low as the nmol L-1 level. The recognition mechanism was based on the catalysis and signal amplification of nanozymes, a new type of nanomaterial possessing specific catalytic activity towards certain chemical reactions such as the oxidation of colorless TMB to blue oxTMB. In this work, we are trying to present readers with a better understanding of this important colorimetric sensing material by illustrating its application in the detection of heavy metal ions using metal nanoparticles, metal oxides, metal sulfides, graphene-based nanomaterials, G-quadruplex, etc. respectively.

11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(5): 4371-4378, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with CTD-ILD and reduced lung function. We sought to confirm that lower Vitamin D level would be related to shorter survival times. RESULTS: The CTD-ILD patients had lower Vitamin D level(P<0.05). Among patients with CTD-ILD who have improved lung function after treatment, elevation of Vitamin D level was positively associated with ΔFVC (%), ΔFEV1(%) and ΔDLCO-SB (%). The median survival time of patients with high serum 25(OH)D level was significantly longer than the patients with low 25(OH)D level group (16.5 months vs14.0 months, P=0.007). The Vitamin D was identified as an independent prognostic factor with a hazard ratio of 0.869 (95% CI 0.772-0.977, P =0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D level was lower in patients with CTD-ILD and associated with poor prognosis. Continuous levels of Vitamin D may be an important serum biomarker of prognosis. METHODS: 85 CTD-ILD patients, 71 Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and 78 healthy control patients were included in the study. In the subgroup analysis, the CTD-ILD patients were divided into anti-MDA5 antibody-positive group and anti-MDA5 antibody-negative group according to the serum autoantibodies results. The survival analysis evaluated effect of Vitamin D level on disease prognosis.

12.
Xenobiotica ; : 1-14, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174209

RESUMO

Coumarins have aroused high interests due to their diverse bioactivities. Understanding of its metabolism contributes to determine the druggability of coumarin in vivo.A sensitive and efficient strategy based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) analysis combined with various data-processing techniques including metabolomics and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) was established for the comprehensive screening and elucidation of potential coumarin metabolites.Total 20 metabolites of scoparone were identified in this study, including 14 undescribed metabolites. The metabolism of two other similar coumarins scopoletin and esculetin also could be determined using this strategy.By the established strategy, this study gives the insights about the major metabolic pathways of scoparone in vivo and in vitro metabolism, including demethylation, hydroxylation, hydration, cysteine conjugation, glucuronide conjugation and sulfate conjugation. Additionally, the metabolic pathways of scopoletin and esculetin were determined as hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulfation. These results contribute to the understanding of metabolic characterization of coumarins, and demonstrate that the combination of UPLC-MS-based metabolomics and MMDF is a powerful approach to determine the metabolic pathways of coumarin compounds.

13.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research on the association between relative glycemic level post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and adverse prognosis in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients is relatively inadequate. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the glycemic level post-PCI predicts adverse prognosis in NSTE-ACS patients. METHODS: Patients (n=2465) admitted with NSTE-ACS who underwent PCI were enrolled. The relative glycemic level post-procedure was calculated as blood glucose level post-PCI divided by HbA1c level, which was named post-procedural glycemic index (PGI). The primary observational outcome of this study was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) [defined as a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and any revascularization]. RESULTS: The association between PGI and MACE rate presented as a U-shape curve. Higher PGIs [hazard ratio (HR): 1.669 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.244-2.238) for the third quartile (Q3) and 2.076 (1.566-2.753) for the fourth quartile (Q4), p<0.001], adjusted for confounding factors, were considered to be one of the independent predictors of MACE. The association between the PGI and the risk of MACE was more prominent in the non-diabetic population [HR (95%CI) of 2.356 (1.456-3.812) for Q3 and 3.628 (2.265-5.812) for Q4, p<0.001]. There was no significant differences in MACE risk between PGI groups in the diabetic population. CONCLUSION: Higher PGI was a significant and independent predictor of MACE in NSTE-ACS patients treated with PCI. The prognostic effect of the PGI is more remarkable in subsets without pre-existing diabetes than in the overall population. The predictive value of PGI was not identified in the subgroup with diabetes.

14.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183682

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to detected the biological function of LncRNA MALAT1 in regulating macrophage-related autophagy. BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the mainly cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which lead to the second cause of death worldwide. In advanced atherosclerotic plaque, macrophage apoptosis coupled with inflammatory cytokines secretion promotes the formation of necrotic cores. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the MALAT1-related autophagy and find related signaling pathway. METHOD: We utilized ox-LDL to incubate THP-1-derived macrophages in order to establish the foam cell model in vitro. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses confirmed the increasing expression level of MALAT1 and autophagy-related protein LC-3, Beclin-1. Si-RNAs study showed the significant decrease in autophagy activity and increase in apoptotic rate when knocking down MALAT1. Further study demonstrated that MALAT1 inhibited the expression of MAPK and NF-κB (p65) by up-regulating SIRT1. RESULT: Here we demonstrated that the long non-coding RNA MALAT1, which has attracted increasingly attention by its potent function on gene transcription modulation, is also indispensable for maintaining oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)-induced autophagy in macrophage. Besides, we also proved that MALAT1 exerted its protective function by activating SIRT1, which subsequently inhibit the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: LncRNA MALAT1 Enhances Ox-LDL-induced Autophagy via the SIRT1/MAPK/NF-κB Pathway in Macrophages.

15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(1): 73-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145731

RESUMO

Echinostoma revolutum is a zoonotic food-borne intestinal trematode that can cause intestinal bleeding, enteritis, and diarrhea in human and birds. To identify a suspected E. revolutum trematode from a red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and to reveal the genetic characteristics of its mitochondrial (mt) genome, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and complete mt genome sequence of this trematode were amplified. The results identified the trematode as E. revolutum. Its entire mt genome sequence was 15,714 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one non-coding region (NCR), with 61.73% A+T base content and a significant AT preference. The length of the 22 tRNA genes ranged from 59 bp to 70 bp, and their secondary structure showed the typical cloverleaf and D-loop structure. The length of the large subunit of rRNA (rrnL) and the small subunit of rRNA (rrnS) gene was 1,011 bp and 742 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic trees showed that E. revolutum and E. miyagawai clustered together, belonging to Echinostomatidae with Hypoderaeum conoideum. This study may enrich the mitochondrial gene database of Echinostoma trematodes and provide valuable data for studying the molecular identification and phylogeny of some digenean trematodes.

16.
Arch Toxicol ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112223

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) have been shown to be related to interindividual variations in arsenic metabolism and to influence adverse health effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The occurrence of hyperleukocytosis with As2O3 treatment seriously affects the early survival rate of APL patients, but no definite explanation for such a complication has been clearly established. To clarify the causes of this situation, AS3MT polymorphisms 14215 (rs3740390), 14458 (rs11191439), 27215 (rs11191446), and 35991 (rs10748835) and profiles of plasma arsenic metabolites were evaluated in a group of 54 newly diagnosed APL patients treated with single-agent As2O3. High-performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) was used to determine the concentrations of plasma arsenic metabolites. Plasma arsenic methylation metabolism capacity was evaluated by the percentage of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), primary methylation index (PMI, MMA/iAs), and secondary methylation index (SMI, DMA/MMA). The results showed that APL patients who developed hyperleukocytosis had a higher plasma iAs%, but a lower MMA% and PMI than those who did not develop hyperleukocytosis during As2O3 treatment. In addition, patients with the AS3MT 14215 (rs3740390) CC genotype had significantly higher plasma iAs% and incidence of hyperleukocytosis, but lower PMI than patients with the CT + TT genotype. Conversely, we did not observe statistically significant associations between the occurrence of hyperleukocytosis and AS3MT 14458 (rs11191439), 27215 (rs11191446), and 35991 (rs10748835) polymorphisms in our study subjects. These results indicated that AS3MT 14215 (rs3740390) might be used as an indicator for predicting the occurrence of hyperleukocytosis in APL patients treated with As2O3.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024099

RESUMO

The effects of C=C, ester and ß-H groups on the ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of molecules in natural ester insulation oil were investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The major contribution to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) comes from the carbon atoms adjacent to C=C. Thus, the IPs of triglycerides decrease as the number of C=C double bonds increases. The C=C in alkanes may also lower the IP. However, the ß-H in triglycerides has little effect on the IP, and C=C and ß-H have only a small effect on the EAs of the triglycerides because of the major contributions of atoms near the ester group in triglycerides to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). This study calculated the IPs of 53 kinds of molecules in FR3, which are significantly lower compared with those of molecules in mineral oil (MO) and trimethylolpropane triester without C=C. However, the lightning impulse breakdown voltage (LI Vb) of trimethylolpropane triester is still significantly lower than that of MO at the large gap. Therefore, the transition from slow to fast streamers under low lighting impulse voltage is determined by the ester group rather than by C=C and ß-H. The ester group may attract more electrons, impacting itself more compared to alkane in MO and facilitating the transition from slow to fast streamers.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114128, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between temperature and mortality has been widely reported. However, it remains largely unclear whether inflammation-related diseases, caused by excessive or inappropriate inflammatory reaction, may be affected by ambient temperature, particularly in low-income areas. OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between ambient temperature and clinical visits for inflammation-related diseases in rural villages in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, during 2012─2015. METHODS: Daily data on inflammation-related diseases and weather conditions were collected from 258 villages in Haiyuan (161 villages) and Yanchi (97 villages) counties during 2012─2015. A Quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the association between temperature and clinical visits for inflammation-related diseases. Stratified analyses were performed by types of diseases including arthritis, gastroenteritis, and gynecological inflammations. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 724,788 and 288,965 clinical visits for inflammation-related diseases in Haiyuan and Yanchi, respectively. Both exposure to low (RR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.690, 2.474) and high temperatures (RR: 1.244, 95% CI: 1.107, 1.399) were associated with increased risk of total inflammation-related visits in Haiyuan county. Low temperatures were associated with increased risks of all types of inflammation-related diseases in Yanchi county (RR: 4.344, 95% CI: 2.887, 6.535), while high temperatures only affected gastroenteritis (RR: 1.274, 95% CI: 1.040, 1.561). Moderate temperatures explained approximately 26% and 33% of clinical visits due to inflammation-related diseases in Haiyuan and Yanchi, respectively, with the burden attributable to cold exposure higher than hot exposure. The reference temperature values ranged from 17 to 19 in Haiyuan, and 12 to 14 in Yanchi for all types of clinical visits. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add additional evidence for the adverse effect of suboptimal ambient temperature and provide useful information for public health programs targeting people living in rural villages.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(11): 13305-13315, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092266

RESUMO

Herein, hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles@calcium alginate composite has been prepared by embedding hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) into calcium alginate. The hydrophilic ZnO NPs within the composites can act as a killer of bacteria, while calcium alginate can remove the organic impurities due to its adsorption capacity, thus realizing the purification of water via sterilization and removal of organics. A water purifier based on the composite has been demonstrated, the aerobic bacterial counts of the contaminated water can be decreased from 2240 to 9 cfu mL-1, and the turbidity of the water is decreased to 0.51 NTU, which is below the maximum permissible of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality designed by the World Health Organization. Sterilization mechanism studies show that the ZnO NPs can cause excessive oxidative stress in cells, inducing bacteria to produce large amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to the apoptosis of the bacteria.

20.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069778

RESUMO

We investigated the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and early childhood growth trajectories and overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire during the second trimester, and dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. The associations between maternal dietary pattern scores and body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to age four (rising-high, moderate, and low BMI trajectories) as well as overweight/obesity risk at age four were analyzed (n = 1257). Two maternal dietary patterns were identified. The fast food pattern included a higher intake of fried chicken and fish, fruit juices, mayonnaise, and sugar-sweetened beverages, while the processed food pattern included a higher intake of dairy, salad dressing, processed meat, and cold breakfast cereal. Women with greater adherence to the fast food pattern were more likely to have children in the rising-high BMI trajectory group [OR (95% CI) = 1.32 (1.07-1.62); p = 0.008] or having overweight/obesity at age four [OR (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.11-1.54); p = 0.001]. The processed food pattern was not associated with these outcomes. The maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy represented by fried foods and sugar-sweetened beverages may contribute to rapid early childhood growth and increased risk for obesity in offspring.

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