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1.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802916

RESUMO

Honey exhibits antibacterial and antioxidant activities that are ascribed to its diverse secondary metabolites. In the Philippines, the antibacterial and antioxidant activities, as well as the bioactive metabolite contents of the honey, have not been thoroughly described. In this report, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities of honey from Apis mellifera and Tetragonula biroi, identified the compound responsible for the antibacterial activity, and compared the observed bioactivities and metabolite profiles to that of Manuka honey, which is recognized for its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The secondary metabolite contents of honey were extracted using a nonionic polymeric resin followed by antibacterial and antioxidant assays, and then spectroscopic analyses of the phenolic and flavonoid contents. Results showed that honey extracts produced by T. biroi exhibits antibiotic activity against Staphylococcal pathogens as well as high antioxidant activity, which are correlated to its high flavonoid and phenolic content as compared to honey produced by A. mellifera. The bioassay-guided fractionation paired with Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) and tandem MS analyses found the presence of the flavonoid isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin) in T. biroi honey extract, which was demonstrated as one of the compounds with inhibitory activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-44. Our findings suggest that Philippine honey produced by T. biroi is a potential nutraceutical that possesses antibiotic and antioxidant activities.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806610

RESUMO

Microglia, the innate immune cells of the CNS, exhibit long-term response changes indicative of innate immune memory (IIM). Our previous studies revealed IIM patterns of microglia with opposing immune phenotypes: trained immunity after a low dose and immune tolerance after a high dose challenge with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). Compelling evidence shows that innate immune cells adopt features of IIM via immunometabolic control. However, immunometabolic reprogramming involved in the regulation of IIM in microglia has not been fully addressed. Here, we evaluated the impact of dose-dependent microglial priming with ultra-low (ULP, 1 fg/mL) and high (HP, 100 ng/mL) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) doses on immunometabolic rewiring. Furthermore, we addressed the role of PI3Kγ on immunometabolic control using naïve primary microglia derived from newborn wild-type mice, PI3Kγ-deficient mice and mice carrying a targeted mutation causing loss of lipid kinase activity. We found that ULP-induced IIM triggered an enhancement of oxygen consumption and ATP production. In contrast, HP was followed by suppressed oxygen consumption and glycolytic activity indicative of immune tolerance. PI3Kγ inhibited glycolysis due to modulation of cAMP-dependent pathways. However, no impact of specific PI3Kγ signaling on immunometabolic rewiring due to dose-dependent LPS priming was detected. In conclusion, immunometabolic reprogramming of microglia is involved in IIM in a dose-dependent manner via the glycolytic pathway, oxygen consumption and ATP production: ULP (ultra-low-dose priming) increases it, while HP reduces it.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prenatal metabolomics profiles, providing measures of in utero nutritional and environmental exposures, may improve the prediction of childhood outcomes. We aimed to identify prenatal plasma metabolites associated with early childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectories and overweight/obesity risk in offspring. METHODS: This study included 450 African American mother-child pairs from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood Study. An untargeted metabolomics analysis was performed on the mothers' plasma samples collected during the second trimester. The children's BMI-z-score trajectories from birth to age 4 [rising-high- (9.8%), moderate- (68.2%), and low-BMI (22.0%)] and overweight/obesity status at age 4 were the main outcomes. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to select the prenatal metabolites associated with childhood outcomes. RESULTS: The mothers were 24.5 years old on average at recruitment, 76.4% having education less than 12 years and 80.0% with Medicaid or Medicare. In LASSO, seven and five prenatal metabolites were associated with the BMI-z-score trajectories and overweight/obese at age 4, respectively. These metabolites are mainly from/relevant to the pathways of steroid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, vitamin B complex, and xenobiotics metabolism (e.g., caffeine and nicotine). The odds ratios (95% CI) associated with a one SD increase in the prenatal metabolite risk scores (MRSs) constructed from the LASSO-selected metabolites were 2.97 (1.95-4.54) and 2.03 (1.54-2.67) for children being in the rising-high-BMI trajectory group and overweight/obesity at age 4, respectively. The MRSs significantly improved the risk prediction for childhood outcomes beyond traditional prenatal risk factors. The increase (95% CI) in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.10 (0.03-0.18) and 0.07 (0.02-0.12) for the rising-high-BMI trajectory (P = 0.005) and overweight/obesity at age 4 (P = 0.007), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal metabolomics profiles advanced prediction of early childhood growth trajectories and obesity risk in offspring.

4.
Dev Comp Immunol ; : 104092, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819545

RESUMO

DNA methyltransferase, a key enzyme mediating DNA methylation, is involved in numerous processes including genomic imprinting, X chromosome inactivation, transposable element suppression, and immune defense in vertebrates. In the present study, a DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 3 was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas (designed as CgDNMT3). There were a PWWP domain, a PHD domain and a DNA-methylase domain in the deduced amino acid sequences of CgDNMT3, and the conserved motifs I, IV, VI, Ⅷ, IX and X were identified in its C-terminal catalytic DNA-methylase domain. The mRNA transcripts of CgDNMT3 were detected in haemocytes, mantle, gill, adductor muscle, digestive gland and labial palp, with higher expression level in haemocytes (6.54 folds of those in gill, p < 0.01). The expression level of CgDNMT3 mRNA in haemocytes increased significantly after LPS primed (2.87 folds of that in control group, p < 0.05) in vitro or Vibrio splendidus challenging (1.94 folds of that in control group, p < 0.05) in vivo. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that CgDNMT3 protein was distributed mainly in cytoplasm and partial in nucleus of oyster haemocytes. After CgDNMT3 was transfected and expressed in HEK293T cells, the DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mc) level in the transfected group was significantly increased, which was 1.22 folds (p < 0.05) of the pcDNA-3.1 group (p < 0.05). The expressions of oyster CgIL17-1, CgIL17-2 and CgIL17-5 in haemocytes increased (13.05 folds, 4.78 folds and 9.41 folds of that in control group, respectively) at 12 h after V. splendidus challenging, but the increase were significantly inhibited when the oysters were pre-treated with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Azacytidine, which were 9 folds, 1.93 folds and 3.22 folds of that in control group, respectively. These results collectively suggested that CgDNMT3 was a conserved member of DNA methyltransferase 3 family in oysters, and participated in regulating the expression of cytokines during immune response.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125679, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823482

RESUMO

The reaction between Co(II) and PMS is an appealing advanced oxidation process (AOP), where multiple reactive oxidizing species (ROS) including high-valent cobalt-oxo [Co(IV)], sulfate radical (SO4•-), and hydroxy radical (•OH) are intertwined together for degrading pollutants. However, the relative contribution of various ROS and the influences of nontarget matrix constituents, on the degradation process are still unclear and yet to be answered. In this study, we confirmed the generation Co(IV) as dominant intermediate oxidant at acid medium by using methyl phenyl sulfoxide (PMSO) as a probe compound. Using chemical scavenging methods, the role of SO4•- and •OH was also identified, and the major ROS were converted from Co(IV) to radical species with the increase of PMS/Co(II) molar ratio as well as pH value. In addition, we found that their contributions to the abatement of organic contaminants are highly dependent on both their available amount and substrate-specific reactivity. Generally, organic substrates with low ionization potential (IP) are prone to react with Co(IV). More interestingly, in contrast to radical-based oxidation, Co(IV) exhibited the great resistance to humic acid (HA) and background ions. This study might shed new light on the PMS activation by cobalt(II) for degradation of organic contaminants.

6.
Cell Biol Int ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835632

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a primary threat to public health, owing to limited therapeutic options. Germacrone (GM) has been shown to exert various curative effects against human diseases, including liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological effects of GM in the pathophysiology of hepatic fibrosis and determine its potential mechanisms of action. A liver fibrosis rat model was established via CCl4 treatment, and LX-2 cells were stimulated with TGF-ß1. The effects of GM on liver fibrosis and its relationship with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway were investigated. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) fibrosis-induced rat model, GM improved histological damage, inhibited the activity of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and improved serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in a dose-dependent manner. GM potently inhibited hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression, as reflected by the altered expression of proliferative (Ki-67, PCNA, and cleaved caspase-3) and EMT-related (E-cadherin and vimentin) proteins. In TGF-ß1-stimulated LX-2 cells, GM significantly inhibited the survival and activation of HSCs and induced cell apoptosis. GM also suppressed the migration ability and reversed the EMT process in HSCs. Following GM treatment, the phosphorylation of the PI3K, AKT, and mTOR proteins was reduced in the liver of CCl4 -treated rats and TGF-ß1-stimulated LX-2 cells, indicating that GM may attenuate hepatic fibrosis via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. These outcomes highlight the anti-fibrotic effects of GM and suggest that it is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the association between plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). METHODS: Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in patients with PACG (n = 181) and people without glaucoma (n = 340) were compared. Twenty-two FFAs and six lipid classes were measured using metabolomics analysis. Odds ratio (OR) of these metabolites and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for PACG were obtained by logistic regression. Stepwise forward selection was performed to identify FFAs that influenced PACG risk. Areas under the curve (AUC) were applied to assess the predictive performance. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between ocular parameters and FFAs. RESULTS: Most FFAs in the PACG group were lower than those in the non-glaucoma group. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; OR for fourth quartile (Q4) vs. first quartile (Q1): 0.32 (0.16-0.66); per standard deviation (SD) increase: 0.64 (0.49-0.83); p for trend: 0.0007) and total saturated fatty acids (SFAs; OR for Q4 versus Q1: 0.27 (0.13-0.56); per SD increase: 0.65 (0.50-0.87); p for trend: 0.0004) were associated with decreased PACG risk. The AUC of the model that included DHA, total SFAs, demographic and ophthalmic factors increased from 0.8230 (0.7811-0.8649) to 0.8512 (0.8133-0.8891) (increased AUC: 0.0282 (0.0112-0.0453); p for increased AUC: 0.0012). Additionally, the cup-disc ratio had a weak negative correlation with DHA and total SFAs (DHA: r = -0.12085, p = 0.0065; total SFAs: r = -0.13318, p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in FFA levels may be related to lipid peroxidation. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total SFAs may be screening indices for PACG patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693744

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although metabolic profiles appear to play an important role in menopausal bone loss, the functional mechanisms by which metabolites influence bone mineral density (BMD) during menopause are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically identify metabolites associated with BMD variation and their potential functional mechanisms in peri-/post-menopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed serum metabolomic profiling and whole-genome sequencing for 517 perimenopausal (16%) and early postmenopausal (84%) women aged 41 to 64 years in this cross-sectional study. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and general linear regression analysis were applied to identify BMD-associated metabolites, and weighted gene co-expression network analysis was performed to construct co-functional metabolite modules. Furthermore, we performed Mendelian randomization analysis to identify causal relationships between BMD-associated metabolites and BMD variation. Finally, we explored the effects of a novel prominent BMD-associated metabolite on bone metabolism through both in vivo/in vitro experiments. RESULTS: Twenty metabolites and a co-functional metabolite module (consisting of fatty acids) were significantly associated with BMD variation. We found dodecanoic acid (DA), within the identified module, causally decreased total hip BMD. Subsequently, the in vivo experiments might support that dietary supplementation with DA could promote bone loss, as well as increase the osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in normal/ovariectomized mice. DA treatment differentially promoted osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, especially for osteoclast differentiation at higher concentrations in vitro (e.g.,10, 100µM). CONCLUSIONS: This study sheds light on metabolomic profiles associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis risk, highlighting the potential importance of fatty acids, as exemplified by DA, in regulating BMD.

9.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769161

RESUMO

A large body of literature has established that children orphaned by HIV/AIDS ('AIDS orphans') face numerous challenges, such as parental death, poverty, disrupted school attendance and stigma. All of these early life adversities can have long-lasting effects on brain function, especially the executive functions. Working memory, as one of the most studied aspects of executive functions, is also reported to be impaired in children with early adversity. However, limited data are available regarding how early life adverse events affect the neural dynamic associated with working memory processing in AIDS orphans. This study applied the electroencephalogram (EEG) technique to investigate the working memory process in 81 AIDS orphans and 62 non-orphan controls with n-back tasks. Results from EEG analysis and time-frequency analysis showed that AIDS orphans displayed smaller N2 and larger P2, P3 activation as well as enhanced theta and attenuated alpha band oscillations compared to the controls. The present findings indicated a deficit in working memory process in AIDS orphans and suggested that this deficit might be due to the impairments in attention allocation, detection and classification of stimuli and updating process in working memory.

10.
Langmuir ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780627

RESUMO

One novel nanoplatform with multiple functions including Raman imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) capacities was constructed through modifying nanodiamonds (NDs) with photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6). The NDs-Ce6 nanoparticles show enhanced singlet oxygen generation efficiency relative to free Ce6. Cytotoxicity tests indicate that NDs-Ce6 have negligible influence toward HeLa cells vitality under dark condition but enhanced photodynamic ablation upon 660 nm laser irradiation in comparison with free Ce6. In addition, the NDs-Ce6 could be used as Raman imaging probes toward HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that the NDs-Ce6 multifunctional nanoplatform have attractive features using for Raman imaging and PDT. Additionally, a new idea could be provided for designing the multifunctional platform from the work.

11.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(3): 161-169, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781449

RESUMO

Gualou-Xiebai-Banxia decoction has a long history of medical use for treating cardiovascular diseases in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanisms GXB in type II diabetes with acute myocardial ischemia (T2DM-AMI) rats. We hypothesized that GXB may display its protective effect on T2DM-AMI by reducing endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) apoptosisviaactivating PI3K (phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase)/Akt (serine/threonine protein kinase B)/eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling. Rats were challenged with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce a model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary ligation to induce acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Changes in metabolites were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay and biochemical examination. The number and apoptosis rate of EPCs in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. Target mRNAs and proteins in EPCs were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that GXB treatment decreased T2DM-AMI-associated changes in plasma fasting blood glucose, muscular enzymes, and blood lipids, and reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, EPC apoptosis was increased in T2DM-AMI rats and was associated with decreased mRNA and protein levels of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS compared to the controls. Conversely, T2DM-AMI rats treated with GXB exhibited more circulating EPCs and downregulated levels of cell apoptosis, combined with increased mRNA and protein levels of PI3K, Akt, and eNOS compared to those of untreated T2DM-AMI rats. Our study showed that GXB treatment mitigated EPC apoptosis and promoted PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling in T2DM-AMI rats.

12.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782099

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are involved in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unknown. In this work, through transcriptomic profiling analysis of 21 paired tumor and normal samples, we identified a novel colorectal cancer-related lncRNA, MNX1-AS1. MNX1-AS1 expression was significantly upregulated in colorectal cancer and associated with poor prognosis. In vitro and in vivo gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that MNX1-AS1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells. MNX1-AS1 bound to and activated Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1), a multifunctional RNA/DNA-binding protein, and prevented its ubiquitination and degradation. A marked overlap between genes that are differentially expressed in MNX1-AS1 knockdown cells and transcriptional targets of YB1 was observed. YB1 knockdown mimicked the loss of viability phenotype observed upon depletion of MNX1-AS1. In addition, MYC bound the promoter of the MNX1-AS1 locus and activated its transcription. In vivo experiments showed that ASO inhibited MNX1-AS1, which suppressed the proliferation of CRC cells in both cell-based and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Collectively, these findings suggest that the MYC-MNX1-AS1-YB1 axis might serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in CRC.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735263

RESUMO

Lystrosaurus represents one of the most successful dicynodonts, a survivor of the end-Permian mass extinction that remained abundant in the Early Triassic, but many aspects of its paleobiology are still controversial. The bone histology of Lystrosaurus species from South Africa and India has provided important information on their growth strategy and lifestyle, but until recently no data was available on the bone histology of Lystrosaurus from China. Here, we report on the bone microstructure of seven Lystrosaurus individuals from the Lower Triassic of Xinjiang, providing the first such data for the Chinese Lystrosaurus species. Our samples indicate that the microstructure of Lystrosaurus limb bones from China is characterized by fibrolamellar bone tissue similar to those from South Africa and India. Three ontogenetic stages were identified: juvenile, early subadult, and late subadult based on lines of arrested growth (LAGs) and bone tissue changes. Bone histology supports a rapid growth strategy for Lystrosaurus during early ontogeny. Unlike Early Triassic Lystrosaurus from South Africa, lines of arrested growth are common in our specimens, suggesting that many individuals of Chinese Lystrosaurus had reached the subadult stage and were interrupted in growth. The differences in bone histology between Lystrosaurus from South Africa and China may indicate different environmental conditions in these two regions.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25041, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common stroke complications with high morbidity. Researchers have done much clinical research on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatment, but very little research on diagnosis. Based on the thought of combination of disease and syndrome, this study will establish a unified and objective quantitative diagnosis model of TCM syndromes of PSD, so as to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment of PSD. OBJECTIVE: First: To establish a unified and objective quantitative diagnosis model of TCM syndromes in PSD under different disease courses, and identify the corresponding main, secondary, and concurrent symptoms, which are based on the weighting factor of each TCM symptom. Second: To find out the relationship between different stages of PSD and TCM syndromes. Clarify the main syndrome types of PSD under different stages of disease. Reveal the evolution and progression mechanism of TCM syndromes of PSD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a retrospective study of PSD TCM diagnosis. Three hundred patients who were hospitalized in the First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of TCM with complete cases from January 2014 to January 2019 are planned to be recruited. The study will mainly collect the diagnostic information from the cases, find the related indicators of TCM and Western medicine in PSD, and clarify the relationship between different disease stages and TCM syndromes. Finally, the PSD TCM syndrome quantitative diagnosis model will be established based on the operation principle of Back Propagation (BP) artificial neural network. CONCLUSION: To collect sufficient medical records and establish models to speed up the process of TCM diagnosis.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We carried out sensitivity analyses on gut microbiota metagenomic sequencing, untargeted metabolome, targeted metabolome for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and human whole genome sequencing from 402 early postmenopausal Chinese women to search for early omics-biomarkers and gain novel insights into the potential mechanisms of BP regulation in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Clusters of co-abundant gut bacterial species and serum untargeted metabolites were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Partial least square analysis and joint analysis were performed to detect BP-associated omics-variables. Partial Pearson correlation was conducted to identify the interactions of microbe--host for host BP variation. Mendelian randomization analysis and causal inference test were used to examine causal relationships among gut microbiota, metabolites and BP variation. RESULTS: In the present study, 651 bacterial species and 296 metabolites were binned into 53 and 26 co-abundance clusters by WGCNA, respectively. Then, we totally identified four gut bacterial species, one host metabolites and two SCFAs that were significantly associated with both SBP and DBP. Moreover, we found that gut microbiota would play important roles in host metabolic activity. Finally, our results revealed that increased Bacteroides fragilis could elevate BP via decreased caproic acid, and phenylacetylglutamine mediated the causal relationships of both B. fragilis and Clostridium sp.CAG.226 on DBP variation. CONCLUSION: Multi-omics datasets integration has the potential to capture complementary effect and their interactions for BP variation, revealed the potential pathogenesis of BP variation and may be useful for studying other complex diseases/traits.

16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(6): 1523-1536, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787151

RESUMO

To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Yangxue Qingnao Granules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension and its accompanying symptoms. PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang, and China biomedical database(CBD) were searched to screen out from the establishment of the database to April 2020 about the clinical randomized controlled trials of Yangxue Qingnao Granules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension and accompanying symptoms. The articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. TSA 0.9.5.10 Beta software was used for sequential analysis, and GRADE 3.6 was used for evidence quality evaluation. A total of 4 532 patients were included in 34 randomized controlled trials. Meta-analysis results showed that: Yangxue Qingnao Granules combined with conventional anti-hypertensive agents reduced systolic blood pressure(MD=-10.56, 95%CI[-13.63,-7.50], P<0.000 01) and diastolic blood pressure(MD=-8.21, 95%CI[-10.84,-5.59], P<0.000 01), improved total effective rate(RR=1.21, 95%CI[1.14, 1.29], P<0.000 01), improved patients dizziness(RR=1.29, 95%CI[1.21, 1.37], P<0.000 01), insomnia(RR=1.66, 95%CI[1.44, 1.91], P<0.000 01), headache(RR=1.32, 95%CI[1.21, 1.43], P<0.000 01), chest distress(RR=1.26, 95%CI[1.12, 1.42], P=0.000 1), memory loss(RR=1.24, 95%CI[1.10, 1.40], P=0.000 4), palpitation(RR=1.28, 95%CI[1.17, 1.41], P<0.000 01), and improved traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores(MD=-4.24, 95%CI[-5.25,-3.23], P<0.000 01) and headache symptom improvement scores(MD=-2.02, 95%CI[-2.51,-1.53], P<0.000 01) as compared with Western medicine group alone. Subgroup analysis results showed that Yang-xue Qingnao Granules combined with ACEI drug had more obvious effects in lowering systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions, and no abnormal liver and kidney function was observed in each study. Trial sequential analysis showed that the total effective rate was cumulative across the traditional and TSA thresholds, further confirming its clinical efficacy. The evidence level was mostly low or extremely low in GRADE evaluation. The clinical application of Yangxue Qingnao Granules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension and its accompanying symptoms is clear and safe, so it is recommended for clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Essencial , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720048

RESUMO

Chronic HIV-1 infection is generally characterized by progressive CD4+ T cell depletion due to direct and bystander death that is closely associated with persistent HIV-1 replication and an inflammatory environment in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the loss of CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection are incompletely understood. In this study, we simultaneously monitored caspase-1 and caspase-3 activation in circulating CD4+ T cells, which revealed that pyroptotic and apoptotic CD4+ T cells are distinct cell populations with different phenotypic characteristics. Levels of pyroptosis and apoptosis in CD4+ T cells were significantly elevated during chronic HIV-1 infection, and decreased following effective antiretroviral therapy. Notably, the occurrence of pyroptosis was further confirmed by elevated gasdermin D activation in lymph nodes of HIV-1-infected individuals. Mechanistically, caspase-1 activation closely correlated with the inflammatory marker expression and was shown to occur through NLRP3 inflammasome activation driven by virus-dependent and/or -independent ROS production, while caspase-3 activation in CD4+ T cells was more closely related to T cell activation status. Hence, our findings show that NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis plays an essential role in CD4+ T cell loss in HIV-1-infected patients and implicate pyroptosis signaling as a target for anti-HIV-1 treatment.

18.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729970

RESUMO

Dynamic multiobjective optimization problems are challenging due to their fast convergence and diversity maintenance requirements. Prediction-based evolutionary algorithms currently gain much attention for meeting these requirements. However, it is not always the case that an elaborate predictor is suitable for different problems and the quality of historical solutions is sufficient to support prediction, which limits the availability of prediction-based methods over various problems. Faced with these issues, this article proposes a knowledge learning strategy for change response in the dynamic multiobjective optimization. Unlike prediction approaches that estimate the future optima from previously obtained solutions, in the proposed strategy, we react to changes via learning from the historical search process. We introduce a method to extract the knowledge within the previous search experience. The extracted knowledge can accelerate convergence as well as introduce diversity for the optimization of the future environment. We conduct a comprehensive experiment on comparing the proposed strategy with the state-of-the-art algorithms. Results demonstrate the better performance of the proposed strategy in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency.

19.
Andrologia ; : e14014, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666949

RESUMO

Through network pharmacology research, we found that CYP19, CYP17, AR and SRD5A2 were potential targets for lycium chinense-cuscutae semen (LC-CS) treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments, tripterygium glycosides were used to induce spermatogenic dysfunction models in GC-1spg cells and SD male rats, respectively, and LC-CS was used to intervene in a spermatogenic dysfunction model. In vitro, LC-CS could repair the ultrastructure of GC-1spg cells damaged by tripterygium glycosides (TG). Compared with TG group, LC-CS could upregulate protein and mRNA expression of CYP19, CYP17, AR and SRD5A2. In vivo, compared with TG, the body mass, testicular mass and epididymal weights of rats in TG + LC-CS increased. Progressive motility + nonprogressive motility spermatozoon (PR + NP) of TG + LC-CS were upregulate than TG. The levels of FSH, LH and testosterone in TG + LC-CS were upregulate than TG. LC-CS can repair the ultrastructure of spermatogonia damaged by TG (the above results are statistically significant, p <.05). Results of H&E staining and TEM showed that the morphology and ultrastructure of testicular tissue in TG + LC-CS were better than that in TG. Compared with TG, LC-CS could upregulate the expression of CYP19, CYP17, AR and SRD5A2 proteins and mRNA.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 467-477, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645136

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. PubMed, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were retrieved from the establishment of the database to February 2020 for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) about Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. The literatures were screened out according to the inclusion criteria, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. A total of 3 100 patients in 27 RCTs were enrolled. According to Meta-analysis, Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine could effectively reduce systolic blood pressure(MD=-7.88,95%CI[-9.68,-6.08],P<0.000 01) and diastolic blood pressure(MD=-7.85, 95%CI[-9.07,-6.62], P<0.000 01), triglyceride(MD=-0.46, 95%CI[-0.66,-0.26], P<0.000 01) and total cholesterol(MD=-0.92, 95%CI[-1.49,-0.35], P=0.001), but increase HDL cholesterol(MD=0.51, 95%CI[0.28, 0.73], P<0.000 01), with a better effect than the Western medicine group alone. The results of LDL-C analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups(MD=-0.91, 95%CI[-1.82, 0.01], P=0.05). The subgroup analysis suggested that reduced systolic blood pressure may be related to the use of ARB. There was a close correlation between CCB drugs and the decrease of diastolic blood pressure. In addition, there was no significant difference in the compliance and the incidence of adverse reactions. Clinical application of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with essential hypertension has clear efficacy and certain safety. More clinical randomized controlled trials are needed for verification in the future.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Cápsulas , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
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